Standard J

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Standard J
Standard J-1 USAF.jpg
Role Trainer
National origin United States
Manufacturer Standard Aircraft Corporation
Designer Charles Healy Day
First flight 1916
Number built 1,600+
Unit cost
$6,000
Developed from Sloan H series

The Standard J was a two-seat basic trainer two-bay biplane produced in the United States from 1916 to 1918, powered by a four-cylinder inline Hall-Scott A-7a engine. It was constructed from wood with wire bracing and fabric covering. The J-1 was built as a stopgap to supplement the Curtiss JN-4 in production.

Development[edit]

Charles Healy Day had designed the preceding Sloan H series of aircraft, and continued the line under the Standard Aero Corporation (later Standard Aircraft Corporation). Four companies, Standard, Dayton-Wright, Fisher Body, and Wright-Martin, delivered 1,601 J-1s between June 1917 and June 1918. The Standard J-1 can be differentiated from the Curtiss JN series by its slightly swept-back wing planform, triangular king posts above the upper wings, and the front legs of the landing gear which were mounted behind the lower wing's leading edge.

Operational history[edit]

Standard J-1 providing joyrides.

Although produced in large numbers, its four-cylinder Hall-Scott A-7a engine was unreliable and vibrated badly. While JN-4 production outnumbered J-1s by about two to one to June 1918, fatalities in JN-4s versus J-1s was about seven to one as a result of the limited use of the J-1s. Few later production J-1s left their delivery crates.

In June 1918, all Standard J-1s were grounded, although training remained intensive. Sufficient JN-4s were available to meet training needs, and at $2,000 per aircraft it was not cost-effective to convert them to use Curtiss OX-5 engines. Contracts for 2,600+ JS-1s were canceled, and those not used for ground instruction by the US Army were sold as surplus or scrapped. Curtiss, which produced its competitor (the Curtiss JN) bought surplus J-1s which they modified with different powerplants, for resale.

Many J-1s were flown by civilian flying schools, and for joy-riding and barnstorming operations, until they were worn out, or were forced into retirement by new air transport legislation in 1927 which banned passenger aircraft with wood structures due to a number of high profile accidents.

Variants[edit]

Standard J, modified with an enclosed cabin by T. Claude Ryan, in flight over San Diego[1]
  • Sloan H series: trainers and reconnaissance aircraft from 1913
  • Standard H series: production by Standard of Sloan H-series
  • Standard J: first Standard-designed variant
  • Standard J-1: trainer for U.S. Army
  • Standard SJ-1: J-1 with additional pair of forward wheels to prevent noseovers
  • Standard JR-1: advanced trainer for US Army
  • Standard JR-1B: mail carrier for US Post Office, modification of JR-1
  • Standard E-4: redesignated JR-1B mailcarrier

War-surplus conversions[edit]

Operators[edit]

 United States

Survivors[edit]

Standard J-1 at the USAF Museum, showing the wing sweepback

Over a dozen J-1s are on display or being restored. Others projects are incomplete and awaiting restoration.

Specifications (SJ-1)[edit]

Standard J-1 with Hispano-Suiza engine

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 26 ft 2 in (7.98 m)
  • Wingspan: 43 ft 10 in (13.36 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 10 in (3.30 m)
  • Gross weight: 2,025 lb (920 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Hall-Scott A-5, 175 hp (130 kW)
1 × Hispano-Suiza 8 (one of several engines used in post-war modifications)[6], 150[5] hp (110 kW)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 72 mph (120 km/h)
  • Cruise speed: 64 mph ( km/h)
  • Stall speed: 40 mph ( km/h)
  • Range: 350 miles (560 km)
  • Service ceiling: 15,000 ft (4,600 m)

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c Radecki, Alan (2012). "The First Airline in America". Vintage Air. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  2. ^ The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft p.2835
  3. ^ Taylor 1989, p.774
  4. ^ United States Air Force Museum 1975, p. 7.
  5. ^ Harrison, Robert (1 Jan 1985). Aviation Lore in Faulkner. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 143. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  6. ^ "Hispano-Suiza V-8, Model A". WINGS of EAGLES DISCOVERY CENTRE. Wings of Eagles Discovery Center. 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
Bibliography
  • Donald, David, ed (1997). Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Ontario: Prospero Books. p. 854. 
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing. 
  • "Standard, Standard-Caproni, Standard-DH,Standard-Handley-Page, Gates-Day Standard". Aerofiles. Retrieved 2008-10-28. 
  • Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. 
  • United States Air Force Museum. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation. 1975. 

External links[edit]