Standard J

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Standard J
Standard J-1 USAF.jpg
Role Trainer
National origin United States
Manufacturer Standard Aircraft Corporation
Designer Charles Healy Day
First flight 1916
Number built 1,600+
Unit cost
$6,000
Developed from Sloan H series

The Standard J was a two-seat basic trainer two-bay biplane produced in the United States from 1916 to 1918, powered by a four-cylinder inline Hall-Scott A-7a engine. It was constructed from wood with wire bracing and fabric covering. The J-1 was built as a stopgap to supplement the Curtiss JN-4 in production.

Development[edit]

Charles Healy Day had designed the preceding Sloan H series of aircraft, and continued the line under the Standard Aero Corporation (later Standard Aircraft Corporation). Four companies, Standard, Dayton-Wright, Fisher Body, and Wright-Martin, delivered 1,601 J-1s between June 1917 and June 1918. The Standard J-1 can be differentiated from the Curtiss JN series by its slightly swept-back wing planform, triangular king posts above the upper wings, and the front legs of the landing gear which were mounted behind the lower wing's leading edge, just about where the forward wing spar of the lower wing panel attaches to the fuselage.

Operational history[edit]

Standard J-1 providing joyrides.

Although produced in large numbers, its four-cylinder Hall-Scott A-7a engine was unreliable and vibrated badly. While JN-4 production outnumbered J-1s by about two to one to June 1918, fatalities in JN-4s versus J-1s was about seven to one as a result of the limited use of the J-1s. Few later production J-1s left their delivery crates.

In June 1918, all Standard J-1s were grounded, although training remained intensive. Sufficient JN-4s were available to meet training needs, and at $2,000 per aircraft it was not cost-effective to convert them to use Curtiss OX-5 engines. Contracts for 2,600+ JS-1s were canceled, and those not used for ground instruction by the US Army were sold as surplus or scrapped. Curtiss, which produced its competitor (the Curtiss JN) bought surplus J-1s which they modified with different powerplants, for resale.

Many J-1s were flown by civilian flying schools, and for joy-riding and barnstorming operations, until they were worn out, or were forced into retirement by new air transport legislation in 1927 which banned passenger aircraft with wood structures due to a number of high-profile accidents.

Variants[edit]

Standard J, modified with an enclosed cabin by T. Claude Ryan, in flight over San Diego[1]
  • Sloan H series: trainers and reconnaissance aircraft from 1913
  • Standard H series: production by Standard of Sloan H-series
  • Standard J: first Standard-designed variant
  • Standard J-1: trainer for U.S. Army
  • Standard SJ-1: J-1 with additional pair of forward wheels to prevent noseovers
  • Standard JR-1: advanced trainer for US Army
  • Standard JR-1B: mail carrier for US Post Office, modification of JR-1
  • Standard E-4: redesignated JR-1B mailcarrier

War-surplus conversions[edit]

Operators[edit]

 United States

Survivors[edit]

Standard J-1 at the USAF Museum, showing the wing sweepback

Over a dozen J-1s are on display or being restored. Others projects are incomplete and awaiting restoration.

Specifications (SJ)[edit]

Standard J-1 with Hispano-Suiza engine

Data from The Standard Aero Corporation Model J Training Tractor[5]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 26 ft 7 in (8.10 m)
  • Upper wingspan: 43 ft 11 in (13.39 m)
  • Lower wingspan: 32 ft (9.8 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 10 in (3.30 m)
  • Wing area: 429 sq ft (39.9 m2)
  • Airfoil: R.A.F No 3
  • Empty weight: 1,350 lb (612 kg)
  • Gross weight: 1,950 lb (885 kg)
  • Fuel capacity: 31 US gal (26 imp gal; 120 L)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Hall-Scott A-7 air-cooled straight-4 engine, 100 hp (75 kW)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 68 mph (109 km/h; 59 kn)
  • Stall speed: 37 mph (60 km/h; 32 kn)
  • Range: 350 mi (304 nmi; 563 km)
  • Time to altitude: 10 minutes to 2,600 ft (790 m)

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c Radecki, Alan (2012). "The First Airline in America". Vintage Air. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  2. ^ The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft p.2835
  3. ^ Taylor 1989, p.774
  4. ^ United States Air Force Museum 1975, p. 7.
  5. ^ Aviation April 1, 1917, pp. 216–217.
Bibliography

External links[edit]