Star (football badge)
In association football, some national and club sides include one or more stars as part of (or beside) the badge (often referred to as a "crest") appearing on their shirt, to represent important trophies the team has previously won. Often this is a unilateral decision by a team itself, rather than a specific privilege earned or sanctioned by any governing body and as such, the relevance of these stars on a club's shirt is somewhat tenuous.
The first team in association football history to adopt a star was Juventus, who added one above their badge in 1958 to represent their tenth Italian Football Championship and Serie A title. This was an extension of the existing convention by which the reigning champions are entitled to display the scudetto on their shirts for the following season. The star was later formally adopted by some organisations as a symbol for ten titles.
Juventus added a third star following their supposed 30th league title in 2011–12 but removed them all following a dispute with the Italian Football Federation, who stripped Juventus of their 2004–05 and 2005–06 titles due to their involvement in a 2006 Italian football scandal, leaving their official total at 28. Juventus have since won their 30th title in 2013-14 and thus earned the right to wear their third star, club president Andrea Agnelli stated that the club has suspended use of the stars until another team wins their 20th championship, thus having the right to wear two stars, "to emphasise Juventus' superiority".
The Turkish league introduced a similar scheme in 2000, with one star per five titles.
In 2003, Rangers F.C displayed five stars above the badge on their shirts to symbolise their 50 league titles.
Football in Germany has two official star systems operating in parallel. In 2004, the DFL, which governs the Bundesliga (the top 2 divisions), introduced Verdiente Meistervereine (roughly "distinguished champion clubs"). This has a sliding scale of 1, 2, 3, and 4 stars for 3, 5, 10, and 20 titles. It includes only Bundesliga titles, excluding titles from before the formation of the Bundesliga in 1963, and from the former East German League. Dynamo Berlin (playing in the fourth level) unilaterally began wearing three unapproved stars for its East German titles. In November 2005, the DFB, which governs non-Bundesliga football, allowed former champions playing outside the Bundesliga to display a single star inscribed with the number of titles. In 2007, Dynamo Berlin switched to a single approved star inscribed with the number 10. Greuther Fürth retains three silver stars on its club logo, but not on it shirts.
Major League Soccer's previously informal system, one star per MLS Cup title, was standardised in 2006, with the defending champions wearing the MLS Scudetto, like the Serie A system, for one season before adding a new star. Starting in 2012, the Scudetto was replaced with a single gold star worn above any other silver championship stars.
In Norway a team will display a star for every 10 titles in Tippeligaen. Rosenborg is the only team with more than 10 titles. Since 2006, all Swedish football clubs that have won ten or more Swedish championships have added a star above their badge. The same system has applied in the Dutch Eredivisie from the 2007–08 season onwards. This innovation was suggested by PSV, after the club won its twentieth title in 2007. Ajax currently have the right to wear three stars since they have won the league more than 30 times. PSV have the right to wear two stars with their 21 league titles, while Feyenoord and HVV Den Haag can add one for their 14 and 10 titles, respectively. HVV won all titles before 1915 and is currently playing in the fourth level of the Dutch league system. In Malta, Floriana, Valletta and Sliema Wanderers boast 2 Golden Stars on their badges having won 25, 20 and 26 titles, respectively, while Hibernians have one star thanks to their 10 titles. No other team in the Maltese League has the golden star on their badge.
Occasionally, stars are added to badges of successor or phoenix clubs for the achievements of defunct predecessors. An example of this is the Tampa Bay Rowdies. They added a star to represent the Soccer Bowl, the championship of the original NASL, won by the original Tampa Bay Rowdies in 1975. The club has since added a second star, after the new club won the 2012 edition of the resurrected Soccer Bowl in the new NASL. This approach is atypical: neither the Montreal Impact nor the Seattle Sounders FC franchises retained the stars worn by the old clubs when they joined the MLS.[nb 1] In the case of the Impact, the new team paid tribute to the former team's first title through the stripes on their badge.
As well as predecessor clubs, victories in the national leagues of defunct countries have also been represented by stars. FC Dynamo Kyiv have two stars, commemorating championships won in the Soviet and Ukrainian football league systems. The same is true of Belgrade clubs Partizan and Red Star who have won titles in Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro and present-day Serbia, while Spartak Moscow's stars refer to their Soviet Top League and Russian Football Premier League achievements.
The star has given rise to a byword to winning trophies. An example of this was when Fawaz Al-Hasawi, owner of Nottingham Forest, was quoted as saying "maybe [Nottingham Forest] will have a third star".
Brazil added three stars above their badge after winning their third World Cup in 1970. Italy did likewise in 1982. Germany added three in 1996, one in each of the German flag's colours. All world champions have since followed suit. Brazil and Italy have since added more stars, after they won later tournaments (cf. 1994, 2002, 2006), while Germany are the most recent nation to add a star, commemorating their 2014 triumph mere hours after victory in the Final.
Uruguay display four stars, regarding their triumphs in the 1924 and 1928 Olympics as equivalent to their later World Cup wins, as there was no World Cup at the time. Eurosport claim that FIFA only recognises the two World Cup wins, while the Daily Mail state that "when FIFA revised its constitution in 1950, they formally recognised that Uruguay were four-time world champions"
In the equipment regulations for FIFA competitions, section 18.2 states "Those Member Associations that have won the FIFA World Cup may put a symbol on the playing shirt representing this accomplishment and the number of times won." The form of symbol is not specified, although the accompanying illustrative example depicts a gold star.
Ad hoc adoptions
More recently, club teams have added stars either upon winning a landmark trophy, or in response to a rival team's having added stars. In the Romanian first league, Steaua uses 2 stars above their logo since they won their 20th title. Since then Dinamo added a star for the 18 championships they won. Manchester United sported a star in their UEFA Champions League matches on their special European home kit between 1997 and 1999. To celebrate their second victory that year, they added an extra star to that kit for the 1999–00 season. Liverpool likewise wore four stars in 2001–02, their first campaign in the competition since the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985. They wore five stars in the competition in 2004–05 after their fifth victory. Instead of stars, UEFA introduced a multiple winner badge in 2000–01 season, currently worn by five teams who have won the Champions League either five times or more in total, or three times in a row.
Occasionally, stars are temporarily added for one season, usually to commemorative kits to celebrate the anniversary of a particular event in the club's history. Burnley sported two stars on their 2006–07 shirt, for the club's 125th anniversary, to celebrate their two league titles in 1921 and 1960. Likewise Bury in 2009–10, also for their 125th anniversary, commemorating their 1900 and 1903 FA Cup triumphs. Bury have since revived the stars, from 2011–12, after a season's absence. Commemorating anniversaries in this way is not confined to English clubs: Peruvian side Universitario celebrated their 90th anniversary by adding 26 stars to their kits worn home and away. This is not a practice limited to clubs, as in 2004, Denmark wore a star on their shirts specially for Euro 2004, to commemorate their victory in the competition in 1992.
In women's football, the emerging ad hoc standard is to wear stars on the sleeve instead of above the badge. Two of the four teams that have won the FIFA Women's World Cup to date — Norway and Germany — use this practice, as did three-time Women's World Cup winners, the USA, until moving the stars to the back collar in 2007. The United States has returned its two stars to above the badge on their new uniforms for the 2011 Women's World Cup, and have added a third since their 2015 World Cup Championship.
The practice of using stars to signify major titles has spread to other football codes. For example, in rugby union, Toulon added a star above its badge after winning the Heineken Cup in 2013, and added a second star immediately after winning the same competition in 2014.
Excluding the temporary stars, the following teams have chosen to add stars to their shirts:
|Brazil||World Cup||1971||5||Third win was in 1970; fourth and fifth stars added after 1994 and 2002 wins. Briefly wore 2 stars on a tour of Europe in 1968.|
|Italy||World Cup||1982||4||Added after third win; fourth star added after the 2006 win. Incorporated into the badge since 2006.|
|Germany||World Cup||1996||4||Stars first added during Euro 1996 qualification, representing wins in 1954, 1974 and 1990. Worn above the badge. Fourth win was in 2014.|
|Uruguay||World Cup and Olympics||1930||4||Represent 2 World Cups (1930 & 1950) and 2 Olympic football titles (1924 & 1928) recognized de facto as FIFA World Championships.|
|Argentina||World Cup||2003||2||1978, Second win was in 1986.|
|England||World Cup||2003||1||Title won in 1966. Star added after a campaign on Sky Sports' Soccer AM programme, first worn on the sleeve.|
|France||World Cup||1998||1||Title won in 1998. Star added above their badge which was unveiled at their opening qualifying game for Euro 2000|
|Spain||World Cup||2010||1||Title won in 2010. Spain played in their away kit for the final, but upon winning the World Cup they changed into their home kit, complete with a star above the badge, for the presentation ceremony.|
|Egypt||Africa Cup of Nations||1986||7||Fifth star added after the 2006 African Cup victory. A sixth is due for the 2008 African Cup victory. A seventh is due for the 2010 African Cup victory|
|Cameroon||Africa Cup of Nations||2008||4||1984, 1988, 2000, Fourth win was in 2002.|
|Ghana||Africa Cup of Nations||2008||4||1963, 1965, 1978, Fourth win was in 1982.|
|Japan||Asian Cup||2011||4||1992, 2000, 2004, Fourth win was in 2011. For commemorative jerseys only.|
|DR Congo||Africa Cup of Nations||2002||2||1968, Second win was in 1974|
|Tunisia||Africa Cup of Nations||2004||1||Title won in 2004.|
|Ivory Coast||Africa Cup of Nations||1992||1||Title won in 1992.|
|Zambia||Africa Cup of Nations||2012||1||Title won in 2012. To be worn from 2012 onwards.|
|United States||Women's World Cup||1991||3||Worn on the chest, worn on the back collar between 2007 and 2011 and until early 2007 worn on the sleeve. Second star added 1999. Third star added 2015|
|Germany||Women's World Cup||2003||2||Until 2003 the three stars of the men's team had been worn. Second star added for their 2007 victory.|
|Norway||Women's World Cup||1995||1||Worn on the chest, Worn on the sleeve until 2015.|
|Japan||Women's World Cup||2011||1|
Note: Some women teams, like France, Italy or Brazil, wear the men's stars on their jersey.
|Western Sydney Wanderers||Australia||A-League||1||Winning the 2014 Asian Champions League|
|Central Coast Mariners||Australia||A-League||0 (previously 2)||Two A-League premierships 2007-08, 2011-12. This was instituted under manager Graham Arnold's instructions. He believed that the Mariners, who had not won an A-League Grand Final, were not given respect for winning two Premierships. After Arnold left the club and having won an A-League Grand Final, the stars were removed.|
|Dalian Shide||China PR||Chinese Jia-A League, Chinese Super League||8||One title per star.|
|Shandong Luneng||China PR||Chinese Jia-A League, Chinese Super League||4||One title per star.|
|Guangzhou Evergrande||China PR||Chinese Super League||3||One title per star.|
|Shenzhen Ruby||China PR||Chinese Super League||1||One title per star.|
|Changchun Yatai||China PR||Chinese Super League||1||One title per star.|
|Beijing Guoan||China PR||Chinese Super League||1||One title per star.|
|Shanghai Shenhua||China PR||Chinese Jia-A League||1||One title per star.|
|Persija Jakarta||Indonesia||Perserikatan and Liga Indonesia Premier Division||1||Nine Perserikatan titles and one Premier Division title in 2001.|
|Esteghlal FC||Iran||AFC Champions League||2||A star for each AFC Champions League triumph.|
|PAS Tehran||Iran||AFC Champions League||1||For their AFC Champions League triumph.|
|Gamba Osaka||Japan||AFC Champions League, J. League, Emperor's Cup, J. League Cup||8||A star for each major title. 1 AFC Champions League title, 2 J.League titles, 3 Emperor's Cups and 2 J.League Cups. Only 1 (for AFC Champions League) worn in continental competition.|
|Kashima Antlers||Japan||J. League, J. League Cup, Emperor's Cup||6 (1 + 5)||As the most successful Japanese football club, with 15 titles won, Kashima has 1 golden star above the badge (for the first 10 titles) and 5 stars on the left sleeve (for the subsequent 5 titles). Kashima has won the J.League a record 7 times, the J. League Cup a record 4 times and the Emperor's Cup 4 times.|
|Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma||Korea Republic||K-League First Division||7||One title per star.|
|Busan IPark||Korea Republic||K-League First Division||4||One title per star.|
|Pohang Steelers||Korea Republic||K-League First Division||4||One title per star.|
|Suwon Samsung Bluewings||Korea Republic||K-League First Division||4||One title per star.|
|Ulsan Hyundai||Korea Republic||K-League First Division||2||One title per star.|
|Jeonbuk Hyundai Motors||Korea Republic||K-League First Division||2||One title per star.|
|Ulsan Hyundai Mipo Dolphin||Korea Republic||Korea National League||3||One title per star.|
|Goyang KB||Korea Republic||Korea National League||3||One title per star.|
|Gangneung City||Korea Republic||Korea National League||1||One title per star.|
|Suwon City||Korea Republic||Korea National League||1||One title per star.|
|Incheon Korail||Korea Republic||Korea National League||1||One title per star.|
|Gyeongju Citizen||Korea Republic||Challengers League||2||One title per star.|
|Seoul United||Korea Republic||Challengers League||1||One title per star.|
|Yangju Citizen||Korea Republic||Challengers League||1||One title per star.|
|FC Pocheon||Korea Republic||Challengers League||1||One title per star.|
|Kelantan FA||Malaysia||Malaysian Super League||2||One title per star. Kelantan FA had won the MSL in 2011 & 2012.|
|Montreal Impact||Canada||USL First Division, A-League, American Professional Soccer League||3||Each star represents a league championship from 1994, 2004 and 2009. 2 stars were worn after the second league title in 2004 and a third star was added after their third title in 2009. The stars were removed when they joined Major League Soccer for the 2012 season; the four stars on the 2012 Impact logo do not represent championships, but instead the four founding communities of Montreal represented on the city's coat of arms.|
|Vancouver Whitecaps||Canada||USL First Division, North American Soccer League||3||2 stars are worn for their 2 championships in the USL First Division (2006, 2008) and one for the Vancouver Whitecaps (NASL) win in the Soccer Bowl of 1979. The stars were removed when they joined Major League Soccer for the 2011 season.|
|Saprissa||Costa Rica||Costa Rican league||2||Costa Rican most recent champions wear one star for every consecutive national league championship.|
|Firpo||El Salvador||La Primera||9||Each national title won.|
|Isidro Metapán||El Salvador||La Primera||6||Each national title won.|
|América||Mexico||Mexican league||12||One golden star per title, worn on a red stripe on the right sleeve, beginning the 2006-2007 "Apertura" Tournament.|
|Guadalajara||Mexico||Mexican league||11||One star per title.|
|Toluca||Mexico||Mexican league||10||One title per star.|
|Cruz Azul||Mexico||Mexican league||8||One title per star.|
|Puebla||Mexico||Mexican league and Mexican Cup||6 (2+4)||for 2 league titles; 4 outside for 4 cup titles.|
|Pachuca||Mexico||Mexican league + Copa Sudamericana||10 (5+5)||One title per star, plus 3 for CONCACAF Champions Cup titles, 1 for CONCACAF Champions League title and star for its title at the Copa Sudamericana.|
|Necaxa||Mexico||Mexican league||3||One title per star.|
|Atlante||Mexico||Mexican league||3||One Mexican League title per star.|
|UANL Tigres||Mexico||Mexican league||3||One title per star; 3 stars inside the badge.|
|Monterrey||Mexico||Mexican league + CONCACAF Champions League||7 (4+3)||One title per star plus 3 gold star for its title at the CONCACAF Champions League.|
|Santos Laguna||Mexico||Mexican league||4||One title per star.|
|Monarcas Morelia||Mexico||Mexican league||1||Title was Apertura 2000.|
|Tecos UAG||Mexico||Mexican league||1||Title won in 1994.|
|Atlas||Mexico||Mexican league||1||Title won in 1951.|
|Tijuana||Mexico||Mexican league||1||Title won in 2012|
|Real Estelí||Nicaragua||Nicaraguan Primera División||2||First two national championships won by the club (in 1991 and 1999).|
|Tauro F.C.||Panama||Liga Panameña de Fútbol||1||Represents 10 titles.|
|Puerto Rico Islanders||Puerto Rico||CFU Club Championship||2||One title per star.|
|Defence Force F.C.||Trinidad and Tobago||CONCACAF Champions League, CFU Club Championship and TT Pro League.||4 (2+1+1)||Two CONCACAF Champions League titles, One CFU Club Championship and one for at least ten league titles.|
|Los Angeles Galaxy||United States||MLS Cup||5||Titles won in 2002, 2005, 2011, 2012 and 2014.|
|D.C. United||United States||MLS Cup||4||Titles won in 1996, 1997, 1999, and 2004.|
|Houston Dynamo||United States||MLS Cup||2||Titles won in 2006 and 2007.|
|San Jose Earthquakes||United States||MLS Cup||2||Titles won in 2001 and 2003[nb 2]|
|Sporting Kansas City||United States||MLS Cup||2||Titles won in 2000 (as Kansas City Wizards) and 2013 (as Sporting Kansas City)|
|Chicago Fire||United States||MLS Cup||1||Title won in 1998.|
|Columbus Crew||United States||MLS Cup||1||Title won in 2008.|
|Real Salt Lake||United States||MLS Cup||1||Title won in 2009.|
|Colorado Rapids||United States||MLS Cup||1||Title won in 2010.|
|Seattle Sounders||United States||A-League, USL First Division||4||Two of each title achieved: A-League titles in 1995 and 1996, USL-1 champions in 2005 and 2007.|
|Tampa Bay Rowdies||United States||North American Soccer League championships||2||The team, which began play in 2010 as FC Tampa Bay in the D2 Pro League and now plays in the current North American Soccer League (NASL), added the first star to represent the Soccer Bowl, the championship of the original NASL, won by the original Tampa Bay Rowdies in 1975. A second star was added after the new club won Soccer Bowl 2012.|
|Minnesota United FC||United States||North American Soccer League championship||1||Title won in 2011.|
|Rochester Rhinos||United States||A-League, Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup||4||Four titles won in four seasons: their first championship was the A-League in 1998; victory in the 1999 Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup followed before the Rhinos picked up successive A-League titles in 2000 and 2001. Four stars were added in 2013.|
|San Antonio Scorpions FC||United States||North American Soccer League championship||1||Title won in 2014.|
|Cleveland City Stars||United States||USL Second Division championship||1||Cleveland won the 2008 USL Second Division championship and moved into the USL First Division for 2009, along with the Austin Aztex, to replace the departed Seattle Sounders and Atlanta Silverbacks. The team folded after the 2009 season.|
|Tulsa Roughnecks FC||United States||North American Soccer League championship||1||The team, which will begin play in 2015 in the USL Professional Division, added a star to the back of their inaugural kit to represent the original Tulsa Roughnecks' sole Soccer Bowl success, when victory in Soccer Bowl '83 resulted in them being crowned NASL champions.|
|Akron Zips||United States||NCAA Division I||1||Represents 2010 NCAA Division I Men's Soccer Championship.|
|Northern Kentucky Norse||United States||NCAA Division I||1||Represents club's 2010 NCAA Division II national championship. The team retained its star even after moving to Division I in 2012.|
|Vélez Sársfield||Argentina||Argentine League, Copa Libertadores , and Intercontinental Cup||11 (1+10)||Gold star for 1994 Intercontinental Cup over 10 blue stars for 6 Argentine and 4 international titles.|
|Estudiantes de La Plata||Argentina||Argentine League, Copa Libertadores , and Intercontinental Cup||11||5 Argentine league titles; 4 Copa Libertadores; 1968 Intercontinental and 1969 Interamerican Cups. An earlier badge had just four stars, for the Libertadores and Intercontinental titles. Tenth star added after Copa Libertadores 2009 victory.|
|Rosario Central||Argentina||Argentine league and CONMEBOL Cup||5 (4+1)||The middle star, for the CONMEBOL Cup, is larger. The previous badge had 5 blue stars and one larger yellow star; the extra small star was for the unofficial "1974 Argentinian Championship", a qualification playoff for the 1974 Copa Libertadores.|
|Newell's Old Boys||Argentina||Argentine league||7||One star per title, including one each for the 1990 Apertura and the 1990/91 Apertura/Clausura playoff.|
|Argentinos Juniors||Argentina||Argentine League, Copa Libertadores , and Interamerican Cup||5||3 Argentine League; 1985 Libertadores and 1986 Interamerican Cup|
|Boca Juniors||Argentina||Intercontinental Cup||3||Stars above the badge. The badge used 1970–2007 contained a star for each major title won: 30 in 1970, 46 when replaced as being too crowded. In 2007 the club changed its badge to include only 3 stars, one for each Intercontinental Cup and Club world title. Also the kit has a further star at the back of collar inscribed with 47, the current title count.|
|Quilmes AC||Argentina||Argentine league||2||Amateur title of 1912 and 1978 Metropolitano|
|Ferro Carril Oeste||Argentina||Argentine league||2||1982 Nacional and 1984 Nacional|
|Racing Club de Avellaneda||Argentina||Intercontinental Cup||1||Trophy won in 1967; star added for the fortieth anniversary.|
|Chacarita Juniors||Argentina||Argentine league||1||1969 Metropolitano|
|Joinville||Brazil||Campeonato Catarinense||12||12 titles won|
|Americano||Brazil||Campeonato da Cidade de Campos||9||For 9-in-a-row 1967–1975|
|Vasco da Gama||Brazil||Various Brazilian and South American||8||South American Club Championship 1948; Copa Libertadores 1998; Copa Mercosur 2000; 1974, 1989, 1997 and 2000 Brazilian Championships; unbeaten Campeão de Terra e Mar season in 1945|
|Palmeiras||Brazil||Campeonato Paulista, Brazilian Championship||8||8 titles won under the name "Palestra Itália" between 1920 and 1940. Others say it commemorates the eighth month (August) of 1914, when the club was founded. Previously wore 4 silver stars, one for each Brazilian championship conquered (1972, 1973, 1993, 1994)|
|Santa Cruz||Brazil||Pernambucan Championship||8 (3+5)||Club badge has 5 yellow stars for the 5-in-a-row (1969–73) and 3 stars for 3 "super-championships" (black for 1957, white for 1976, red for 1983).|
|São Raimundo (AM)||Brazil||Copa Norte, Campeonato Amazonense||7 (3 + 4)||3 red stars for Norte 3-in-a-row 1999–2001; 4 silver stars for Amazonas titles|
|Internacional (Porto Alegre)||Brazil||FIFA Club World Cup, Copa Libertadores, Brazilian Championship, Copa do Brasil||6 (1+5)||Silver star for 2006 World title, 5 gold stars for others, with the Libertadores star larger than the other 4 (3 Championships, 1 Copa).|
|Goiás EC||Brazil||Brazilian Série B and Goiás State Championship||2||2 silver stars, for the 1999 and 2012 Série B championships.|
|Náutico||Brazil||Campeonato Pernambucano||6||6-in-a-row won 1963–1968|
|Corinthians Paulista||Brazil||FIFA Club World Cup, Brazilian Championship||5 (1+4)||Larger star for the 2000 FIFA Club World Championship, above the other 4 stars for 4 Campeonato Brasileiro titles. The stars were removed for the 2011 season onwards.|
|América do Natal||Brazil||Copa Nordeste, Campeonato Potiguar||5 (1 + 4)||1 silver star for 1998 Nordeste; 4 yellow stars for Potiguar 4-in-a-row 1979–82|
|Fortaleza EC||Brazil||Campeonato Cearense and Copa Norte-Nordeste||6 (4+2)||4 blue stars for Cearense Championship 4-in-a-row in 2007-10; 2 yellow stars for wins of North/Northeast Cup in 1946 and 1970.|
|Vila Nova||Brazil||Campeonato Brasileiro Série C, Campeonato Goiano||5 (1 + 4)||1 yellow star for 1996 Brasileiro title; 4 red stars for Goiano 4-in-a-row between 1977–80.|
|Goiânia||Brazil||Campeonato Goiano||5||5-in-a-row won between 1950–1954.|
|Ceará||Brazil||Campeonato Cearense||5||5-in-a-row between 1915–19.|
|ABC||Brazil||Campeonato Potiguar||4||Sweep of all four categories in 1954: professional, amateur, junior, and youth leagues.|
|Colo-Colo (Ilhéus)||Brazil||Campeonato de Ilhéus||4||4-in-a-row between 1960–63.|
|São Paulo FC||Brazil||Intercontinental Cup, FIFA Club World Cup||3 (red stars; also 2 gold stars)||3 red stars represent 2 Intercontinental Cups (1992 and 1993) and 1 FIFA Club World Championship (2005). Also, 2 gold stars commemorate Adhemar da Silva's triple jump world records at the 1952 Olympics and the 1955 Pan American Games.|
|Grêmio Porto Alegre||Brazil||Intercontinental Cup, Libertadores Cup, Brazilian Championship, Copa do Brasil||3 (1+1+1)||The gold star on the badge was added in 1970 to honour Everaldo of the 1970 World Cup team. It also represents the 1983 Intercontinental Title. The silver star represents Continental titles (2 Libertadores and one Recopa); the bronze star represents Brazilian titles (2 Championships, 1 Serie B, and 4 Copas).|
|Criciuma EC||Brazil||Copa do Brasil; Série B; Série C||3[nb 3]||Copa won in 1991, Série B in 2002, Série C in 2006.|
|Fluminense||Brazil||Brazilian Championships||3||Titles won in 1970, 1984 and 2010.|
|Caxias (Santa Catarina)||Brazil||Campeonato Catarinense||3||Titles won in 1929, 1954, and 1955.|
|Galícia||Brazil||Campeonato Baiano||3||3 in-a-row won between 1941–1943.|
|União Barbarense||Brazil||Campeonato Brasileiro Série C, 2 others||3||Série C title won in 2004.|
|Santos FC||Brazil||Intercontinental Cup||2||Titles won in 1962, 1963.|
|EC Bahia||Brazil||Taça Brasil and Brazilian Championship||2||Taça won 1959, Championship won 1988.|
|Atlético Paranaense||Brazil||Brazilian Championship and Série B||2 (1 + 1)||Gold star for 2001 title; silver star for 1995 B title.|
|Sport Club do Recife||Brazil||Brazilian Championship, Série B and Brazilian Cup||3 (1+1+1)||A Gold star for Championship of 1987; a silver star for Série B 1990 and another Gold star for Brazilian Cup 2008.|
|EC Juventude||Brazil||Copa do Brasil and Brazilian Série B||2 (1+1)||Gold star for the 1999 Copa; silver star for 1994 Série B.|
|Paraná Clube||Brazil||Brazilian Série B||2||Official Série B of 1992 and Yellow Module of Copa João Havelange in 2000.|
|Paysandu SC||Brazil||2||Titles won in 1991 and 2001.|
|Brasiliense||Brazil||Brazilian Série B and Série C||2 (1+1)||Bronze star for C title won in 2002; silver star for B title won in 2004.|
|América Mineiro||Brazil||Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, Campeonato Mineiro||2 (1 + 1)||Gold star for 1997 Serie B title, red star for Mineiro 10-in-a-row between 1916–25.|
|CRAC||Brazil||Campeonato Goiano||2||Won in 1967 and 2004.|
|Grêmio Barueri||Brazil||Campeonato Paulista||2||2005 Série A3 title; 2006 Série A2 title|
|CR Flamengo||Brazil||Intercontinental Cup||1||Title won 1981. Stars for lesser titles were removed from badge in 2004.|
|Atlético Mineiro||Brazil||Brazilian Championship||1||Represents title won in 1971. Previously wore 3 stars (2 red and 1 gold), the 2 red stars for the 1992 and 1997 Copa CONMEBOL titles.|
|Coritiba||Brazil||Brazilian Championship||1||Represents title won in 1985.|
|Guarani FC||Brazil||Brazilian Championship||2||Represents title won in 1978 and Série B of 1981.|
|Paulista||Brazil||Copa do Brasil||1||Title won in 2005.|
|Santo André||Brazil||Copa do Brasil||1||Title won in 2004.|
|Gama||Brazil||Campeonato Brasileiro Série B||1||Title won in 1998.|
|Londrina||Brazil||Campeonato Brasileiro Série B||1||Title won in 1980.|
|Avaí||Brazil||Campeonato Brasileiro Série C||1||Title won in 1998.|
|Atlético Goianiense||Brazil||Campeonato Brasileiro Série C||1||Title won in 1990.|
|Rio Branco||Brazil||Copa Norte||1||Title won in 1997.|
|Anápolis||Brazil||Campeonato Goiano||1||Title won in 1965.|
|Bragantino||Brazil||Campeonato Paulista||1||Title won in 1990.|
|Brusque||Brazil||Campeonato Catarinense||1||Title won in 1992.|
|Goiatuba||Brazil||Goiás State Championship||1||Title won in 1992.|
|Ipatinga||Brazil||Campeonato Mineiro||1||Title won in 2005.|
|São Caetano||Brazil||Campeonato Paulista||1||Title won in 2004|
|Colo-Colo||Chile||Copa Libertadores||1||Trophy won in 1991.|
|Club Universidad de Chile||Chile||Copa Sudamericana||1||Trophy won in 2011.|
|O'Higgins de Rancagua||Chile||Chilean Primera Division||1||Title won in 2013 Apertura.|
|América de Cali||Colombia||Colombian league||13||One star per title.|
|Atlético Junior||Colombia||Colombian league||7||One star per title.|
|Once Caldas||Colombia||Colombian league and Copa Libertadores||5 (4+1)||Gold star over badge for libertadores; 4 stars within badge for one league each.|
|Barcelona SC||Ecuador||Ecuadorian Championship||14||Stars under the badge (one per title).|
|CS Emelec||Ecuador||Ecuadorian Championship||11||Stars under the badge (one per title).|
|LDU Quito||Ecuador||Each international title won||4||Fourth star added after Recopa Sudamericana 2010 victory.|
|Olimpia Asunción||Paraguay||Intercontinental Cup||1||Trophy won in 1979.|
|Cienciano||Peru||Copa Sudamericana and Recopa Sudamericana||2||Won in 2003 and 2004 respectively.|
|FBC Melgar||Peru||Peruvian Primera División||1||Peruvian championship title in 1981.|
|Juan Aurich||Peru||Peruvian Primera División||1||Peruvian championship titles won in 2011.|
|CD San Martín||Peru||Peruvian Primera División||3||Peruvian championship titles won in 2007, 2008 and 2010.|
|Sporting Cristal||Peru||Peruvian Primera División||3||Three consecutive titles in 1994–96.|
|Sport Boys||Peru||Peruvian Primera División||6||Stars under the badge (one per title).|
|Caracas FC||Venezuela||Primera División Venezolana||10||One title per star.|
|Deportivo Tachira||Venezuela||Primera División Venezolana||6||One title per star.|
|Deportivo Petare||Venezuela||Primera División Venezolana||5||One title per star, titles won as Deportivo Italchacao.|
|Portuguesa FC||Venezuela||Primera División Venezolana||5||One title per star.|
|Estudiantes de Mérida||Venezuela||Primera División Venezolana||2||One title per star.|
|Minervén FC||Venezuela||Primera División Venezolana||1||One title per star.|
|Unión Atlético Maracaibo||Venezuela||Primera División Venezolana||1||One title per star.|
|Deportivo Anzoátegui||Venezuela||Segunda División Venezolana||1||One title per star.|
|KF Tirana||Albania||Albanian Superliga||2||Each represents 10 titles.In total they won 24 titles.|
|Dinamo Tirana||Albania||Albanian Superliga||1||Represents 10 titles.In total they won 18 titles.|
|Partizani Tirana||Albania||Albanian Superliga||1||Represents 10 titles.In total they won 15 titles.|
|Rapid Vienna||Austria||Austrian Bundesliga||3||Each represents 10 titles.|
|FK Austria Wien||Austria||Austrian Bundesliga||2||Each represents 10 titles.|
|FC Wacker Innsbruck||Austria||Austrian Bundesliga||1||Represents 10 titles|
|Kapaz PFC||Azerbaijan||Azerbaijan Premier League||3||One golden star per each league championship.|
|FC Baku||Azerbaijan||Azerbaijan Premier League||2||One golden star per each league championship.|
|FC Inter Baku||Azerbaijan||Azerbaijan Premier League||2||One golden star per each league championship.|
|Neftchi Baku||Azerbaijan||Azerbaijan Premier League||1||Represents 5 league championships.|
|R.S.C. Anderlecht||Belgium||Belgian First Division||3||Each golden star represents 10 titles.|
|Club Brugge||Belgium||Belgian First Division||1||Represents 10 titles.|
|Standard Liège||Belgium||Belgian First Division||1||Represents 10 titles.|
|R.U. Saint-Gilloise||Belgium||Belgian First Division||1||Represents 10 titles. They won 11 titles in total. They currently play in Belgian Third Division B.|
|PFC CSKA Sofia||Bulgaria||Bulgarian A Professional Football Group||3||Added 3 stars because of their 30th league title in 2005.|
|SK Slavia Prague||Czech Republic||Gambrinus Liga||1||Represent 10 titles. 16th and 17th titles won respectively in 2007 and 2008.|
|AC Sparta Prague||Czech Republic||Gambrinus Liga||3||Represent 30 titles. 36th title won in 2014.|
|FK Dukla Prague||Czech Republic||Gambrinus Liga||1||Represent 10 titles. 11th title won in 1982 as Dukla Prague.|
|APOEL Nicosia||Cyprus||Cypriot First Division||2||Each represent 10 titles.|
|Omonoia Nicosia||Cyprus||Cypriot First Division||2||Each represent 10 titles.|
|BIF||Denmark||Danish Premier League||2||Gold star for every fifth championship.|
|F.C. København||Denmark||Danish Premier League||2||Gold star for every fifth championship.|
|AB||Denmark||Danish Premier League||1||Gold star for every fifth championship.|
|AGF||Denmark||Danish Premier League||1||Gold star for every fifth championship.|
|BK Frem||Denmark||Danish Premier League||1||Gold star for every fifth championship.|
|Esbjerg fB||Denmark||Danish Premier League||1||Gold star for every fifth championship.|
|Vejle BK||Denmark||Danish Premier League||1||Gold star for every fifth championship.|
|Aston Villa||England||European Cup||1||Title won in 1982. Star incorporated into the crest.|
|Bury||England||FA Cup||2||Titles won in 1900 and 1903.|
|Huddersfield Town||England||English First Division||3||First team to win English First Division 3 times an a row, between 1924 and 1926.|
|Ipswich Town||England||English First Division, FA Cup, UEFA Cup||3||Trophies won respectively in 1962, 1978 and 1981.|
|Nottingham Forest||England||European Cup||2||Two silver stars worn above the club crest to commemorate back to back European Cup victories, in 1979 and 1980.|
|FC Flora Tallinn||Estonia||Meistriliiga||1||Each represents 5 titles.|
|FC Levadia Tallinn||Estonia||Meistriliiga||1||Each represents 5 titles.|
|Helsingin Jalkapalloklubi||Finland||Veikkausliiga||2||Each represents 10 titles.|
|Nantes||France||French league||8||One title per star, incorporated into the crest.|
|Marseille||France||UEFA Champions League||1||Title won in 1993.|
|Saint-Étienne||France||French league||1||Represents 10 titles. Last won in 1981.|
|Bayern Munich||Germany||German Bundesliga||4||Represents 20 Bundesliga titles, the 1932 German championship win is not counted. Fourth star added after 2008 title|
|Borussia Mönchengladbach||Germany||German Bundesliga||2||Represents 5 titles.|
|Borussia Dortmund||Germany||German Bundesliga||2||Represents 5 titles. Second star added in 2012.|
|Werder Bremen||Germany||German Bundesliga||1||Represents 3 titles.|
|Hamburger SV||Germany||German Bundesliga||1||Represents 3 titles.|
|VfB Stuttgart||Germany||German Bundesliga||1||Represents 3 titles; added after third win.|
|Olympiacos||Greece||Super League Greece||4||Each represents 10 titles.|
|Ferencvárosi TC||Hungary||Hungarian Championship||2||Each represents 10 titles (28).|
|MTK||Hungary||Hungarian Championship||2||Each represents 10 titles (23).|
|Újpest FC||Hungary||Hungarian Championship||2||Each represents 10 titles (20).|
|Budapest Honvéd||Hungary||Hungarian Championship||1||Each represents 10 titles (13).|
|Valur||Iceland||Icelandic league||4||Each represents 5 titles.|
|Fram Reykjavík||Iceland||Icelandic league||3||Each represents 5 titles.|
|Knattspyrnufélag Reykjavíkur||Iceland||Icelandic league||5||Each represents 5 titles.|
|Knattspyrnufélagið Víkingur||Iceland||Icelandic league||1||Each represents 5 titles.|
|Íþróttabandalag Akraness||Iceland||Icelandic league||3||Each represents 5 titles.|
|FH Hafnarfjörður||Iceland||Icelandic league||1||Each represents 5 titles.|
|Wexford Youths F.C.||Ireland||FAI Youth Inter-League Cup||2||Titles won by Wexford Football League sides coached by Mick Wallace, founder of Wexford Youths F.C.; the junior league is a nursery for the senior club. Titles were won in 2004–5 and 2006–7. A third star is due for the 2007–8 victory.|
|Bohemian F.C.||Ireland||League of Ireland||1||Represents 10 titles. Tenth won in 2008.|
|Dundalk F.C.||Ireland||League of Ireland||1||Represents 10 titles. Tenth won in 2014.|
|Shamrock Rovers||Ireland||League of Ireland||1||Represents 10 titles. Tenth won in 1964; 15 held at time star was added.|
|Shelbourne||Ireland||League of Ireland||1||Represents 10 titles. Tenth won in 2002; 11 held at time star was added.|
|Limerick F.C.||Ireland||League of Ireland||2||1 title per star. 1959/60 and 1979/80.|
|Hapoel Tel Aviv||Israel||Israeli championships||2||Each represents 5 titles. (5 won Before the state of Israel was Formed)|
|Ironi Kiryat Shmona||Israel||Israeli championships||1||One title per star.|
|Maccabi Haifa||Israel||Israeli championships||1||Represents 10 titles. 12th Title won in 2011.|
|Maccabi Netanya||Israel||Israeli championships||5||One title per star.|
|Maccabi Tel Aviv||Israel||Israeli championships||4||Each represents 5 titles. (5 won Before the state of Israel was formed)|
|Juventus||Italy||Italian Serie A||3||Each represents 10 Italian Football Championship and Serie A titles. The first, added in 1958 by a Lega Calcio sentence, represents the first case in association football history which a star is used in the kits as a sporting and honorific symbol. Added another star following their supposed 30th league title in 2011–12 but removed them all following a dispute with the Italian Football Federation (FIGC), who stripped Juventus of their 2004–05 and 2005–06 titles due to the 2006 Italian Football scandal, leaving their official total at 29. Juventus have since won their 30th title in 2013-14 season and thus earned the right to wear the third star, club president Andrea Agnelli stated that the club has suspended use of the stars until another team wins their 20th championship, thus having the right to wear two stars, "to emphasise Juventus' superiority".|
|Internazionale||Italy||Italian Serie A||1||Represents 10 titles.|
|Milan||Italy||Italian Serie A||1||Represents 10 titles.|
|Sliema Wanderers||Malta||Maltese Premier League||2||Each star represents 10 titles.|
|Floriana||Malta||Maltese Premier League||2||Each star represents 10 titles.|
|Valletta||Malta||Maltese Premier League||2||Each star represents 10 titles.|
|Hibernians||Malta||Maltese Premier League||1||Represents 10 titles.|
|Ajax||Netherlands||Eredivisie and Dutch Championship (pre-1956)||3||Each star represents 10 titles.|
|PSV||Netherlands||Eredivisie and Dutch Championship (pre-1956)||2||Each star represents 10 titles.|
|Feyenoord||Netherlands||Eredivisie and Dutch Championship (pre-1956)||1||Represents 10 titles.|
|HVV Den Haag||Netherlands||Dutch Championship (pre-1956)||1||Represents 10 titles. Star incorporated into the crest.|
|Rosenborg||Norway||Norwegian league||2||Each star represents 10 titles.|
|Górnik Zabrze||Poland||Polish League||1||Gold star represents 10 or more titles.|
|Ruch Chorzów||Poland||Polish League||1||Gold star represents 10 or more titles.|
|Wisla Kraków||Poland||Polish League||1||Gold star represents 10 or more titles.|
|Legia Warszawa||Poland||Polish League||1||Gold star represents 10 or more titles.|
|Lech Poznań||Poland||Polish League||1||Silver star represents 5 to 9 titles.|
|ŁKS Łódź||Poland||Polish League||1||White star represents 1 to 4 titles.|
|Polonia Bytom||Poland||Polish League||1||White star represents 1 to 4 titles.|
|Śląsk Wrocław||Poland||Polish League||1||White star represents 1 to 4 titles.|
|Warta Poznań||Poland||Polish League||1||White star represents 1 to 4 titles.|
|Widzew Łódź||Poland||Polish League||1||White star represents 1 to 4 titles.|
|Zagłębie Lubin||Poland||Polish League||1||White star represents 1 to 4 titles.|
|S.L. Benfica||Portugal||Portuguese League||3||Each represents 10 titles. Announced in February 2008 for the following season, by which time a 31st title had been won.|
|Steaua Bucharest||Romania||Romanian League||2||Each star represents 10 titles.|
|Dinamo Bucharest||Romania||Romanian League||1||Represents 10 titles.|
|CSKA Moscow||Russia||Russian Premier League, Soviet Top League||2||Each star represents 5 titles.|
|Dynamo Moscow||Russia||Soviet Top League||2||Each star represents 5 titles.|
|Spartak Moscow||Russia||Russian Premier League, Soviet Top League||4||Each star represents 5 titles. Wore one star from 2003 to 2012 to commemorate their Russian Premier League wins, added another three in 2013 as Russian clubs are allowed to include their pre-1992 Soviet titles in the tally.|
|Zenit Saint Petersburg||Russia||Russian Premier League, Soviet Top League||1||Each star represents 5 titles.|
|Rangers||Scotland||Scottish League||5||Each star represents 10 titles; added after fiftieth title. The first football club in the world to win 50 titles.|
|Aberdeen||Scotland||European Cup Winners Cup and European Super Cup||2||Both trophies won in 1983.|
|Celtic||Scotland||European Cup||1||One European Cup win in 1967. One source, however, claims that the star represents the club's league titles.|
|East Fife||Scotland||Scottish Cup, Scottish League Cup||4||One Scottish Cup win in 1938 and three League Cup wins in 1948, 1950 and 1954.|
|Maribor||Slovenia||Slovenian PrvaLiga||1||The star represent 10 titles.|
|Partizan Belgrade||Serbia||Serbian SuperLiga, First League of Serbia and Montenegro, Yugoslav First League||2||Each star represents 10 titles.|
|Red Star Belgrade||Serbia||Serbian SuperLiga, First League of Serbia and Montenegro, Yugoslav First League||2||Each star represents 10 titles.|
|AIK||Sweden||Svenska Mästerskapet, Allsvenskan, Mästerskapsserien||1||Each star represents 10 times Swedish Champions.|
|Djurgårdens IF||Sweden||Svenska Mästerskapet, Allsvenskan||1||Each star represents 10 times Swedish Champions.|
|IFK Göteborg||Sweden||Svenska Mästerskapet, Allsvenskan, Allsvenskan play-offs, Mästerskapsserien||1||Each star represents 10 times Swedish Champions.|
|IFK Norrköping||Sweden||Allsvenskan, Allsvenskan play-offs||1||Each star represents 10 times Swedish Champions.|
|Malmö FF||Sweden||Allsvenskan||2||Each star represents 10 Allsvenskan titles.|
|Örgryte IS||Sweden||Svenska Mästerskapet, Allsvenskan play-offs||1||Each star represents 10 times Swedish Champions.|
|Grasshoppers||Switzerland||Swiss Super League||2||Each represents 10 titles.|
|FC Basel||Switzerland||Swiss Super League||1||Represents 10 titles.|
|Servette||Switzerland||Swiss Super League||1||Represents 10 titles.|
|Young Boys Bern||Switzerland||Swiss Super League||1||Represents 10 titles.|
|FC Zürich||Switzerland||Swiss Super League||1||Represents 10 titles.|
|Fenerbahçe||Turkey||Turkish Super League||3||Each represents 5 titles. Already have 19 titles.|
|Galatasaray||Turkey||Turkish Super League||4||Each represents 5 titles. Has 20 titles.|
|Beşiktaş JK||Turkey||Turkish Super League||2||Each represents 5 titles. Already have 13 titles.|
|Trabzonspor||Turkey||Turkish Super League||1||Represents 5 titles. Already have 6 titles.|
|Dynamo Kyiv||Ukraine||Ukrainian Premier League, Soviet Top League||2||Represents 10 Ukrainian (out of 13) titles and 10 USSR (out of 13) titles. Second star was added on 6 September 2007 for USSR champion titles.|
Stars that do not signify particular titles
American club Philadelphia Union has 13 stars that represent the 13 original colonies of the United States. Fellow Major League Soccer franchise Montreal Impact have four stars on their badge, which are symbolic of the nationalities of the peoples who founded the city of Montreal. The four nations are regularly used in Montreal imagery, as the city flag and coat of arms both reference them.
Manchester City's badge has three stars to give it a "more continental feel". The 3 stars do not represent titles or trophies. Sivasspor of Turkey also has three stars on their badge. They do not represent any championships either.
For the 2002–03 season, the badge of Greek club Panathinaikos F.C. had 3 stars. One gold representing the team's partaking in the 1971 European Cup Final, and 2 white stars representing the team's participation at the 1985 European Cup semi-finals and the 1996 UEFA Champions League semi-finals respectively. Because none of these stars represent titles or trophies, opposition fans in Greece mocked this.
The United States Soccer Federation has 3 stars within its badge, which is worn by all U.S. national teams, including the senior men's and women's teams. These stars, unequal in size and with pinwheel shading, are representative of the stars in the flag of the United States rather than to symbolize championship titles (almost all the badges/logos of the US national teams in every sport feature at least one star). The senior women's USSF team displays 3 monochromatic stars above the badge representing their three World Cup titles.
- The Seattle Sounders that played from 1994 to 2008 wore four stars, while the former Montreal Impact team wore three stars at the time of their move.
- Although the Earthquakes moved and became the Houston Dynamo, that team forfeited the history of the Earthquakes and became an effective expansion team, with the new Earthquakes re-joining in 2008 with the original team's identity and permission to use two sanctioned stars. This is similar to the relationship between the Cleveland Browns and Baltimore Ravens in American football.
- Criciúma EC has a total of four national titles, more than any other in Santa Catarina state. But the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B of 1986 is not recognized by Confederação Brasileira de Futebol, leaving them with just three stars.
- "FIFA awards special 'Club World Champion' badge to AC Milan". Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 7 February 2008. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Gladwell, Ben (6 May 2014). "Juventus won't add 3rd star to badge". ESPN FC. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- "Stuttgart holt ersten Stern" [Stuttgart gets first star] (in German). Bundesliga. 19 May 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2008.
- Kluempers, John (13 May 2005). "East Germany's Star Quality in Question". dw-world.de. Retrieved 6 May 2008.
- "Durchführungsbestimmungen" [Clothing instructions] (PDF). dfb.de (in German) (German Football Association). p. 54. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2008.
- "Kampioenssterren wijzen op historische roem" [Champions' stars show past glories] (in Dutch). Eredivisie. 11 May 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2007.
- "Reigning champions PSV display two stars on their shirts". PSV Eindhoven. 2 May 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2005.
“We have conceived a plan to not only introduce these two stars on the championship logo, but on the shirts as well”, explained PSV Manager Match Organisation Ron Verkerk. “We have made a proposal to the KNVB, the Royal Dutch Football Association and the ECV, the Association of Eredivisie clubs, and they have both independently responded enthusiastically.”
- "Rowdies unveil new logo". bizjournals.com (Tampa Bay Business Journal). 28 December 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "Montreal Impact Logo". sportslogos.net (Chris Creamer's Sports Logos Page). 7 August 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "Fawaz Al Hasawi aiming to guide Nottingham Forest back to Europe". Sky Sports (British Sky Broadcasting). 11 March 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- Joshua, Rick D. "1996-1998: The "Shield and Stars"". schwarzundweiss.co.uk. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- Drayton, John; Waugh, Chris (14 July 2014). "Germany's World Cup 2014 winning shirt emblazoned with four stars sells out within 12 hours of release". Daily Mail. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- "The 10 most infamous kits in World Cup history". uk.eurosport.yahoo.com (Eurosport). 4 June 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- Shergold, Adam (21 June 2014). "Luis Suarez's Uruguay have won the World Cup twice, so why do they have four gold stars above their crest?". Daily Mail. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- "Equipment Regulations: Regulations Governing the Sports Equipment at FIFA Competitions" (PDF). FIFA. 18 October 2003. pp. 30, §18.2. Retrieved 29 November 2009.[dead link]
- Bloomfield, Craig (14 June 2011). "Stars and gripes: clubs with ridiculous symbols on their shirts, including Man United, Liverpool, Ipswich and Huddersfield". Talksport (UTV Media). Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Universitario 90th Anniversary Umbro Special Edition Home Shirt". footballshirtculture.com. 14 September 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Universitario 90th Anniversary Umbro Special Edition Away Shirt". footballshirtculture.com. 14 September 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "NIKE US WOMEN'S NATIONAL TEAM (USWNT) 2011 KIT". soccerbible.com. 5 April 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "Wilkinson's name stitched into Toulon shirts". ESPN Scrum. 31 May 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
Toulon's shirts [for the 2014 Top 14 final] will also feature a second silver star above the club's crest, marking their back-to-back Heineken Cup titles.
- "Cronologia Histórica de Uniformes e Escudos da Seleção Brasileira" [Chronological history of the uniforms and badges of the Brazilian national team")] (PDF) (in Portuguese). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2007.
- "Evolução dos uniformes da Seleção Brasileira" [Evolution of the uniforms of the Brazilian national team")] (in Portuguese). CBF. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
- "Italy waiting to unveil fourth star on jerseys". Associated Press.
- "No doubts exist. Uruguay are four time FIFA World Champions".
- Doda, Zola (23 October 2013). "The star on Orlando Pirates badge explained". kickoff.com (South Africa). Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- Marthaler, Jon (5 March 2013). "New name, logo for pro soccer: "Minnesota United FC"". Star Tribune (Minneapolis). Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- Stellhorn, Ray (April 24, 2013). "The Kit Bag: USL PRO 2013 Part 2". recklesschallenge.net. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
- "Roughnecks Unveil Logo, Uniforms". uslsoccer.com (United Soccer Leagues). September 2, 2012. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "La Nueva Camiseta ("the new shirt")" (in Spanish). Vélez Sársfield. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2008.
Sobre el logo: 1 estrella de la Copa Intercontinental más 10 estrellas: 6 campeonatos locales y cuatro internacionales.
- "Institucional Símbolos : Su identidad simbólica" (in Spanish). Estudiantes. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Canullo, Emiliano (14 December 2004). "Basta de mentiras" [Enough lies] (in Spanish). canalla.com. Retrieved 4 May 2008.
Central tiene seis estrellas en su escudo, todas ganadas legítimamente [...], paso a enumerar: [...] Campeonato Argentino 1974 (ganando el triangular final que también jugaron Niubelt Ol Boi y San Lorenzo)
- Gorgazzi, Osvaldo José (5 October 2005). "Argentina 1974". RSSSF. Retrieved 4 May 2008.
- Newell's Old Boys official website (Spanish)
- "Nueva equipación Boca Juniors 07/08" (in Spanish). futboladicto. 2 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-09.
- "Boca Juniors: The logo". Archived from the original on 18 June 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2007.
- "La nueva camiseta de Boca" (in Spanish). Siempre Bostero. 1 August 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2007.
- Pasqualini, Luciano; Marcelo Leme de Arruda (24 May 2007). "Estrelas nos Escudos dos Clubes Brasileiros" (in Portuguese). RSSSF Brazil. Retrieved 2008-09-24.
- FLAG in Official symbols from Vasco da Gama official website. (Portuguese)
- Sport Club Internacional Symbols: The Crest from official website (Portuguese)
- Fortaleza EC symbols from official website (Portuguese)
- "Escudo: Como nasceram os nossos símbolos (Shield: How our symbols came to be)" (in Portuguese). São Paulo FC. Retrieved 2008-05-02.
- Everaldo: a star shining in the Tricolor flag from the Grêmio website. (Portuguese)
- Juventude logo from club website. (Portuguese)
- Corotiba Foot Ball Club Shield from official website (Portuguese)
- Once Caldas emblems: The crest(Spanish)
- "Aniversario: Este año Barcelona tendrá su estrella 14." (in Spanish). Barcelona SC. 2 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
estrella 14 del campeonato ha sido esquiva ("championship star number 14 has been elusive")
- "FC Bayern first club with four stars". bundesliga.de. DFL. 20 May 2008. Archived from the original on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2008.
- "PUMA & BORUSSIA DORTMUND LAUNCH 2012-13 FOOTBALL KITS". soccerbible.com. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "FERENCVAROS AND NIKE UNVEIL AWAY KIT FOR 2014-15 SEASON". nikeinc.com (Nike, Inc.). 6 August 2014. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
Above Ferencvaros’ club crest on the chest are two gold stars, which each represent 10 Hungarian titles. At the moment their overall total stands at 28 titles.
- "FAI Youth Inter-League Cup". FAI. 20 March 2006. Retrieved 2008-05-26.
- "Wexford retain FAI Umbro Inter League title". FAI. 10 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-26.
- "Latest News". Wexford Youths F. C. Supporters Club. Retrieved 2008-05-26.
In their first year taking part Wexford Youths FC [sic] have won the FAI Youth Cup — the premier Youth soccer club competition in the country. And in so doing we have added yet another star to our famous crest.[dead link]
- Novum (22 May 2007). "HVV krijgt ook gouden kampioensster" [HVV gets gold champion's star]. nieuws.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 20 November 2007.
- Vieira, Luís Filipe (28 February 2008). "Discurso Gala 104º Aniversário" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Estoril: S.L. Benfica. p. 2. Retrieved 2008-09-23.
Porque o Benfica é o único clube em Portugal a ter conquistado mais de trinta campeonatos, a nossa camisola do próximo ano terá três estrelas por cima do nosso símbolo, uma por cada 10 campeonatos conquistados.
- Moor, Dave. "Celtic". historicalkits.co.uk (Historical Football Kits). Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Glasgow Celtic Home Shirt 2013 - 2015". soccerbox.com. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
Above the club badge is a black star indicating the team’s amazing success in the Scottish Premiership, winning 45 league titles to date.
- "Grasshopper Club Zürich 2013/14 PUMA Home and Away Kits". footballfashion.org. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "CLUB HISTORY". philadelphiaunion.com (Philadelphia Union). Retrieved 2014-08-30.
- "Simbología Oficial — Imagen & Identidad Corporativa" (in Spanish). C.A. Peñarol. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
once estrellas, que representan a los jugadores que se encuentran en el campo de juego
- From the official 1997 press release at the badge's introduction; quoted in Hanssen, Svenn. "Manchester City: OFFICIALS AND HISTORY". Retrieved 2007-01-15..