Standard J

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Standard J
Standard J-1 USAF.jpg
Role Trainer
National origin United States
Manufacturer Standard Aircraft Corporation
Designer Charles Healy Day
First flight 1916
Number built 1,600+
Unit cost
Developed from Sloan H series

The Standard J was a two-seat basic trainer two-bay biplane produced in the United States from 1916 to 1918 powered by a four-cylinder inline Hall-Scott A-7a engine. It was constructed from wood with wire bracing and fabric covering. The J-1 was built as a stopgap to supplement the Curtiss JN-4 in production.


Charles Healy Day had designed the preceding Sloan H series of aircraft and continued the line under the Standard Aero Corporation (later Standard Aircraft Corporation). Four companies, Standard, Dayton-Wright, Fisher Body, and Wright-Martin, delivered 1,601 J-1s between June 1917 and June 1918. The Standard J-1 can be differentiated from the Curtiss JN series by its slightly swept-back wing planform, triangular king posts above the upper wings, and the landing gear mounted behind the lower wing's leading edge.

Operational history[edit]

Standard J-1 providing joyrides.

Although produced in large numbers, its four-cylinder Hall-Scott A-7a engine was unreliable and vibrated badly. While JN-4 production outnumbered J-1s by about two to one to June 1918, fatalities in JN-4s versus J-1s was about seven to one as a result of the limited use of the J-1s. Few later production J-1s left their delivery crates. In June 1918, even while training was at a fever pitch, all Standard J-1s were grounded, and although considered for adaptation to the OX-5 engine used by the Curtiss JN-4, the $2,000 conversion cost was not cost-effective, and the supply of JN-4s was sufficient for training needs. Contracts for 2,600+ JS-1s were canceled, and those not used for ground instruction by the US Army were sold as surplus or scrapped. The manufacturer of its competitor (Curtiss JN series) bought surplus J-1s for modification to use different powerplant, and resale.

Many J-1s carried on with civilian flying schools, joy-riding, and barnstorming operations until they were worn out, or were forced into retirement by new air transport legislation in 1927 which banned wooden passenger transports.


Standard J, modified with an enclosed cabin by T. Claude Ryan, in flight over San Diego[1]
  • Sloan H series - trainers and reconnaissance aircraft from 1913
  • Standard H series - production by Standard of Sloan H-series
  • Standard J - first Standard-designed variant
  • Standard J-1 - trainer for U.S. Army
  • Standard SJ-1 - J-1 with additional pair of forward wheels to prevent noseovers
  • Standard JR-1 - advanced trainer for US Army
  • Standard JR-1B - mail carrier for US Post Office, modification of JR-1
  • Standard E-4 - redesignated JR-1B mailcarrier

War-surplus conversions[edit]


 United States


Standard J-1 at the USAF Museum, showing the wing sweepback

Over a dozen J-1s are on display or being restored. Others projects are incomplete and awaiting restoration.

Specifications (SJ-1)[edit]

Standard J-1 with Hispano-Suiza engine

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 26 ft 2 in (7.98 m)
  • Wingspan: 43 ft 10 in (13.36 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 10 in (3.30 m)
  • Gross weight: 2,025 lb (920 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Hall-Scott A-5, 175 hp (130 kW)
1 × Hispano-Suiza 8 (one of several engines used in post-war modifications)[6], 150[5] hp (110 kW)


  • Maximum speed: 72 mph (120 km/h)
  • Cruise speed: 64 mph ( km/h)
  • Stall speed: 40 mph ( km/h)
  • Range: 350 miles (560 km)
  • Service ceiling: 15,000 ft (4,600 m)

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists


  1. ^ a b c Radecki, Alan (2012). "The First Airline in America". Vintage Air. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  2. ^ The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft p.2835
  3. ^ Taylor 1989, p.774
  4. ^ United States Air Force Museum 1975, p. 7.
  5. ^ Harrison, Robert (1 Jan 1985). Aviation Lore in Faulkner. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 143. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  6. ^ "Hispano-Suiza V-8, Model A". WINGS of EAGLES DISCOVERY CENTRE. Wings of Eagles Discovery Center. 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  • Donald, David, ed (1997). Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Ontario: Prospero Books. p. 854. 
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing. 
  • "Standard, Standard-Caproni, Standard-DH,Standard-Handley-Page, Gates-Day Standard". Aerofiles. Retrieved 2008-10-28. 
  • Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. 
  • United States Air Force Museum. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation. 1975.