Staphylococcus warneri

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Staphylococcus warneri
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: cocci
Order: Bacillales
Family: Staphylococcaceae
Genus: Staphylococcus
Species: S. warneri
Binomial name
Staphylococcus warneri
Kloos & Schleifer 1975

Staphylococcus warneri is a member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus, consisting of Gram-positive bacteria with spherical cells appearing in clusters. It is catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, and coagulase-negative, and is a common commensal organism found as part of the skin flora on humans and animals. Like other coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. warneri rarely causes disease, but may occasionally cause infection in patients whose immune system is compromised.[1]

Identification[edit]

Colonies of S. warneri on trypticase soy agar are usually beige, tan, or yellow, sometimes with an orange rim and about 2–4 mm in diameter after 48 hours' incubation at 35°C. Optimal growth temperature is 30-40°C.

Clinical importance[edit]

S. warneri has been suggested as a cause of spontaneous abortion in cattle and humans.[2] It has been associated with vertebral discitis,[3] urinary tract infection,[4] meningitis,[5] orthopedic infections,[6] ventricular shunt infections,[7] and endocarditis.[8]

It has been suggested as the cause of a case of meningoencephalitis in a dog.[9]

Some past reports of serious infection with S. warneri may in fact represent misidentification of S. lugdunensis.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kloos, W. E.; Schleifer, K. H. (1975). "Isolation and Characterization of Staphylococci from Human Skin II. Descriptions of Four New Species: Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, and Staphylococcus simulans". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 25 (1): 62–79. doi:10.1099/00207713-25-1-62. ISSN 0020-7713. 
  2. ^ Barigye R, Schaan L, Gibbs PS, Schamber E, Dyer, NW (2007). Diagnostic evidence of Staphylococcus warneri as a possible cause of bovine abortion. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 19(6): 694-696
  3. ^ Announ N., Mattei J., Jaoua S., Fenollar F., Sati H., Chagnaud C., Roudier J., Guis S. (2004) Multifocal discitis caused by Staphylococcus warneri. Joint Bone Spine 71 (3) 240-242
  4. ^ Leighton PM, Little JA. (1986) Identification of coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolated from urinary tract infections. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 85(1):92-95
  5. ^ Incani RN, Hernández M, Cortez J, González ME, Salazar YD(2010) Staphylococcus warneri meningitis in a patient with Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection and lymphoma: first report of a case. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 52(3):169-170
  6. ^ Campoccia D, Montanaro L, Visai L, Corazzari T, Poggio C, Pegreffi F, Maso A, Pirini V, Ravaioli S, Cangini I, Speziale P, Arciola CR (2010) Characterization of 26 Staphylococcus warneri isolates from orthopedic infections. Int J Artif Organs 33(9):575-581
  7. ^ Martínez-Lage JF, Martínez-Lage Azorín L, Almagro MJ (2009) Staphylococcus warneri ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection: failure of diagnosis by ventricular CSF sampling. Childs. Nerv. Syst.
  8. ^ Stöllberger C, Wechsler-Fördös A, Geppert F, Gulz W, Brownstone E, Nicolakis M, Finsterer J. (2006) Staphylococcus warneri endocarditis after implantation of a lumbar disc prosthesis in an immunocompetent patient. J. Infect. 52(1):e15-18
  9. ^ Espino L, Bérmudez R, Fidalgo LE, González A, Miño N, Quiroga MI. (2006) Meningoencephalitis associated with Staphylococcus warneri in a dog. J Small Anim Pract. 47(10):598-602