||This article has an unclear citation style. (April 2013)|
|National origin||United States|
|Manufacturer||Standard Aircraft Corporation|
|Designer||Charles Healy Day|
|Developed from||Sloan H series|
The Standard J was a two-seat basic trainer two-bay biplane produced in the United States from 1916 to 1918 powered by a four-cylinder inline Hall-Scott A-7a engine. It was constructed from wood with wire bracing and fabric covering. The J-1 was built as a stopgap to supplement the Curtiss JN-4 in production.
Charles Healy Day had designed the preceding Sloan H series of aircraft and continued the line under the Standard Aero Corporation (later Standard Aircraft Corporation). Four companies, Standard, Dayton-Wright, Fisher Body, and Wright-Martin, delivered 1,601 J-1s between June 1917 and June 1918. The Standard J-1 can be differentiated from the Curtiss JN series by its slightly swept-back wing planform, triangular king posts above the upper wings, and the landing gear mounted behind the lower wing's leading edge.
Although produced in large numbers, its four-cylinder Hall-Scott A-7a engine was unreliable and vibrated badly. While JN-4 production outnumbered J-1s by about two to one to June 1918, fatalities in JN-4s versus J-1s was about seven to one as a result of the limited use of the J-1s. Few later production J-1s left their delivery crates. In June 1918, even while training was at a fever pitch, all Standard J-1s were grounded, and although considered for adaptation to the OX-5 engine used by the Curtiss JN-4, the $2,000 conversion cost was not cost-effective, and the supply of JN-4s was sufficient for training needs. Contracts for 2,600+ JS-1s were canceled, and those not used for ground instruction by the US Army were sold as surplus or scrapped. The manufacturer of its competitor (Curtiss JN series) bought surplus J-1s for modification to use different powerplant, and resale.
Many J-1s carried on with civilian flying schools, joy-riding, and barnstorming operations until they were worn out, or were forced into retirement by new air transport legislation in 1927 which banned wooden passenger transports.
- Sloan H series - trainers and reconnaissance aircraft from 1913
- Standard H series - production by Standard of Sloan H-series
- Standard J - first Standard-designed variant
- Standard J-1 - trainer for U.S. Army
- Standard SJ-1 - J-1 with additional pair of forward wheels to prevent noseovers
- Standard JR-1 - advanced trainer for US Army
- Standard JR-1B - mail carrier for US Post Office, modification of JR-1
- Standard E-4 - redesignated JR-1B mailcarrier
- Curtiss Night Mail - 1922 mailplane conversion of J-1 by Curtiss with new wings (about 6 converted)
- Lincoln Standard L.S.5 J-1 modified with an open cockpit for four passengers
- Nicholas-Beazley-Standard - J-1 aircraft modified by Nicholas-Beazley
- Ryan Standard - J-1 with a 180 hp Hispano Suiza engine and an enclosed cabin for four passengers fitted by the Ryan Flying Company (9 converted)
- Sikorsky Standard - civil trainer with Sikorsky-Gluhareff Parasol wing (also known as Standard SJ)
Over a dozen J-1s are on display or being restored. Others projects are incomplete and awaiting restoration.
- Two J-1s are on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio.
- A Hispano-Suiza J-1 (s/n 1956) is displayed at EAA AirVenture Museum.
- A OXX-6-powered J-1 (s/n 2434 registered and flown as N9477) is part of the collection of the Cass County, North Dakota's Bonanzaville, U.S.A. Museum but is currently on loan to the Fargo Air Museum.
- Hispano-Suiza 8-powered Standard J-1 s/n 581 is displayed and flown, at the Owl's Head Transportation Museum, Owls Head, Maine
- s/n 823H on loan to Glenn H. Curtiss Museum, Hammondsport, New York from the Henry Ford Museum,
- s/n 1000 James Hammond, Yellow Springs, Ohio
- s/n 1582 Kermit Weeks, is displayed at Fantasy of Flight in Polk City, Florida (composite of two aircraft)
- "N62505" Historic Aircraft Museum, Creve Coeur Airport, Missouri.
- s/n 1598 reported existent, location unknown
- s/n 2969 Michael Cilurso, Schnecksville, Pennsylvania (assembled from original components – period kit)
- s/n 4598 is displayed at the Pioneer Flight Museum, Kingsbury, Texas.
- s/n 5083 is displayed at the San Diego Aerospace Museum with a Wright-Hispano E-2 with E-3 heads. It was previously part of Cole Palen's Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome Collection, in Rhinebeck, New York.
- One, s/n unknown, was being restored by John Barker, Contoocook, New Hampshire.
- One, s/n unknown, was being restored for the Golden Age Air Museum, Bethel, Pennsylvania.
- Crew: 2
- Length: 26 ft 2 in (7.98 m)
- Wingspan: 43 ft 10 in (13.36 m)
- Height: 10 ft 10 in (3.30 m)
- Gross weight: 2,025 lb (920 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × Hall-Scott A-5, 175 hp (130 kW)
- Maximum speed: 72 mph (120 km/h)
- Cruise speed: 64 mph ( km/h)
- Stall speed: 40 mph ( km/h)
- Range: 350 miles (560 km)
- Service ceiling: 15,000 ft (4,600 m)
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Standard J.|
- Radecki, Alan (2012). "The First Airline in America". Vintage Air. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft p.2835
- Taylor 1989, p.774
- United States Air Force Museum 1975, p. 7.
- Harrison, Robert (1 Jan 1985). Aviation Lore in Faulkner. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 143. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- "Hispano-Suiza V-8, Model A". WINGS of EAGLES DISCOVERY CENTRE. Wings of Eagles Discovery Center. 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Donald, David, ed (1997). Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Ontario: Prospero Books. p. 854.
- The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing.
- "Standard, Standard-Caproni, Standard-DH,Standard-Handley-Page, Gates-Day Standard". Aerofiles. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions.
- United States Air Force Museum. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation. 1975.