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A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in). The standard gauge is also called Stephenson gauge after George Stephenson, International gauge, UIC gauge, uniform gauge, normal gauge and European gauge in the EU and Russia. It is the most widely used railway track gauge across the world with approximately 55% of the lines in the world using it. All high-speed rail lines, except those in Russia, Finland, Portugal and Uzbekistan, use standard gauge. The distance between the inside edges of the rails is defined to be 1435 mm except in the United States, where it is still defined in Imperial and US customary units as approximately 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in.
As railways developed and expanded, one of the key issues was the track gauge (the distance, or width, between the inner sides of the rails) to be used. The result was the adoption throughout a large part of the world of a "standard gauge" of 1435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in), allowing inter-connectivity and inter-operability.
A popular legend that has been around since at least 1937 traces the origin of the 1435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge even further back than the coalfields of northern England, pointing to the evidence of rutted roads marked by chariot wheels dating from the Roman Empire.[a] It is curious that the Roman pace or passus was 4.855 ft or 1435 mm; a thousand such was one Roman mile. Snopes categorised this legend as "false", but commented that "it is perhaps more fairly labelled as 'True, but for trivial and unremarkable reasons'". The historical tendency to place the wheels of horse-drawn vehicles approximately 5 feet (1,500 mm) apart probably derives from the width needed to fit a carthorse in between the shafts. In addition, while road-travelling vehicles are typically measured from the outermost portions of the wheel rims (and there is some evidence that the first railways were measured in this way as well), it became apparent that for vehicles travelling on rails it was better to have the wheel flanges located inside the rails, and thus the distance measured on the inside of the wheels (and, by extension, the inside faces of the rail heads) was the important one.
There was never a standard gauge for horse railways, but there were rough groupings: in the north of England none was less than 4 ft (1,219 mm). Wylam colliery's system, built before 1763, was 5 ft (1,524 mm), as was John Blenkinsop's Middleton Railway; the old 4 ft (1,219 mm) plateway was relaid to 5 ft (1,524 mm) so that Blenkinsop's engine could be used. Others were 4 ft 4 in (1,321 mm) (in Beamish) or 4 ft 7 1⁄2 in (Bigges Main and Kenton and Coxlodge).
The English railway pioneer George Stephenson spent much of his early engineering career working for the coal mines of County Durham. He favoured 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm) for wagonways in Northumberland and Durham, and used it on his Killingworth line. The Hetton and Springwell wagonways also used this gauge.
Stephenson's Stockton and Darlington railway (S&DR) was built primarily to transport coal from mines near Shildon to the port at Stockton-on-Tees. The initial gauge of 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm) was set to accommodate the existing gauge of hundreds of horse-drawn chaldron wagons that were already in use on the wagonways in the mines. The railway used this gauge for 15 years before a change was made to the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge. The historic Mount Washington Cog Railway, the world's first mountain-climbing rack railway, is still in operation in the 21st century, and has used the earlier 4 ft 8 in gauge since its inauguration in 1868.
George Stephenson used the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge (including a belated extra 1⁄2 in (12.7 mm) of free movement to reduce binding on curves) for the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, authorised in 1826 and opened 30 September 1830. The success of this project led to Stephenson and his son Robert being employed to engineer several other larger railway projects. Thus the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 gauge became widespread and dominant in Britain. Robert was reported to have said that if he had had a second chance to choose a standard gauge, he would have chosen one wider than 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in). "I would take a few inches more, but a very few".
During the "gauge war" with the Great Western Railway, standard gauge was called narrow gauge, in contrast to the Great Western's 7 ft 1⁄4 in broad gauge. The modern use of the term "narrow gauge" for gauges less than standard did not arise for many years, until the first such locomotive-hauled passenger railway, the Ffestiniog Railway was built.
In 1845, in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, a Royal Commission on Railway Gauges reported in favour of a standard gauge. The subsequent Gauge Act ruled that new passenger-carrying railways in Great Britain should be built to a standard gauge of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in), and those in Ireland to a new standard gauge of 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm). In Great Britain, Stephenson's gauge was chosen on the grounds that existing lines of this gauge were eight times longer than those of the rival 7 ft (2,134 mm) (later 7 ft 1⁄4 in (2,140 mm)) gauge adopted principally by the Great Western Railway. It allowed the broad-gauge companies in Great Britain to continue with their tracks and expand their networks within the "Limits of Deviation" and the exceptions defined in the Act. After an intervening period of mixed-gauge operation (tracks were laid with three rails), the Great Western Railway finally converted its entire network to standard gauge in 1892. In North East England, some early lines in colliery (coal mining) areas were 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm), while in Scotland some early lines were 4 ft 6 in (1,372 mm). All these lines had been widened to standard gauge by 1846. The British gauges converged starting from 1846 as the advantages of equipment interchange became increasingly apparent. By 1890s, the entire network was converted to standard gauge.
The Royal Commission made no comment about small lines narrower than standard gauge (to be called "narrow gauge"), such as the Ffestiniog Railway. Thus it permitted a future multiplicity of narrow gauges in the UK. It also made no comments about future gauges in British colonies, which allowed various gauges to be adopted across the colonies.
Parts of the United States, mainly in the Northeast, adopted the same gauge, because some early trains were purchased from Britain. The American gauges converged, as the advantages of equipment interchange became increasingly apparent. Notably, all the 5 ft (1,524 mm) broad gauge track in the South was converted to standard gauge over the course of two days beginning on 31 May 1886. See Track gauge in the United States.
In continental Europe, France and Belgium adopted a 1500 mm gauge from axis to axis of rail for their early railways. The gauge between the interior edges of the rails (the measurement adopted from 1844) differed slightly between countries, and even between networks within a country (for example, 1440 to 1445 mm in France).
The first tracks in Austria and in the Netherlands had other gauges (1100 mm in Austria for the Donau Moldau line), but for interoperability reasons (the first rail service between Paris and Berlin began in 1849, first Chaix timetable) Germany adopted standard gauges, as did most other European countries.
The modern method of measuring rail gauge was agreed in the first Berne rail convention of 1886, according to the "Revue générale des chemins de fer, July 1928".
Early railways by gauge
- Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway, authorised 1824 and opened 1825, used 4 ft 6 in (1,372 mm).
- Dundee and Newtyle Railway, authorised 1829 and opened 1831, used 4 ft 6 1⁄2 in (1,384 mm).
- the Eastern Counties Railway, authorised on 4 July 1836, used 5 ft (1,524 mm)
- the London and Blackwall Railway, authorised on 28 July 1836, used 5 ft 1⁄2 in (1,537 mm).
- the Dundee and Arbroath Railway, incorporated on 19 May 1836 and opened October 1838, used 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) until standardised in 1847.
- the Arbroath and Forfar Railway, incorporated on 19 May 1836 and opened November 1838, used 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm).
- the Northern and Eastern Railway, authorised on 4 July 1836, used 5 ft (1,524 mm) gauge.
- Aberdeen Railway, opened 1848, used 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) until standardised.
Almost standard gauge
- the Killingworth colliery railway, used 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm).
- the Hetton colliery railway, opened 1822, used 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm).
- the Stockton and Darlington Railway, authorised 1821, opened 1825, used 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm).
- the Manchester and Leeds Railway, authorised on 4 July 1836, used 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm).
- The 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm) railways were intended to take 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) gauge vehicles and allow a (second) running tolerance.
- the Chester and Birkenhead Railway, authorised on 12 July 1837, used 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm).
- the London and Brighton Railway, authorised on 15 July 1837, used 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm).
- the Grand Junction Railway, authorised 1833, opened 1837, connected to LMR.
- the Manchester and Birmingham Railway, authorised on 30 June 1837, used 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm).
- the trams in Dresden, authorised in 1872 as horsecars, used 1,440 mm (4 ft 8 11⁄16 in) gauge vehicles. Converted to 600 V DC electric trams in 1893, they now use 1,450 mm (4 ft 9 3⁄32 in); both gauges are within the tolerance for standard gauge.
- the trams in Nuremberg nominally used 1,432 mm (4 ft 8 3⁄8 in) during much of their existence, but have since been converted to standard gauge in name as well as fact
- the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, authorised 1824, opened 1830.
- the Saint-Étienne–Lyon railway, authorised 1826, opened 1833 ( all the early French railways including Saint-Etienne Andrezieux, authorised 1823, opened 1827 had a French Gauge of 1,500 mm (4 ft 11 1⁄16 in) from rail axis to rail axis, compatible with early standard gauge tolerances)
- the Newcastle & Carlisle Railway, authorised 1829, opened 1834, isolated from LMR.
- the Grand Junction Railway, authorised 1833, opened 1837, connected to LMR.
- the London and Birmingham Railway, authorised 1833, opened 1838, connected to LMR.
- the Manchester and Birmingham Railway, authorised 1837, opened 1840, connected to LMR.
- the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway, authorised 1836, opened 1840, connected to LMR.
- the London and Southampton Railway, authorised 1834, opened 1840.
- the London and Brighton Railway, authorised 1837, opened 1841.
- the South Eastern Railway, authorised 1836, opened 1844.
- Cheltenham and Great Western Union Railway, authorised 1836, opened 1840, dual gauge 1843 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) and 7 ft 1⁄4 in (2,140 mm).
Modern almost standard gauge railways
- The Toronto Transit Commission uses 1,495 mm (4 ft 10 7⁄8 in) gauge on its streetcar and subway lines. However, the Eglinton Crosstown Line will use 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge.
- Trams in Dresden, Germany use 1,450 mm (4 ft 9 3⁄32 in)
- 1,445 mm (4 ft 8 7⁄8 in) gauge is in use on several urban rail transit systems in Europe:
- The MTR in Hong Kong uses 1,432 mm (4 ft 8 3⁄8 in) gauge on lines owned by the MTR Corporation. However, lines formerly operated (but which continue to be owned) by the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation, including the Light Rail network, use 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge.
- The Washington Metro uses 4 ft 8 1⁄4 (1,429 mm), 1⁄4 in (6 mm) narrower than standard gauge.
- The Mount Washington Cog Railway, the world's oldest mountain-climbing rack-and-pinion railway, uses a 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm) gauge.
|Albania||National rail network||339 km (211 mi)|
|Algeria||National rail network||3,973 km (2,469 mi)|
|Argentina||General Urquiza Railway (except for Ferrocarril Económico Correntino, which used 600 mm or 1 ft 11 5⁄8 in before its closing)
Buenos Aires Underground
Tren de la Costa
|Other major lines are mostly 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge, with the exception of the 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge General Belgrano Railway.|
|Australia||Pacific National, Pilbara Railways, Sydney Metro, Melbourne trams, Glenelg tram, Gold Coast tram||Victoria built the first railways to the 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) Irish broad gauge. New South Wales then built to the standard gauge, so trains had to stop on the border and passengers transferred, which was only rectified in the 1960s. Queensland still runs on a narrow gauge but there is a standard gauge line from NSW to Brisbane.|
|Austria||Österreichische Bundesbahnen||The Semmering railway has UNESCO World Heritage Site status.|
|Bangladesh||To be used only for rapid transit system, Dhaka Metro Rail|
|Belgium||NMBS/SNCB, Brussels Metro and tramway|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Željeznice Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine and Željeznice Republike Srpske,
|Brazil||Estrada de Ferro do Amapá; from Uruguaiana to the border with Argentina and from Santana do Livramento to the border with Uruguay (both mixed gauge 1,435 mm and 1,000 mm or 3 ft 3 3⁄8 in metre gauge); remaining tracks at Jaguarão, Rio Grande do Sul (currently inoperable); Rio de Janeiro Light Rail; São Paulo Metro lines 4 and 5; Salvador Metro||194 km (121 mi)|
|Bulgaria||National Railway Infrastructure Company (NRIC),
Bulgarian State Railways (BDZ),
part of Sofia Tramway system
|Canada||National rail network (including commuter rail operators like GO Transit, West Coast Express, AMT and Union Pearson Express).||49,422 km (30,709 mi) |
The Toronto Transit Commission uses 4 ft 10 7⁄8 in (1,495 mm) gauge on its streetcar and subway lines.
|China||National rail network||103,144 km (64,091 mi)|
|Colombia||Metro de Medellín, Tren del Cerrejón, Metro de Bogotá|
|Cuba||Ferrocarriles de Cuba|
|Czech Republic||České dráhy,
all tram systems in the country (Liberec has dual gauge 1,000/1,435 mm, with one metre-gauge interurban line to Jablonec nad Nisou),
funicular in Prague
|Denmark||Banedanmark and Copenhagen Metro|
|Djibouti||Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway|
|Egypt||Egyptian National Railways|
|Ethiopia||Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway; Addis Ababa Light Rail||Other standard gauge lines under construction.|
|France||SNCF, RATP (on RER lines)|
|Germany||Deutsche Bahn, numerous local public transport providers||43,468 km|
|Greece||Hellenic Railways Organisation (operated by TrainOSE)||All modern Greek network, except in the Peloponnese|
|Hong Kong||MTR (former KCR network – East Rail Line, West Rail Line, Ma On Shan Line, Light Rail)||Other MTR lines use 1,432 mm (4 ft 8 3⁄8 in) instead of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in|
Budapest metro, HÉV (Suburban railway),
Tram systems in Budapest, Debrecen, Miskolc, Szeged,
Budapest Cog-wheel Railway
|India||Only used for rapid transit and tram, Bangalore Metro, Chennai Metro, Delhi Metro (Phase 2 onwards), Rapid Metro Gurgaon, Hyderabad Metro, Jaipur Metro, Kochi Metro, Kolkata Metro (Line 2 onwards), Lucknow Metro, Mumbai Metro, Navi Mumbai Metro and Trams in Kolkata. All of the under-construction and future rapid transit systems would be in standard gauge.||Indian nationwide rail system (Indian Railways) uses 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge. Any future additions to this system would also be in broad gauge.|
|Indonesia||Railways in Aceh Province and Sulawesi||Rest of the country uses 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in).|
|Iran||Islamic Republic of Iran Railways|
|Iraq||Iraqi Republic Railways|
|Ireland||Railway Procurement Agency||Luas in Dublin|
|Israel||Israel Railways, CTS, operating the Jerusalem Light Rail|
|Italy||Ferrovie dello Stato|
|Japan||Shinkansen, JR Hokkaido Naebo Works (see Train on Train), Keisei Line, Keikyu Line, Tokyo Metro (Ginza and Marunouchi lines), Toei Subway (Asakusa and Oedo lines), Kintetsu Railway (Osaka, Nara, Nagoya, Yamada, Kyoto, and Keihanna lines and their associated branches), Keihan Railway, Hankyu Railway, Hanshin Railway, Kyoto Municipal Subway, Kobe Municipal Subway, Osaka Municipal Subway (including the Kita-Osaka Kyuko Railway), Fukuoka City Subway (Nanakuma Line), Sendai Subway (Tozai Line), Nagoya Municipal Subway (Higashiyama, Meijō, and Meikō lines), Nose Electric Railway, Yokohama Municipal Subway (Blue and Green lines)||4,251 km (2,641 mi), all electrified|
|Kenya||Mombasa-Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway||Inaugurated May 31, 2017|
|Lebanon||All lines out of service and essentially dismantled|
|Libya||Network under construction|
|Lithuania||Rail Baltica||First phase, from Kaunas to the Polish border, completed in 2015. Second phase, from Kaunas north to Tallinn, Estonia, is at planning stage.|
|Luxembourg||Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois|
|Malaysia||RapidKL (Kelana Jaya Line, Ampang Line, MRT Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line, MRT Sungai Buloh-Serdang-Putrajaya Line), KLIA Ekspres, MRL East Coast Rail Link (under construction), Kuala Lumpur–Singapore High Speed Rail (planned)|
|Montenegro||Željeznice Crne Gore||3|
|Morocco||Rail transport in Morocco|
|Netherlands||Nederlandse Spoorwegen and regional railways.|
|Nigeria||Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway; Lagos Rail Mass Transit||Under construction; Abuja to Kaduna section operational.|
|North Korea||Railways of the DPRK.|
|Norway||Norwegian National Rail Administration, Rail transport in Norway|
|Pakistan||To be used only for rapid transit system, Lahore Metro||Pakistan's nationwide rail system (Pakistan Railways) uses 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge. Any future additions to this system would also be in broad gauge.|
|Panama||Panama Railway; Panama Metro||Regauged from 5 ft (1,524 mm) in 2001|
|Paraguay||Ferrocarril Presidente Don Carlos Antonio López, now Ferrocarril de Paraguay S.A. (FEPASA)||36 km out of Asunción (used as a tourist steam line), plus 5 km from Encarnación to the border with Argentina, carrying mainly exported soy; the rest of the 441-km line awaits its fate, while redevelopment plans come and go with regularity. The section from west of Encarnación to north of San Salvador, plus the entire San Salvador–Abaí branch, have been dismantled by the railway itself and sold for scrap to raise funds.|
|Peru||Railway Development Corporation, Ferrocarril Central Andino (Callao–Lima–La Oroya–Huancayo and La Oroya–Cerro del Pasco lines), Ferrocarril del sur de Peru (operated by Peru Rail) Matarani–Arequipa–Puno and Puno–Cuzco, Ilo–Moquegua mining railway, Tacna–Arica (Chile) international line, (operated by Tacna Province), Lima electric suburban railway|
|Philippines||Manila LRT Lines 1 and 2, and Manila MRT Line 3.|
|Poland||Polskie Koleje Państwowe, Warsaw Metro, most tramway systems throughout the country|
|Portugal||Planned high-speed lines, Braga and Oporto (Guindais) funiculars, Lisbon Metro, Oporto Metro (partly adapted from former 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge; tracks), Metro Transportes do Sul light rail in Almada.||All other railways use 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in) (broad gauge); some use 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge; Decauville uses 500 mm (19 3⁄4 in) gauge.|
|Romania||Căile Ferate Române, Bucharest Metro,
Tram systems in Botoşani, Brăila, Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Craiova, Galaţi, Oradea, Ploieşti and Timișoara
|Russia||Rostov-on-Don tramway, lines connecting Kaliningrad with Poland|
|Saudi Arabia||Rail transport in Saudi Arabia|
|Singapore||MRT, Kuala Lumpur–Singapore High Speed Rail (planned)|
|Slovakia||Železnice Slovenskej republiky, Košice tramway system|
|South Africa||Gautrain in Gauteng Province||Rest of country uses 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)|
|Spain||AVE high-speed rail lines from Madrid to Seville, Málaga, Saragossa, Barcelona (-Perthus), Toledo, Huesca, and Valladolid, Barcelona Metro (L2, L3, L4, and L5 lines), Barcelona FGC (lines L6 and L7), and Metro Vallès (lines S1, S2, S5, and S55).||All other railways use 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in) (broad gauge) and/or 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge).|
|Sweden||Swedish Transport Administration, Storstockholms Lokaltrafik (Stockholm metro, commuter and light rail lines), tram networks in Gothenburg and Norrköping|
|Switzerland||Swiss Federal Railways, BLS, Rigi Railways (rack railway)|
|Syria||Chemins de Fer Syriens|
|Taiwan||Taipei Rapid Transit System, Taiwan High Speed Rail, and Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit|
|Thailand||BTS Skytrain, MRT, and Suvarnabhumi Airport Link|
|Tunisia||Northern part of the network|
|Turkey||Turkish State Railways (also operates Marmaray), metro networks, and tram networks||Some tram networks use 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge.|
|United Arab Emirates||Rail transport in the United Arab Emirates|
|United Kingdom (Great Britain)||Entire rail network in Great Britain (but not Ireland) since standardisation by the Regulating the Gauge of Railways Act 1846|
|United States||Modern national railroad network; see Track gauge in the United States||The Washington Metro uses 4 ft 8 1⁄4 in (1,429 mm) gauge, which is 6 mm (0.24 in) narrower than standard gauge.|
|Uruguay||National rail network|
|Vietnam||North of Hanoi||Includes dual gauge (standard/metre) to the Chinese border.|
- Standard Gauge (toy trains)
- List of track gauges
- List of tram track gauges
- Track gauge
- Regulating the Gauge of Railways Act 1846
- The gaps in the pedestrian crossings in Pompeii could give credence or otherwise to this statement, but no relevant studies appear to have been made.
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- "Displaceable rolling bogie for railway vehicles". IP.com. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
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- Jones (2009), pp. 64–65.
- "The Days They Changed the Gauge". Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Auguste Perdonnet, mémoire sur les chemins à ornières, 1830
- Whishaw (1842), p. 91.
- "Public transport in and about the parish". London: St George-in-the-East Church. London and Blackwall Railway; London, Tilbury & Southend Railway.
- "Document" (PDF). Mernick. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Whishaw (1842), p. 260.
- Whishaw (1842), p. 363.
- Jones (2013), p. 33.
- Whishaw (1842), p. 319.
- Whishaw (1842), p. 54.
- Whishaw (1842), p. 273.
- Whishaw (1842), p. 303.
- "The World Factbook". Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- "The World Factbook". Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Setti (2008), p. 25.
- "http://www.metropolitan.bg/index_eng.html". Retrieved 1 June 2016. External link in
- "http://www.skgt-bg.com/index_en.htm". Archived from the original on 10 August 2006. Retrieved 1 June 2016. External link in
- "香港鐵路(MTR)". 2427junction.com. 15 February 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Allen (1987).[page needed]
- "Mexlist". 2007. Retrieved 29 November 2007.
- "SECTION - 3 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT" (PDF). EIA of Construction of Lahore Orange Line Metro Train Project (Ali Town –Dera Gujran). Environmental Protection Department. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- "Ferrocarril Central Andino". Railroad Development Corporation. 2007. Retrieved 29 November 2007.
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- Allen, Geoffrey Freeman (1987). Jane's World Railways, 1987–88. Jane's Information. ISBN 978-0-71060848-2.
- Baxter, Bertran (1966). Stone Blocks and Iron Rails (Tramroads). Industrial Archaeology of the British Isles. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-715340-04-2. OCLC 643482298.
- Jones, Robin (2013). The Rocket Men. Mortons Media. ISBN 978-1-90912827-9.
- Jones, Stephen K (2009). Brunel in South Wales. II: Communications and Coal. Stroud: The History Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0-75244912-8.
- Pomeranz, Kenneth; Topik, Steven (1999). The World that Trade Created: Society, Culture, and World Economy, 1400 to the Present. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0250-4.
- Puffert, Douglas J (2009). Tracks across Continents, Paths through History: The Economic Dynamics of Standardization in Railway Gauge. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-68509-0.
- Setti, João Bosco (2008). Brazilian Railroads. Rio de Janeiro: Memória do Trem. ISBN 978-85-8609409-5 – via Google Books.
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- Whishaw, Francis (1969) [1842, John Weale]. The Railways of Great Britain and Ireland: Practically Described and Illustrated. London: David & Charles; reprints: Newton Abbot. ISBN 0-7153-4786-1.
- A learned text of standardisation of gauge
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