||This article has an unclear citation style. Learn how and when to remove this template message) (April 2013) (|
|National origin||United States|
|Manufacturer||Standard Aircraft Corporation|
|Designer||Charles Healy Day|
|Developed from||Sloan H series|
The Standard J was a two-seat basic trainer two-bay biplane produced in the United States from 1916 to 1918, powered by a four-cylinder inline Hall-Scott A-7a engine. It was constructed from wood with wire bracing and fabric covering. The J-1 was built as a stopgap to supplement the Curtiss JN-4 in production.
Charles Healy Day had designed the preceding Sloan H series of aircraft, and continued the line under the Standard Aero Corporation (later Standard Aircraft Corporation). Four companies, Standard, Dayton-Wright, Fisher Body, and Wright-Martin, delivered 1,601 J-1s between June 1917 and June 1918. The Standard J-1 can be differentiated from the Curtiss JN series by its slightly swept-back wing planform, triangular king posts above the upper wings, and the front legs of the landing gear which were mounted behind the lower wing's leading edge, just about where the forward wing spar of the lower wing panel attaches to the fuselage.
Although produced in large numbers, its four-cylinder Hall-Scott A-7a engine was unreliable and vibrated badly. While JN-4 production outnumbered J-1s by about two to one to June 1918, fatalities in JN-4s versus J-1s was about seven to one as a result of the limited use of the J-1s. Few later production J-1s left their delivery crates.
In June 1918, all Standard J-1s were grounded, although training remained intensive. Sufficient JN-4s were available to meet training needs, and at $2,000 per aircraft it was not cost-effective to convert them to use Curtiss OX-5 engines. Contracts for 2,600+ JS-1s were canceled, and those not used for ground instruction by the US Army were sold as surplus or scrapped. Curtiss, which produced its competitor (the Curtiss JN) bought surplus J-1s which they modified with different powerplants, for resale.
Many J-1s were flown by civilian flying schools, and for joy-riding and barnstorming operations, until they were worn out, or were forced into retirement by new air transport legislation in 1927 which banned passenger aircraft with wood structures due to a number of high-profile accidents.
- Sloan H series: trainers and reconnaissance aircraft from 1913
- Standard H series: production by Standard of Sloan H-series
- Standard J: first Standard-designed variant
- Standard J-1: trainer for U.S. Army
- Standard SJ-1: J-1 with additional pair of forward wheels to prevent noseovers
- Standard JR-1: advanced trainer for US Army
- Standard JR-1B: mail carrier for US Post Office, modification of JR-1
- Standard E-4: redesignated JR-1B mailcarrier
- Curtiss Night Mail: 1922 mailplane conversion of J-1 by Curtiss with new wings (about 6 converted)
- Lincoln Standard L.S.5: J-1 modified with an open cockpit for four passengers
- Nicholas-Beazley-Standard: J-1 aircraft modified by Nicholas-Beazley
- Ryan Standard: J-1 with a 180 hp Hispano Suiza engine and an enclosed cabin for four passengers fitted by the Ryan Flying Company (9 converted)
- Sikorsky Standard: civil trainer with Sikorsky-Gluhareff Parasol wing (also known as Standard SJ)
Over a dozen J-1s are on display or being restored. Others projects are incomplete and awaiting restoration.
- Two J-1s are on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio.
- A Hispano-Suiza J-1 (s/n 1956) is displayed at EAA AirVenture Museum.
- A OXX-6-powered J-1 (s/n 2434 registered and flown as N9477) is part of the collection of the Cass County, North Dakota's Bonanzaville, U.S.A. Museum but is currently on loan to the Fargo Air Museum.
- Hispano-Suiza 8-powered Standard J-1 s/n 581 is displayed and flown, at the Owls Head Transportation Museum, Owls Head, Maine
- s/n 823H on loan to Glenn H. Curtiss Museum, Hammondsport, New York from the Henry Ford Museum,
- s/n 1000 James Hammond, Yellow Springs, Ohio
- s/n 1582 Kermit Weeks, is displayed at Fantasy of Flight in Polk City, Florida (composite of two aircraft)
- "N62505" Historic Aircraft Museum, Creve Coeur Airport, Missouri.
- s/n 1598 reported existent, location unknown
- s/n 2969 Michael Cilurso, Schnecksville, Pennsylvania (assembled from original components – period kit)
- s/n 4598 is displayed at the Pioneer Flight Museum, Kingsbury, Texas.
- s/n 5083 is displayed at the San Diego Aerospace Museum with a Wright-Hispano E-2 with E-3 heads. It was previously part of Cole Palen's Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome Collection, in Rhinebeck, New York.
- One, s/n unknown, was being restored by John Barker, Contoocook, New Hampshire.
- One, s/n unknown, was being restored for the Golden Age Air Museum, Bethel, Pennsylvania.
Data from The Standard Aero Corporation Model J Training Tractor
- Crew: 2
- Length: 26 ft 7 in (8.10 m)
- Upper wingspan: 43 ft 11 in (13.39 m)
- Lower wingspan: 32 ft (9.8 m)
- Height: 10 ft 10 in (3.30 m)
- Wing area: 429 sq ft (39.9 m2)
- Airfoil: R.A.F No 3
- Empty weight: 1,350 lb (612 kg)
- Gross weight: 1,950 lb (885 kg)
- Fuel capacity: 31 US gal (26 imp gal; 120 L)
- Powerplant: 1 × Hall-Scott A-7 air-cooled straight-4 engine, 100 hp (75 kW)
- Maximum speed: 68 mph (109 km/h; 59 kn)
- Stall speed: 37 mph (60 km/h; 32 kn)
- Range: 350 mi (304 nmi; 563 km)
- Time to altitude: 10 minutes to 2,600 ft (790 m)
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- Radecki, Alan (2012). "The First Airline in America". Vintage Air. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft p.2835
- Taylor 1989, p.774
- United States Air Force Museum 1975, p. 7.
- Aviation April 1, 1917, pp. 216–217.
- Donald, David, ed (1997). Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Ontario: Prospero Books. p. 854.
- The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing.
- "Standard, Standard-Caproni, Standard-DH,Standard-Handley-Page, Gates-Day Standard". Aerofiles. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions.
- "The Standard Aero Corporation Model J Training Tractor". Aviation. Vol. II no. 5. April 1, 1917. pp. 216–217. (registration required (. ))
- United States Air Force Museum. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation. 1975.
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