Lee in 2014
Stanley Martin Lieber|
December 28, 1922
New York City, U.S.
|Area(s)||Comic book writer, editor, publisher|
Joan Boocock Lee
(m. 1947; d. 2017)
Stan Lee (born Stanley Martin Lieber, December 28, 1922) is an American comic-book writer, editor, film executive producer, actor, and publisher. He was formerly editor-in-chief of Marvel Comics, and later its publisher and chairman before leaving the company to become its chairman emeritus, as well as a member of the editorial board.
In collaboration with several artists, including Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko, he co-created fictional characters including Spider-Man, the Hulk, Doctor Strange, the Fantastic Four, Daredevil, Black Panther, the X-Men, and, with the addition of co-writer Larry Lieber, the characters Ant-Man, Iron Man and Thor. In addition, he challenged the comics industry's censorship organization, the Comics Code Authority, indirectly leading to it updating its policies. Lee subsequently led the expansion of Marvel Comics from a small division of a publishing house to a large multimedia corporation.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Charity work
- 4 Fictional portrayals
- 5 Film and television appearances
- 6 Personal life
- 7 Accolades
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Stanley Martin Lieber was born on December 28, 1922 in Manhattan, New York City, in the apartment of his Romanian-born Jewish immigrant parents, Celia (née Solomon) and Jack Lieber, at the corner of West 98th Street and West End Avenue in Manhattan. His father, trained as a dress cutter, worked only sporadically after the Great Depression, and the family moved further uptown to Fort Washington Avenue, in Washington Heights, Manhattan. Lee has one younger brother named Larry Lieber. He said in 2006 that as a child he was influenced by books and movies, particularly those with Errol Flynn playing heroic roles. By the time Lee was in his teens, the family was living in an apartment at 1720 University Avenue in The Bronx. Lee has described it as "a third-floor apartment facing out back". Lee and his brother shared the bedroom, while their parents slept on a foldout couch.
Lee attended DeWitt Clinton High School in the Bronx. In his youth, Lee enjoyed writing, and entertained dreams of one day writing the "Great American Novel". He has said that in his youth he worked such part-time jobs as writing obituaries for a news service and press releases for the National Tuberculosis Center; delivering sandwiches for the Jack May pharmacy to offices in Rockefeller Center; working as an office boy for a trouser manufacturer; ushering at the Rivoli Theater on Broadway; and selling subscriptions to the New York Herald Tribune newspaper. He graduated from high school early, aged 16½ in 1939, and joined the WPA Federal Theatre Project.
With the help of his uncle Robbie Solomon, Lee became an assistant in 1939 at the new Timely Comics division of pulp magazine and comic-book publisher Martin Goodman's company. Timely, by the 1960s, would evolve into Marvel Comics. Lee, whose cousin Jean was Goodman's wife, was formally hired by Timely editor Joe Simon.[n 1]
His duties were prosaic at first. "In those days [the artists] dipped the pen in ink, [so] I had to make sure the inkwells were filled", Lee recalled in 2009. "I went down and got them their lunch, I did proofreading, I erased the pencils from the finished pages for them". Marshaling his childhood ambition to be a writer, young Stanley Lieber made his comic-book debut with the text filler "Captain America Foils the Traitor's Revenge" in Captain America Comics #3 (cover-dated May 1941), using the pseudonym Stan Lee, which years later he would adopt as his legal name. Lee later explained in his autobiography and numerous other sources that he had intended to save his given name for more literary work. This initial story also introduced Captain America's trademark ricocheting shield-toss.:11
He graduated from writing filler to actual comics with a backup feature, "'Headline' Hunter, Foreign Correspondent", two issues later. Lee's first superhero co-creation was the Destroyer, in Mystic Comics #6 (August 1941). Other characters he co-created during this period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books include Jack Frost, debuting in U.S.A. Comics #1 (August 1941), and Father Time, debuting in Captain America Comics #6 (August 1941).:12–13
When Simon and his creative partner Jack Kirby left late in 1941, following a dispute with Goodman, the 30-year-old publisher installed Lee, just under 19 years old, as interim editor.:14  The youngster showed a knack for the business that led him to remain as the comic-book division's editor-in-chief, as well as art director for much of that time, until 1972, when he would succeed Goodman as publisher.
Lee entered the United States Army in early 1942 and served in the US in the Signal Corps, repairing telegraph poles and other communications equipment. He was later transferred to the Training Film Division, where he worked writing manuals, training films, and slogans, and occasionally cartooning. His military classification, he says, was "playwright"; he adds that only nine men in the US Army were given that title. Vincent Fago, editor of Timely's "animation comics" section, which put out humor and funny animal comics, filled in until Lee returned from his World War II military service in 1945.
In the mid-1950s, by which time the company was now generally known as Atlas Comics, Lee wrote stories in a variety of genres including romance, Westerns, humor, science fiction, medieval adventure, horror and suspense. In the 1950s, Lee teamed up with his comic book colleague Dan DeCarlo to produce the syndicated newspaper strip, My Friend Irma, based on the radio comedy starring Marie Wilson. By the end of the decade, Lee had become dissatisfied with his career and considered quitting the field.
In the late 1950s, DC Comics editor Julius Schwartz revived the superhero archetype and experienced a significant success with its updated version of the Flash, and later with super-team the Justice League of America. In response, publisher Martin Goodman assigned Lee to come up with a new superhero team. Lee's wife suggested that he experiment with stories he preferred, since he was planning on changing careers and had nothing to lose.
Lee acted on that advice, giving his superheroes a flawed humanity, a change from the ideal archetypes that were typically written for preteens. Before this, most superheroes were idealistically perfect people with no serious, lasting problems. Lee introduced complex, naturalistic characters who could have bad tempers, fits of melancholy, and vanity; they bickered amongst themselves, worried about paying their bills and impressing girlfriends, got bored or even were sometimes physically ill.
The first superhero group Lee and artist Jack Kirby created together was the Fantastic Four, based on previous Kirby superhero team Challengers of the Unknown published by DC Comics. The team's immediate popularity led Lee and Marvel's illustrators to produce a cavalcade of new titles. Again working with Kirby, Lee co-created the Hulk, Thor, Iron Man, and the X-Men; with Bill Everett, Daredevil; and with Steve Ditko, Doctor Strange and Marvel's most successful character, Spider-Man, all of whom lived in a thoroughly shared universe. Lee and Kirby gathered several of their newly created characters together into the team title The Avengers and would revive characters from the 1940s such as the Sub-Mariner and Captain America.
Comics historian Peter Sanderson wrote that in the 1960s:
DC was the equivalent of the big Hollywood studios: After the brilliance of DC's reinvention of the superhero ... in the late 1950s and early 1960s, it had run into a creative drought by the decade's end. There was a new audience for comics now, and it wasn't just the little kids that traditionally had read the books. The Marvel of the 1960s was in its own way the counterpart of the French New Wave.... Marvel was pioneering new methods of comics storytelling and characterization, addressing more serious themes, and in the process keeping and attracting readers in their teens and beyond. Moreover, among this new generation of readers were people who wanted to write or draw comics themselves, within the new style that Marvel had pioneered, and push the creative envelope still further.
Lee's revolution extended beyond the characters and storylines to the way in which comic books engaged the readership and built a sense of community between fans and creators. He introduced the practice of regularly including a credit panel on the splash page of each story, naming not just the writer and penciller but also the inker and letterer. Regular news about Marvel staff members and upcoming storylines was presented on the Bullpen Bulletins page, which (like the letter columns that appeared in each title) was written in a friendly, chatty style. Lee has said that his goal was for fans to think of the comics creators as friends, and considered it a mark of his success on this front that, at a time when letters to other comics publishers were typically addressed "Dear Editor", letters to Marvel addressed the creators by first name (e.g. "Dear Stan and Jack"). By 1967, the brand was well-enough ensconced in popular culture that a March 3 WBAI radio program with Lee and Kirby as guests was titled "Will Success Spoil Spiderman" [sic].
Throughout the 1960s, Lee scripted, art-directed and edited most of Marvel's series, moderated the letters pages, wrote a monthly column called "Stan's Soapbox", and wrote endless promotional copy, often signing off with his trademark motto, "Excelsior!" (which is also the New York state motto). To maintain his workload and meet deadlines, he used a system that was used previously by various comic-book studios, but due to Lee's success with it, became known as the "Marvel Method". Typically, Lee would brainstorm a story with the artist and then prepare a brief synopsis rather than a full script. Based on the synopsis, the artist would fill the allotted number of pages by determining and drawing the panel-to-panel storytelling. After the artist turned in penciled pages, Lee would write the word balloons and captions, and then oversee the lettering and coloring. In effect, the artists were co-plotters, whose collaborative first drafts Lee built upon. Lee recorded messages to the newly formed Merry Marvel Marching Society fan club in 1965.
Following Ditko's departure from Marvel in 1966, John Romita Sr. became Lee's collaborator on The Amazing Spider-Man. Within a year, it overtook Fantastic Four to become the company's top seller. Lee and Romita's stories focused as much on the social and college lives of the characters as they did on Spider-Man's adventures. The stories became more topical, addressing issues such as the Vietnam War, political elections, and student activism. Robbie Robertson, introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man #51 (August 1967) was one of the first African-American characters in comics to play a serious supporting role. In the Fantastic Four series, the lengthy run by Lee and Kirby produced many acclaimed storylines as well as characters that have become central to Marvel, including the Inhumans and the Black Panther, an African king who would be mainstream comics' first black superhero.
The story frequently cited as Lee and Kirby's finest achievement is the three-part "Galactus Trilogy" that began in Fantastic Four #48 (March 1966), chronicling the arrival of Galactus, a cosmic giant who wanted to devour the planet, and his herald, the Silver Surfer. Fantastic Four #48 was chosen as #24 in the 100 Greatest Marvels of All Time poll of Marvel's readers in 2001. Editor Robert Greenberger wrote in his introduction to the story that "As the fourth year of the Fantastic Four came to a close, Stan Lee and Jack Kirby seemed to be only warming up. In retrospect, it was perhaps the most fertile period of any monthly title during the Marvel Age." Comics historian Les Daniels noted that "[t]he mystical and metaphysical elements that took over the saga were perfectly suited to the tastes of young readers in the 1960s", and Lee soon discovered that the story was a favorite on college campuses. Lee and artist John Buscema launched The Silver Surfer series in August 1968.
The following year, Lee and Gene Colan created the Falcon, comics' first African-American superhero in Captain America #117 (September 1969). Then in 1971, Lee indirectly helped reform the Comics Code. The U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare had asked Lee to write a comic-book story about the dangers of drugs and Lee conceived a three-issue subplot in The Amazing Spider-Man #96–98 (cover-dated May–July 1971), in which Peter Parker's best friend becomes addicted to pills. The Comics Code Authority refused to grant its seal because the stories depicted drug use; the anti-drug context was considered irrelevant. With Goodman's cooperation and confident that the original government request would give him credibility, Lee had the story published without the seal. The comics sold well and Marvel won praise for its socially conscious efforts. The CCA subsequently loosened the Code to permit negative depictions of drugs, among other new freedoms.
Lee also supported using comic books to provide some measure of social commentary about the real world, often dealing with racism and bigotry. "Stan's Soapbox", besides promoting an upcoming comic book project, also addressed issues of discrimination, intolerance, or prejudice.
In 1972, Lee stopped writing monthly comic books to assume the role of publisher. His final issue of The Amazing Spider-Man was #110 (July 1972) and his last Fantastic Four was #125 (August 1972).
In later years, Lee became a figurehead and public face for Marvel Comics. He made appearances at comic book conventions around America, lecturing at colleges and participating in panel discussions. Lee and John Romita Sr. launched the Spider-Man newspaper comic strip on January 3, 1977. Lee's final collaboration with Jack Kirby, The Silver Surfer: The Ultimate Cosmic Experience, was published in 1978 as part of the Marvel Fireside Books series and is considered to be Marvel's first graphic novel. Lee and John Buscema produced the first issue of The Savage She-Hulk (February 1980), which introduced the female cousin of the Hulk and crafted a Silver Surfer story for Epic Illustrated #1 (Spring 1980). He moved to California in 1981 to develop Marvel's TV and movie properties. He has been an executive producer for, and has made cameo appearances in Marvel film adaptations and other movies. He occasionally returned to comic book writing with various Silver Surfer projects including a 1982 one-shot drawn by John Byrne, the Judgment Day graphic novel illustrated by John Buscema, the Parable limited series drawn by French artist Mœbius, and The Enslavers graphic novel with Keith Pollard. Lee was briefly president of the entire company, but soon stepped down to become publisher instead, finding that being president was too much about numbers and finance and not enough about the creative process he enjoyed.
Peter Paul and Lee began a new Internet-based superhero creation, production, and marketing studio, Stan Lee Media, in 1998. It grew to 165 people and went public through a reverse merger structured by investment banker Stan Medley in 1999, but, near the end of 2000, investigators discovered illegal stock manipulation by Paul and corporate officer Stephan Gordon. Stan Lee Media filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in February 2001. Paul was extradited to the U.S. from Brazil and pleaded guilty to violating SEC Rule 10b-5 in connection with trading of his stock in Stan Lee Media. Lee was never implicated in the scheme. In 2001, Lee, Gill Champion, and Arthur Lieberman formed POW! (Purveyors of Wonder) Entertainment to develop film, television and video game properties. Lee created the risqué animated superhero series Stripperella for Spike TV. In 2004 POW! Entertainment went public. Also that year, Lee announced a superhero program that would feature Ringo Starr, the former Beatle, as the lead character. Additionally, in August of that year, Lee announced the launch of Stan Lee's Sunday Comics, a short-lived subscription service hosted by Komikwerks.com. On March 15, 2007, after Stan Lee Media had been purchased by Jim Nesfield, the company filed a lawsuit against Marvel Entertainment for $5 billion, claiming Lee had given his rights to several Marvel characters to Stan Lee Media in exchange for stock and a salary. On June 9, 2007, Stan Lee Media sued Lee; his newer company, POW! Entertainment; and POW! subsidiary QED Entertainment.
In 2008, Lee wrote humorous captions for the political fumetti book Stan Lee Presents Election Daze: What Are They Really Saying?. In April of that year, Brighton Partners and Rainmaker Animation announced a partnership POW! to produce a CGI film series, Legion of 5. Other projects by Lee announced in the late 2000s included a line of superhero comics for Virgin Comics, a TV adaptation of the novel Hero, a foreword to Skyscraperman by skyscraper fire-safety advocate and Spider-Man fan Dan Goodwin, a partnership with Guardian Media Entertainment and The Guardian Project to create NHL superhero mascots and work with the Eagle Initiative program to find new talent in the comic book field.
In October 2011, Lee announced he would partner with 1821 Comics on a multimedia imprint for children, Stan Lee's Kids Universe, a move he said addressed the lack of comic books targeted for that demographic; and that he was collaborating with the company on its futuristic graphic novel Romeo & Juliet: The War, by writer Max Work and artist Skan Srisuwan. At the 2012 San Diego Comic-Con International, Lee announced his YouTube channel, Stan Lee's World of Heroes, which airs programs created by Lee, Mark Hamill, Peter David, Adrianne Curry, and Bonnie Burton among others. Lee wrote the book, Zodiac released in January 2015, with Stuart Moore. The film Stan Lee's Annihilator, based on a Chinese prisoner-turned-superhero named Ming and in production since 2013, is set for a 2015 release.
In his later career, Lee's contributions continued to expand outside the style that he helped pioneer. An example of this is his first work for DC Comics in the 2000s, launching the Just Imagine... series, in which Lee re-imagined the DC superheroes Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, and the Flash. Manga projects involving Lee include Karakuridôji Ultimo, a collaboration with Hiroyuki Takei, Viz Media and Shueisha, and Heroman, serialized in Square Enix's Monthly Shōnen Gangan with the Japanese company Bones. In 2011, Lee started writing a live-action musical, The Yin and Yang Battle of Tao.
This period also saw a number of collaborators honor Lee for his influence on the comics industry. In 2006, Marvel commemorated Lee's 65 years with the company by publishing a series of one-shot comics starring Lee himself meeting and interacting with many of his co-creations, including Spider-Man, Doctor Strange, the Thing, Silver Surfer, and Doctor Doom. These comics also featured short pieces by such comics creators as Joss Whedon and Fred Hembeck, as well as reprints of classic Lee-written adventures. At the 2007 Comic-Con International, Marvel Legends introduced a Stan Lee action figure. The body beneath the figure's removable cloth wardrobe is a re-used mold of a previously released Spider-Man action figure, with minor changes. Comikaze Expo, Los Angeles' largest comic book convention, was rebranded as Stan Lee's Comikaze Presented by POW! Entertainment in 2012.
At the 2016 Comic-Con International, Lee introduced his digital graphic novel Stan Lee's 'God Woke', with text originally written as a poem he presented at Carnegie Hall in 1972. The print-book version won the 2017 Independent Publisher Book Awards' Outstanding Books of the Year Independent Voice Award.
The Stan Lee Foundation was founded in 2010 to focus on literacy, education, and the arts. Its stated goals include supporting programs and ideas that improve access to literacy resources, as well as promoting diversity, national literacy, culture and the arts.
Stan Lee and his collaborator Jack Kirby appear as themselves in The Fantastic Four #10 (January 1963), the first of several appearances within the fictional Marvel Universe. The two are depicted as similar to their real-world counterparts, creating comic books based on the "real" adventures of the Fantastic Four.
Lee was parodied by Kirby in comics published by rival DC Comics as Funky Flashman. Kirby later portrayed himself, Lee, production executive Sol Brodsky, and Lee's secretary Flo Steinberg as superheroes in What If #11 (October 1978), "What If the Marvel Bullpen Had Become the Fantastic Four?", in which Lee played the part of Mister Fantastic. Lee has also made numerous cameo appearances in many Marvel titles, appearing in audiences and crowds at many characters' ceremonies and parties, and hosting an old-soldiers reunion in Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos #100 (July 1972). Lee appeared, unnamed, as the priest at Luke Cage and Jessica Jones' wedding in New Avengers Annual #1 (June 2006). He pays his respects to Karen Page at her funeral in Daredevil vol. 2, #8 (June 1998), and appears in The Amazing Spider-Man #169 (June 1977).
In Marvel's "Flashback" series of titles cover-dated July 1997, a top-hatted caricature of Lee as a ringmaster introduced stories that detailed events in Marvel characters' lives before they became superheroes, in special "-1" editions of many Marvel titles. The "ringmaster" depiction of Lee was originally from Generation X #17 (July 1996), where the character narrated a story set primarily in an abandoned circus. Though the story itself was written by Scott Lobdell, the narration by "Ringmaster Stan" was written by Lee, and the character was drawn in that issue by Chris Bachalo.
Lee and other comics creators are mentioned on page 479 of Michael Chabon's 2000 novel about the comics industry The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier and Clay. Chabon also acknowledges a debt to Lee and other creators on the book's Author's Note page.
On one of the last pages of Truth: Red, White & Black, Lee appears in a real photograph among other celebrities on a wall of the Bradley home. Under his given name of Stanley Lieber, Stan Lee appears briefly in Paul Malmont's 2006 novel The Chinatown Death Cloud Peril.
Film and television appearances
Lee has had cameo appearances in many Marvel film and television projects. A few of these appearances are self-aware and sometimes reference Lee's involvement in the creation of certain characters. Lee has been a credited executive producer on most Marvel film and television projects since the 1990 direct-to-video Captain America film.
- One of Lee's earliest contributions to animation based on Marvel properties was narrating the 1980s Incredible Hulk animated series, always beginning his narration with a self-introduction and ending with "This is Stan Lee saying, Excelsior!" Lee had previously narrated the "Seven Little Superheroes" episode of Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends, which the Hulk series was paired with for broadcast.
- Lee did the narration for the original 1989 X-Men animated series pilot titled X-Men: Pryde of the X-Men.
- Lee was an executive producer of the 1990s animated TV series Spider-Man. He appeared as himself in animated form in the final episode titled "Farewell, Spider-Man". Spider-Man is transported by Madame Web into the "real" world where he is a fictional character. He meets Lee and the two swing around until Spider-Man drops him off on top of a building; Madame Web appears and brings Spider-Man back to his homeworld. Realizing he is stuck on a roof, Lee muses, hoping the Fantastic Four will show up and lend a hand.
- He also voices the character "Frank Elson" in an episode of Spider-Man: The New Animated Series broadcast by MTV in 2003, titled "Mind Games" (Parts 1 and 2, originally aired on August 15 and 22, 2003).
- He voiced a loading-dock worker named Stan on The Spectacular Spider-Man in the episode "Blueprints".
- In several episodes of The Super Hero Squad Show, Lee voices the Mayor of Super Hero City.
- Lee has appeared in episodes of the Disney XD TV series Ultimate Spider-Man as a high school janitor named Stan, in which he makes references to Lee's real-life career. In the pilot "Great Power" and the episode "Why I Hate Gym", he mentions Irving Forbush, an in-joke character Lee co-created in 1955 as a literary device. Stan the Janitor also appears in Episode 18, "Out of Damage Control", as a part-time worker for Damage Control. In the episode "Stan By Me", he, along with Mary Jane Watson, Agent/Principal Coulson, and Harry Osborn, helped Spider-Man fight the Lizard. At the end of the episode it is revealed that Lee's character is secretly a top S.H.I.E.L.D. agent and is aware of Peter Parker's secret identity as Spider-Man, and that he is a founding member of S.H.I.E.L.D. who named the organization, which Lee named in reality.
- Stan Lee has appeared in Hulk and the Agents of S.M.A.S.H.. He was first alluded to as Stan the Salesman in the first episode and later appeared in a recurring role as Mayor Stan of Vista Verde.
- Stan Lee reprises his role as Fred's dad in Big Hero 6: The Series. The first episode implies that his name is Frederick Frederickson III.
- In the TV-movie The Trial of the Incredible Hulk (1989), Lee's first appearance in a Marvel movie or TV project is as a jury foreman in the trial of Dr. David Banner.
- Lee appears in "T.R.A.C.K.S.", an episode of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. originally broadcast February 4, 2014.
- He appears in "The Blitzkrieg Button", the Agent Carter episode originally broadcast January 27, 2015.
- Lee cameos in Marvel's Netflix series via a photograph of Lee as a police officer of the New York City Police Department, appearing in Daredevil, Jessica Jones, Luke Cage, Iron Fist, The Defenders and The Punisher. In Iron Fist, he is identified as Captain Irving Forbush.
- Lee has a non-speaking cameo in the 2017 X-Men TV series The Gifted.
- Lee again appears as a limo driver in the Hulu series Runaways.
- Lee appears as a painting modeled after Andy Warhol's famous Shot Marilyns on the Freeform series Cloak & Dagger.
- In Big Hero 6 (2014), Lee's voice and likeness are used for the father of character Fred. Though he appears in a portrait earlier in the film, Lee's cameo is a post-credits scene in which he demonstrates to his son that they have many things to talk about. Lee was not involved with the creation of the original Big Hero 6 comic book from which the movie is sourced.
- In X-Men (2000), Lee appears as a hotdog stand vendor on the beach when the newly mutated Senator Kelly emerges naked onshore after escaping from Magneto.
- In Spider-Man (2002), he appeared during Spider-Man's first battle with the Green Goblin, pulling a little girl away from falling debris. In the DVD's deleted scenes, Lee plays a street vendor who tries to sell Peter Parker a pair of sunglasses.
- In Daredevil (2003), as a child, Matt Murdock stops Lee from crossing the street and getting hit by a bus.
- In Hulk (2003), he appears walking alongside former TV-series Hulk Lou Ferrigno in an early scene, both as security guards at Bruce Banner's lab. It was his first speaking role in a film based on one of his characters.
- In Spider-Man 2 (2004), Lee pulls an innocent person away from danger during Spider-Man's first battle with Doctor Octopus. In a blooper scene that appears as an extra on the film's DVD release, Lee has another cameo, saying, "Look, Spider-Man stole that kid's sneakers."
- In Man-Thing (2005), a photograph of Lee is seen on a board of missing people.
- In Fantastic Four (2005), Lee appears for the first time as a character that he created for the comics, Willie Lumpkin, the mail carrier who greets the Fantastic Four as they enter the Baxter Building.
- In X-Men: The Last Stand (2006), Lee and Chris Claremont appear as two of Jean Grey's neighbors in the opening scenes set 20 years in the past. Lee, credited as "Waterhose Man", is watering the lawn when Jean telekinetically redirects the water from the hose into the air.
- In Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer (2007), Lee appears as himself at Reed Richards' and Susan Storm's first wedding, being turned away by a security guard for not being on the guest list. In Fantastic Four Annual #3 (1965), in which the couple married, Lee and Jack Kirby are similarly turned away.
- In Spider-Man 3 (2007), Lee appears in a credited role as "Man in Times Square". He stands next to Peter Parker, both of them reading a news bulletin about Spider-Man, and commenting to Peter that, "You know, I guess one person can make a difference". He then says his catchphrase, "'Nuff said" and leaves Peter to dwell on that thought.
- In Iron Man (2008), Lee, credited as "Himself", appears at a gala cavorting with three blondes, where Tony Stark mistakes him for Hugh Hefner. In the theatrical release of the film, Stark simply greets Lee as "Hef" and moves on; another version of the scene was filmed where Stark realizes his mistake, but Lee graciously responds, "That's okay, I get this all the time." In 2008, Stan Lee named this as his favorite cameo appearance to that date.
- In The Incredible Hulk (2008), Lee appears as a hapless citizen who accidentally ingests a soft drink mixed with Bruce Banner's blood, subsequently dropping it and leading to the discovery of Dr. Banner's location in a bottling plant in Brazil.
- In Iron Man 2 (2010), during the Stark Expo, Lee, wearing suspenders and a red shirt and black and purple tie, is mistakenly greeted by Tony Stark as "Larry King".
- In Thor (2011), Lee appears among many people at the site where Thor's hammer Mjolnir lands on earth. He tears the bed off his pickup truck in an attempt to pull Mjolnir out of the ground with a chain and causes everyone in the scene to laugh by asking, "Did it work?". His character is credited as "Stan the Man", a nickname he'd adopted in the Silver Age of Comic Books.
- In Captain America: The First Avenger (2011), Lee plays a general in World War II who mistakes another man for Captain America/Steve Rogers, commenting, "I thought he'd be taller." Lee had nothing to do with the basic creation of the title character. However, Lee began his writing career in the character's original series where he created the idea of Captain America using his shield as a throwing weapon. Furthermore, he was responsible for reviving the character in the Silver Age of Comic Books and co-wrote most of the character's stories in The Avengers and his solo stories in that period.
- In The Avengers (2012), Lee's character is interviewed about the Avengers saving Manhattan. Lee's character responds, "Superheroes in New York? Give me a break", and then returns to his game of chess. He also appears in a deleted scene in which, when a waitress flirts with Steve Rogers, Lee says to him, "Ask for her number, you moron!"
- In The Amazing Spider-Man (2012), Lee is a librarian at Midtown Science High School, comically oblivious to the fight between Spider-Man and the Lizard happening behind him (a table nearly hits him as well) due to the fact that he is listening to classical music. He walks out of the library as the fight continues.
- In Iron Man 3 (2013), Lee portrays a beauty pageant judge who appears on a television monitor and happily gives one of the contestants a 10.
- In Thor: The Dark World (2013), Lee appears as a mental ward patient who loans his shoe to Erik Selvig for a demonstration about "the Convergence" in his delusions. When Selvig finishes and asks if anyone has questions, Lee says, "Yeah, can I have my shoe back"?
- In Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014), Lee plays a security guard at the Smithsonian Institution who after discovering that Captain America stole his own World War II uniform from an exhibit, says, "Oh man, I am so fired."
- In The Amazing Spider-Man 2 (2014), Lee is a guest at Peter Parker and Gwen Stacy's graduation. He notes that he recognizes Peter Parker.
- In Guardians of the Galaxy (2014), Lee appears as an elderly gentleman having a conversation with a significantly younger woman. Rocket, viewing him through a scanning device, dismisses him as part of what he saw was wrong with the planet Xandar. With the exception of Groot, Ronan and The Collector, Lee did not have a hand in the creation of the Guardians of the Galaxy.
- In Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015), he appears as a military veteran who attends the Avengers' victory party. He claims he fought at Omaha Beach and that it proves he can handle a shot of Asgardian liquor from Thor, but is then carried away drunk, muttering his catchphrase, "Excelsior!" Lee noted that this was his favorite cameo.
- In Ant-Man (2015), Lee appears as a bartender in a story Luis tells to Scott Lang explaining that Falcon was looking for him.
- In Deadpool (2016), Lee appears as himself, working as an MC at a strip club. Lee did not have a hand in the creation of the character Deadpool.
- In Captain America: Civil War (2016), Lee appears as a FedEx postman, delivering a package from Steve Rogers to Tony Stark at the end of the film, mispronouncing Stark's name as Tony "Stank".
- In X-Men: Apocalypse (2016), Lee is shown viewing the rising nuclear weapons launched by Apocalypse next to his wife Joan.
- In Doctor Strange (2016), Lee appears as a bus rider reading Aldous Huxley's The Doors of Perception, oblivious to a battle between Doctor Strange and Mordo and Kaecilius and his followers.
- Lee makes a cameo appearance in No Good Deed (2017), a short film aired before Logan in North America, in which Lee plays himself and says to Deadpool "Wow, nice suit!" to which Deadpool replies "Zip it, Stan Lee!". Lee's cameo appearance was cut from the theatrical version of the short film but was restored in the version released on star Ryan Reynolds' YouTube account page. Lee later thanked Reynolds for restoring his cameo.
- In Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 (2017), Lee appears as an astronaut telling a story to The Watchers, mentioning his stint as a deliveryman in Captain America: Civil War. He appears again in one of the end credits scenes, where the Watchers leave, tired of his stories as he quotes to them that they are his only ride back to Earth. The Watchers, along with Ego, were co-created by Lee. Lee also makes an appearance in the music video for the song "Guardians Inferno".
- In Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017), Lee appears as an annoyed neighbor named Gary who, after witnessing Spider-Man mistakenly accosting an innocent civilian says to him, "Don't make me come down there, you punk!"
- In Thor: Ragnarok (2017), Lee appears as a servant to the Grandmaster on Sakaar who cuts Thor's hair.
- In Black Panther (2018), Lee appears as a patron of a casino in Busan, South Korea, and steals Everett Ross' chips.
- In Avengers: Infinity War (2018), Lee appears as the driver of Peter Parker's school bus. When the students on the bus watch Ebony Maw's ship arriving, the driver says, "What's the matter with you kids? You never seen a spaceship before?"
- In Deadpool 2 (2018), Lee appears in graffiti art as Domino is flying through the city.
- In Ant-Man and the Wasp (2018), Lee appears as a pedestrian whose car is shrunk by Wasp. He remarks,"The '60s were great but now I'm paying for it," implying he took drugs.
Warner Bros./DC properties
- In the original February 7, 1998, broadcast airing of the Superman: The Animated Series episode "Apokolips... Now! Part 2" on the Kids' WB programming block, an animated Funky Flashman was visible mourning the death of Daniel "Terrible" Turpin, a character based on his longtime Marvel Comics collaborator Jack Kirby. This shot was later modified to remove the likeness of Lee and of other background Marvel characters when the episode was released on DVD.
- Stan Lee makes a vocal cameo in Teen Titans Go! To the Movies, the first time he has participated in a DC property acting-wise. In the film, when he realizes that he is in a DC movie and not a Marvel one, he declares that he needs to leave. He shows up again later stating that he could not help himself anyway before shouting "Excelsior!"
Other film, TV, and video
- In the 1990s, Lee hosted the documentary series The Comic Book Greats and interviewed notable comic book creators such as Chris Claremont, Jim Lee, Todd McFarlane, Rob Liefeld, and Whilce Portacio.
- In the 1994-1995 syndicated television block The Marvel Action Hour, Lee appeared as himself to give brief introductions to each episode of Iron Man and the Fantastic Four animated series.
- Lee has an extensive cameo in the 1995 Kevin Smith film Mallrats. He plays himself, this time visiting the mall to sign books at a comic store. Later, he takes on the role of a sage-like character, giving Jason Lee's character, Brodie Bruce (a longtime fan of Stan's), advice on his love life. He also recorded interviews with Smith for the non-fiction video Stan Lee's Mutants, Monsters & Marvels (2002). Lee made a second cameo in Smith's 2016 film Yoga Hosers as a police officer.
- Lee is the host of the 2010 History Channel documentary series Stan Lee's Superhumans.
- Lee plays himself in the 2011 Frankie Muniz film Pizza Man.
- Lee makes a cameo appearance as the "Three Stooges Wedding Guest" in the 2004 Disney film The Princess Diaries 2: Royal Engagement.
- Lee hosted and judged contestants in the SyFy series Who Wants to Be a Superhero?
- Lee appears with director Kevin Smith and 2000s Marvel editor-in-chief Joe Quesada in the DVD program Marvel Then & Now: An Evening with Stan Lee and Joe Quesada, hosted by Kevin Smith.
- Lee was interviewed on the History Channel show Superhuman by Daniel Browning Smith, who held several Guinness Records for extreme flexibility due to having Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, a genetic condition affecting collagen formation. Smith had created his own comic book to display his own struggles as an outcast for his flexibility, and legitimately surprised Lee with a quick demonstration of his talent.
- In the animated series Jim Henson's Muppet Babies, Lee plays himself in a live-action scene of the "Comic Capers" episode.
- Lee appeared as himself in an extended self-parodying sketch on the episode "Tapping a Hero" of Robot Chicken.
- Lee appears as himself in writer-director Larry Cohen's The Ambulance (1990), in which Eric Roberts plays an aspiring comics artist.
- In "I Am Furious (Yellow)", a season 13 episode of The Simpsons, Lee voices an animated version of himself. Lee also appeared on the commentary track along with other Simpsons writers and directors on the episode for The Simpsons Season 13 box set released in 2010. In a later episode, "Worst Episode Ever", Lee's picture is seen next to several others on the wall behind the register, under the heading "Banned for life". Lee later officiated Comic Book Guy's wedding in "Married to the Blob".
- Lee appears as himself in Mark Hamill's 2004 film Comic Book: The Movie, a direct-to-video mockumentary primarily filmed at the 2002 San Diego Comic-Con.
- Lee made an appearance on December 21, 2006, on the NBC game show Identity.
- Lee appeared as himself in "The Excelsior Acquisition", a third season episode of The Big Bang Theory, in March 2010. He appears at the front door of his house wearing Fantastic Four pajamas (ultimately calling back into the house, "Joanie, call the police!" to get rid of Sheldon, who showed up after missing a comic book signing at the local store), and orders a restraining order against him.
- He plays a bus driver in the sixteenth episode of the first season of Heroes.
- Lee made a guest appearance as himself in "Bottom's Up", a season seven episode of the TV series Entourage.
- He guest-starred as Dr. Lee (aka: Generalissimo) in "Glimpse", a season four episode of Eureka that aired in July 2011.
- Lee appears in "The Guardian", the October 7, 2010, episode of Nikita, as Hank Excelsior, a witness to a bank robbery who is interviewed by a TV reporter.
- Lee was interviewed in the 2011 documentary Superheroes.
- Lee appears in X Japan's unreleased music video for their song "Born to Be Free".
- Lee portrayed himself at a CIA holiday party in the fifth season of Chuck, in which it is revealed in that universe he secretly works for the government and has a romantic interest in General Beckman.
- Lee appeared in the eleventh episode of season five of The Guild, in which he was captured at a convention by the character Zaboo's Master Chief cosplaying henchmen.
- Lee lent his voice to "The Amazing Man-Spider", a segment of the May 13, 2013 episode of the satirical animated TV series MAD. The segment depicts the story of what happened to the radioactive spider that bit Peter Parker.
- Lee portrayed a future version of Tony Stark in "Episode 205 – The Future!" of the comedy web series Avengers Assemble!. In this episode, he delivered from the future a cryptic message to the rest of his fellow Avengers, but constantly frustrated his companions due to his ineptness with the technology of his future era.
- He was the subject of an April 2012 Epix cable-network documentary, "With Great Power: The Stan Lee Story."
- Lee appeared as a judge in the second season premiere of the web series Video Game High School.
- In the Phineas and Ferb crossover special, Mission Marvel, Lee cameos as a New York City hot dog vendor.
- Lee is among the interview subjects in Superheroes: A Never-Ending Battle, a three-hour documentary narrated by Liev Schreiber, which premiered on PBS in October 2013.
- Lee's Chakra the Invincible was scheduled to premiere on Rovio Entertainment's ToonsTV channel in 2014.
- Lee filmed a cameo in the 2010 film Kick-Ass, as a man watching news footage of the title character but was cut out from the film.
- Lee made a brief cameo in the 2014 animated film Jay & Silent Bob's Super Groovy Cartoon Movie. During his appearance, Lee visits Bluntman and Chronic to talk to them about the "Avenger Initiative".
- Lee made a cameo in Bart Baker's parody of "Elastic Heart" by Sia when he bails Sia (played by Amanda Hosler) out of jail for the pedophilia in her Elastic Heart video to star in her own superhero movie with Shia LaBeouf (played by Baker) and Kanye West (played by Warren Barrow) as the main villain.
- Lee appears several times in the refurbished version of The Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man.
- Lee was slated to portray himself in the sequel to Mallrats, Mallbrats.
- Lee made a cameo appearance in a web-series called "Super Power Beat Down" where he plays a man reading a newspaper who tells Spider-Man and Darth Maul to keep the noise down or else he will get angry.
- Lee makes a cameo in a short film called Spider-Man: Homecoming — NBA Finals, which aired on ABC as a promotion for Spider-Man: Homecoming; Lee utters the exact same dialogue as the Graduation guest he portrayed in the 2014 film The Amazing Spider-Man 2.
- Lee makes a cameo as one of the Collector's prisoners in Guardians of the Galaxy Mission Breakout.
Video games and applications
- Lee narrates the 2000 video game Spider-Man, the 2001 sequel Spider-Man 2: Enter Electro, and 2010's Spider-Man: Shattered Dimensions.
- Lee made his first-ever onscreen video game appearance as a senator named after himself in Marvel Ultimate Alliance 2.
- Lee narrates The Avengers Origins: Hulk and Avengers Origins: Assemble! apps for the iPad, iPhone, and iPod Touch, which were released by Disney Publishing Worldwide in February 2012.
- Lee is a playable character in Activision's The Amazing Spider-Man video game, which was released in June 2012, as a tie-in to the film of the same name. In the game, Lee is depicted as having the same superpowers as Spider-Man, and uses them to retrieve the pages of a new comic book manuscript that he had lost and were subsequently scattered around Manhattan. He also voices a character with his first name in the main story mode, who calls Peter about the charges to his credit card when Peter's walking to Dr. Connor's sewer lab.
- Lee appears as a playable Lego version of himself in Lego Marvel Super Heroes where he was able to turn into Stan-Hulk released October 2013.
- Lee reprised his role, appearing as himself in The Amazing Spider-Man 2 video game, which was released in April 2014, as a tie-in to the film of the same name.
- Lee appears as a playable Lego version of himself in Lego Marvel's Avengers where he is able to turn into Stan-Hulk, Iron Stan and the Stanbuster.
- Lee appears as a playable Lego version of himself in Lego Marvel Super Heroes 2 where he has the powers of Thor, Galactus, and Spider-Man is able to complete Gwenpool missions.
- Lee makes a brief cameo in Spider-Man as a short-order cook.
Lee was raised in a Jewish family. In a 2002 survey of whether he believes in God, he stated, "Well, let me put it this way... [Pauses.] No, I'm not going to try to be clever. I really don't know. I just don't know."
From 1945 to 1947, Lee lived in the rented top floor of a brownstone in the East 90s in Manhattan. He married Joan Clayton Boocock on December 5, 1947, and in 1949, the couple bought house at 1084 West Broadway in Woodmere, New York, on Long Island, living there through 1952. Their daughter Joan Celia "J. C." Lee was born in 1950. Another child, daughter Jan Lee, died three days after delivery in 1953. The Lees resided at 226 Richards Lane in the Long Island town of Hewlett Harbor, New York, from 1952 to 1980. They also owned a condominium at 220 East 63rd Street in Manhattan from 1975 to 1980, and, during the 1970s, a vacation home on Cutler Lane in Remsenburg, New York. For their move to the west coast in 1981, he and his wife bought a home in West Hollywood, California previously owned by comedian Jack Benny's radio announcer, Don Wilson.
|1994||The Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame|
|1995||Jack Kirby Hall of Fame|
|2002||Saturn Award||The Life Career Award|
|2008||National Medal of Arts|
|2009||Hugo Award||Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation- Iron Man||Nominated|
|Scream Awards||Comic-Con Icon Award||Won|
|2011||Hollywood Walk of Fame|
|2012||Visual Effects Society Awards||Lifetime Achievement Award|
|Producers Guild of America||Vanguard Award|
|2017||National Academy of Video Game Trade Reviewers||Performance in a Comedy, Supporting|
- The County of Los Angeles declared October 2, 2009 "Stan Lee Day".
- The City of Long Beach declared October 2, 2009 "Stan Lee Day".
- Lee, Stan; Mair, George (2002). Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-2800-8.
- Lee, Stan (1997) [Originally published by Simon & Schuster in 1974]. Origins of Marvel Comics. Marvel Entertainment Group. ISBN 978-0-7851-0551-0.
- Lee, Stan; David, Peter (2015). Amazing, Fantastic, Incredible. Simon & Schuster.
Lee's comics work includes:
- DC Comics Presents: Superman #1 (2004)
- Detective Comics #600 (1989, text piece)
- Just Imagine Stan Lee creating:
- Aquaman (with Scott McDaniel) (2002)
- Batman (with Joe Kubert) (2001)
- Catwoman (with Chris Bachalo) (2002)
- Crisis (with John Cassaday) (2002)
- Flash (with Kevin Maguire) (2002)
- Green Lantern (with Dave Gibbons) (2001)
- JLA (with Jerry Ordway) (2002)
- Robin (with John Byrne) (2001)
- Sandman (with Walt Simonson) (2002)
- Secret Files and Origins (2002)
- Shazam! (with Gary Frank) (2001)
- Superman (with John Buscema) (2001)
- Wonder Woman (with Jim Lee) (2001)
- The Amazing Spider-Man #1–100, 105–110, 116–118, 200, Annual #1–5, 18 (1962–84); (backup stories): #634–645 (2010–11)
- The Amazing Spider-Man, strips (1977–present)
- Avengers #1–35 (1963–66)
- Captain America #100–141 (1968–71) (continues from Tales of Suspense #99)
- Daredevil, #1–9, 11–50, 53, Annual #1 (1964–69)
- Daredevil, vol. 2, #20 (backup story) (2001)
- Epic Illustrated #1 (Silver Surfer) (1980)
- Fantastic Four #1–114, 120–125, Annual #1–6 (1961–72); #296 (1986)
- The Incredible Hulk #1–6 (continues to Tales to Astonish #59)
- The Incredible Hulk, vol. 2, #108–120 (1968–69)
- Journey into Mystery (Thor) plotter #83–96 (1962–63), writer #97–125, Annual #1 (1963–66) (continues to Thor #126)
- The Mighty Thor #126–192, 200, Annual #2 (1966–72), 385 (1987)
- Nightcat #1 (1991)
- Ravage 2099 #1–7 (1992–93)
- Savage She-Hulk #1 (1980)
- Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos #1–28, Annual #1 (1963–66)
- Silver Surfer #1–18 (1968–70)
- Silver Surfer, vol. 2, #1 (1982)
- Silver Surfer: Judgment Day (1988) ISBN 978-0-87135-427-3
- Silver Surfer: Parable #1–2 (1988–89)
- Silver Surfer: The Enslavers (1990) ISBN 978-0-87135-617-8
- Solarman #1–2 (1989–90)
- The Spectacular Spider-Man Annual #10 (1990)
- Strange Tales (diverse stories): #9, 11, 74, 89, 90–100 (1951–62); (Human Torch): #101–109, 112–133, Annual #2; (Doctor Strange): #110–111, 115–142, 151–158 (1962–67); (Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.: #135–147, 150–152 (1965–67)
- Tales to Astonish (diverse stories): #1, 6, 12–13, 15–17, 24–33 (1956–62); Ant-Man/Giant Man: #35–69 (1962–65) (The Hulk: #59–101 (1964–1968); Sub-Mariner: #70–101 (1965–68)
- Tales of Suspense (diverse stories):#7, 9, 16, 22, 27, 29–30 (1959–62); (Iron Man): plotter #39–46 (1963), writer #47–98 (1963–68) (Captain America): #58–86, 88–99 (1964–68)
- Web of Spider-Man Annual #6 (1990)
- What If (Fantastic Four) #200 (2011)
- The X-Men #1–19 (1963–66)
Simon & Schuster
- The Silver Surfer: The Ultimate Cosmic Experience, 114 pages, September 1978, ISBN 978-0-671-24225-1
- Lee's account of how he began working for Marvel's predecessor, Timely, has varied. He has said in lectures and elsewhere that he simply answered a newspaper ad seeking a publishing assistant, not knowing it involved comics, let alone his cousin Jean's husband, Martin Goodman:
I applied for a job in a publishing company ... I didn't even know they published comics. I was fresh out of high school, and I wanted to get into the publishing business, if I could. There was an ad in the paper that said, "Assistant Wanted in a Publishing House." When I found out that they wanted me to assist in comics, I figured, 'Well, I'll stay here for a little while and get some experience, and then I'll get out into the real world.' ... I just wanted to know, 'What do you do in a publishing company?' How do you write? ... How do you publish? I was an assistant. There were two people there named Joe Simon and Jack Kirby – Joe was sort-of the editor/artist/writer, and Jack was the artist/writer. Joe was the senior member. They were turning out most of the artwork. Then there was the publisher, Martin Goodman... And that was about the only staff that I was involved with. After a while, Joe Simon and Jack Kirby left. I was about 17 years old [sic], and Martin Goodman said to me, 'Do you think you can hold down the job of editor until I can find a real person?' When you're 17, what do you know? I said, 'Sure! I can do it!' I think he forgot about me, because I stayed there ever since.
However, in his 2002 autobiography, Excelsior! The Amazing Life of Stan Lee he writes:
My uncle, Robbie Solomon, told me they might be able to use someone at a publishing company where he worked. The idea of being involved in publishing definitely appealed to me. ... So I contacted the man Robbie said did the hiring, Joe Simon, and applied for a job. He took me on and I began working as a gofer for eight dollars a week....
Joe Simon, in his 1990 autobiography The Comic Book Makers, gives the account slightly differently: "One day [Goodman's relative known as] Uncle Robbie came to work with a lanky 17-year-old in tow. 'This is Stanley Lieber, Martin's wife's cousin,' Uncle Robbie said. 'Martin wants you to keep him busy.'"
In an appendix, however, Simon appears to reconcile the two accounts. He relates a 1989 conversation with Lee:
Lee: I've been saying this [classified-ad] story for years, but apparently it isn't so. And I can't remember because I['ve] said it so long now that I believe it.
Simon: Your Uncle Robbie brought you into the office one day and he said, 'This is Martin Goodman's wife's nephew.' [sic] ... You were seventeen years old.
Lee: Sixteen and a half!
Simon: Well, Stan, you told me seventeen. You were probably trying to be older.... I did hire you.
- Lee & Mair 2002, p. 27
- Kupperberg, Paul (2006). The Creation of Spider-Man. New York, New York: Rosen Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-4042-0763-9.
- Gilroy, Dan (September 17, 1986). "Marvel Now a $100 Million Hulk: Marvel Divisions and Top Execs". Variety. p. 81. Archived from the original (jpeg) on February 14, 2012.
- "Marvel Entertainment Group Inc. Form 10-K/A". Securities and Exchange Commission. May 15, 1997. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
- "Stan Lee". POW! Entertainment. Archived from the original on February 26, 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- Miller, John Jackson (June 10, 2005). "Comics Industry Birthdays". Comics Buyer's Guide. Iola, Wisconsin. Archived from the original on October 30, 2010.
- Lee & Mair 2002, p. 5
- The Celebrity Who's Who – World Almanac. Google Books. September 1986. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-345-33990-4. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- Lewine, Edward (September 4, 2007). "Sketching Out His Past: Image 1". The New York Times Key Magazine. Archived from the original on April 24, 2009. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- Lewine. "Image 2". Archived from the original on April 24, 2009. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- Kugel, Allison (March 13, 2006). "Stan Lee: From Marvel Comics Genius to Purveyor of Wonder with POW! Entertainment". PR.com. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Lee and Mair, p. 17
- Sedlmeier, Cory, ed. Marvel Masterworks: The Incredible Hulk Volume 2. Marvel Comics. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-7851-5883-7.
- "Biography". StanLeeWeb.com (fan site by minority shareholders of POW! Entertainment. Archived from the original on October 24, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- Apuzzo, Jason (February 1, 2012). "With Great Power: A Conversation with Stan Lee at Slamdance 2012". Moviefone. Archived from the original on September 7, 2013.
- "Stan Lee". WebOfStories. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
- Lee and Mair, p. 18
- "I Let People Do Their Jobs!': A Conversation with Vince Fago—Artist, writer, and Third Editor-in-Chief of Timely/Marvel Comics". Alter Ego. 3 (11). Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. November 2001. Archived from the original on November 25, 2009.
- Lee, Mair, p. 22
- "Interview with Stan Lee (Part 1 of 5)". IGN FilmForce. June 26, 2000. Archived from the original on January 15, 2015.
- Boucher, Geoff (September 25, 2009). "Jack Kirby, the abandoned hero of Marvel's grand Hollywood adventure, and his family's quest". Hero Complex (column), Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011.
- Sanderson, Peter; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1940s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-7566-4123-8.
Joe Simon and Jack Kirby's assistant Stanley Lieber wrote his first story for Timely, a text story called 'Captain America Foils the Traitor's Revenge'. It was also his first superhero story, and the first work he signed using his new pen name of Stan Lee.
- Thomas, Roy (2006). Stan Lee's Amazing Marvel Universe. New York: Sterling Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4027-4225-5.
With the speed of thought, he sent his shield spinning through the air to the other end of the tent, where it smacked the knife out of Haines' hand!" It became a convention starting the following issue, in a Simon & Kirby's comics story depict the following: "Captain America's speed of thought and action save Bucky's life—as he hurls his shield across the room.
- Sanderson "1940s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 19
- Brooks, Brad; Tim Pilcher (2005). The Essential Guide to World Comics. London, United Kingdom: Collins & Brown. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-84340-300-5.
- Boatz, Darrel L. (December 1988). "Stan Lee". Comics Interview (64). Fictioneer Books. pp. 5–23.
- Conan, Neal (October 27, 2010). "Stan Lee, Mastermind of the Marvel Universe". Talk of the Nation. National Public Radio.
- McLaughlin, Jeff; Stan Lee (2007). Stan Lee: Conversations. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-57806-985-9.
- Heintjes, Tom (2009). "Everybody's Friend: Remembering Stan Lee and Dan DeCarlo's My Friend Irma". Hogan's Alley. Bull Moose Publishing (16). Archived from the original on October 13, 2013.
- Kaplan, Arie (2006). Masters of the Comic Book Universe Revealed!. Chicago Review Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-55652-633-6.
- McLaughlin, Jeff; Stan Lee (2007). Stan Lee: Conversations. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-57806-985-9.
- Noted comic-book writer Alan Moore described the significance of this new approach in a radio interview on the BBC Four program Chain Reaction, transcribed at "Alan Moore Chain Reaction Interview Transcript". Comic Book Resources. January 27, 2005. Archived from the original on November 8, 2010.:
The DC comics were ... one dimensional characters whose only characteristic was they dressed up in costumes and did good. Whereas Stan Lee had this huge breakthrough of two-dimensional characters. So, they dress up in costumes and do good, but they've got a bad heart. Or a bad leg. I actually did think for a long while that having a bad leg was an actual character trait.
- Wright, Bradford W. (2003). Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-8018-7450-5.
- Kimball, Kirk (n.d.). "Secret Origins of the Fantastic Four". Dial B For Blog. Archived from the original on September 20, 2015.
- DeFalco, Tom "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 84: "It did not take long for editor Stan Lee to realize that The Fantastic Four was a hit...the flurry of fan letters all pointed to the FF's explosive popularity."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 85: "Based on their collaboration on The Fantastic Four, [Stan] Lee worked with Jack Kirby. Instead of a team that fought traditional Marvel monsters however, Lee decided that this time he wanted to feature a monster as the hero."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 88: "[Stan Lee] had always been fascinated by the legends of the Norse gods and realized that he could use those tales as the basis for his new series centered on the mighty Thor...The heroic and glamorous style that...Jack Kirby [had] was perfect for Thor."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 91: "Set against the background of the Vietnam War, Iron Man signaled the end of Marvel's monster/suspense line when he debuted in Tales of Suspense #39...[Stan] Lee discussed the general outline for Iron Man with Larry Lieber, who later wrote a full script for the origin story."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 94: "The X-Men #1 introduced the world to Professor Charles Xavier and his teenage students Cyclops, Beast, Angel, Iceman, and Marvel Girl. Magneto, the master of magnetism and future leader of the evil mutants, also appeared."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 100: "Stan Lee chose the name Daredevil because it evoked swashbucklers and circus daredevils, and he assigned Bill Everett, the creator of the Sub-Mariner to design and draw Daredevil #1."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 93: [Stan Lee] decided his new superhero feature would star a magician. Since Lee was enjoying his collaborations with Steve Ditko on The Amazing Spider-Man, he decided to assign the new feature to Ditko, who usually handled at least one of the backups in Strange Tales.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 87: "Deciding that his new character would have spider-like powers, [Stan] Lee commissioned Jack Kirby to work on the first story. Unfortunately, Kirby's version of Spider-Man's alter ego Peter Parker proved too heroic, handsome, and muscular for Lee's everyman hero. Lee turned to Steve Ditko, the regular artist on Amazing Adult Fantasy, who designed a skinny, awkward teenager with glasses."
- Wright, p. 218
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 94: "Filled with some wonderful visual action, The Avengers #1 has a very simple story: the Norse god Loki tricked the Hulk into going on a rampage ... The heroes eventually learned about Loki's involvement and united with the Hulk to form the Avengers."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 86: "Stan Lee and Jack Kirby reintroduced one of Marvel's most popular Golden Age heroes – Namor, the Sub-Mariner."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 99: "'Captain America lives again!' announced the cover of The Avengers #4...Cap was back."
- Sanderson, Peter (October 10, 2003). "Continuity/Discontinuity". Comics in Context (column) No. 14, IGN. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011.
- "Marvel Bullpen Bulletins". (reprinted on fan site). Archived from the original on May 2, 2010. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- "Radio". The New York Times. March 3, 1967. Retrieved April 20, 2013. Abstract only; full article requires payment or subscription
- "Audio of Merry Marvel Marching Society record". Archived from the original on December 10, 2005. Retrieved January 30, 2006., including voice of Stan Lee
- Thomas, Roy; Sanderson, Peter (2007). The Marvel Vault: A Museum-in-a-Book with Rare Collectibles from the World of Marvel. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Running Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-7624-2844-1.
- Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0.
[Stan Lee] knew that most readers tuned in every month for a glimpse of that side of Spider-Man's life as much as they did to see the wall-crawler battle the latest supervillain.
- Manning "1960s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 39: The Amazing Spider-Man #47 (April 1967) "Kraven's latest rematch with Spidey was set during a going-away party for Flash Thompson, who was facing the very real issue of the Vietnam War draft."
- Manning "1960s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 43: The Spectacular Spider-Man #1 (July 1968) "Drawn by Romita and Jim Mooney, the mammoth 52-page lead story focused on corrupt politician Richard Raleigh's plot to terrorize the city."
- Manning "1960s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 46: The Amazing Spider-Man #68 (January 1969) "Stan Lee tackled the issues of the day again when, with artists John Romita and Jim Mooney, he dealt with social unrest at Empire State University."
- David, Peter; Greenberger, Robert (2010). The Spider-Man Vault: A Museum-in-a-Book with Rare Collectibles Spun from Marvel's Web. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Running Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-7624-3772-6.
Joseph 'Robbie' Robertson made his debut in The Amazing Spider-Man #51, in a manner that was as quiet and unassuming as the character himself. His debut wasn't treated like the landmark event that it was; he was simply there one day, no big deal.
- Cronin, Brian (September 18, 2010). "A Year of Cool Comics – Day 261". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 111: "The Inhumans, a lost race that diverged from humankind 25,000 years ago and became genetically enhanced."
- Cronin, Brian (September 19, 2010). "A Year of Cool Comics – Day 262". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 117: Stan Lee wanted to do his part by co-creating the first black super hero. Lee discussed his ideas with Jack Kirby and the result was seen in Fantastic Four #52.
- Thomas, Stan Lee's Amazing Marvel Universe, pp. 112–115
- Hatfield, Charles (February 2004). "The Galactus Trilogy: An Appreciation". The Collected Jack Kirby Collector. 1: 211.
- Cronin, Brian (February 19, 2010). "A Year of Cool Comics – Day 50". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on May 4, 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 115: "Stan Lee may have started the creative discussion that culminated in Galactus, but the inclusion of the Silver Surfer in Fantastic Four #48 was pure Jack Kirby. Kirby realized that a being like Galactus required an equally impressive herald."
- Greenberger, Robert, ed. (December 2001). 100 Greatest Marvels of All Time. Marvel Comics. p. 26.
- Daniels, Les (1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. Harry N. Abrams. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-8109-3821-2.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 131: "When Stan Lee was told to expand the Marvel line, he immediately gave the Surfer his own title...Since Jack Kirby had more than enough assignments, Lee assigned John Buscema the task of illustrating the new book."
- Daniels, p. 139: "Beautifully drawn by John Buscema, this comic book represented an attempt to upgrade the medium with a serious character of whom Lee had grown very fond."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 137: "The Black Panther may have broken the mold as Marvel's first black superhero, but he was from Africa. The Falcon, however, was the first black American superhero."
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The stories received widespread mainstream publicity, and Marvel was hailed for sticking to its guns.
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...the procedure performed last week.
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| Marvel Comics Editor-in-Chief
| Marvel Comics Editor-in-Chief
| Fantastic Four writer
| Fantastic Four writer
| The Amazing Spider-Man writer
| The Amazing Spider-Man writer
| The Incredible Hulk writer
(including Tales to Astonish stories)
| The Incredible Hulk writer
| Thor writer
(including Journey into Mystery stories)
(with Larry Lieber in 1962)
(with Robert Bernstein in 1963)
| The Avengers writer
| (Uncanny) X-Men writer
| Captain America writer
(including Tales of Suspense stories)
| Daredevil writer