Star Trek (Bantam Books)

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Star Trek
Star Trek by James Blish (1967).jpg

CountryUnited States
GenreScience fiction
PublisherBantam Books
Media typePrint (Paperback)
No. of books
  • 13 episode novelizations
  • 13 original novels
  • 12 photonovels
  • 2 anthologies
  • 3 reference works

In 1966 Bantam Books acquired the license to publish tie-in fiction based on the science fiction television series Star Trek.

Bantam initially published a series of thirteen novelizations, adapted from episodes of the television series, titled Star Trek 1 (1967)[1] through Star Trek 12 (1977) plus Mudd's Angels (1978). The series was written by James Blish, with the final two volumes co-written in part with his wife J. A. Lawrence. All 79 Star Trek original series television episodes were adapted.

From 1970 to 1981, a range of original novels, anthologies, and reference books followed. Bantam also produced a line of photo comics which adapted popular episodes of the television series using full-color photographic stills.

Many of Bantam's Star Trek books remained in print until 1991, when the first 12 volumes by Blish were republished as a 3 volume Omnibus edition, one volume for each television season.


Episode novelizations[edit]

Blish was known to have expressed an extreme dislike for tie-in fiction, however he accepted the commission from Bantam Books to novelise episodes of Star Trek, at $2,000 per volume.[2]:21, 324 He later stated his financial stability stemmed from the publication of the adaptations. Which likely included the commission for Spock Must Die! (1970), which earned him a $3,000 advance.[2]:358

Prior to his relocation to the United Kingdom in 1969, Blish had not seen the NBC broadcasts of Star Trek. Nor was he involved in the production of the series in any capacity. His personal feelings regarding the merit of Star Trek are expressed by the pun "an enterprise so well conceived" in the "Author's Note" to Spock Must Die! (1970).[3][2]:25 He also commented favourably about the show in the Preface to each volume. The adaptations written after 1970 aligned more with the narrative tone and pacing utilized by the television series, indicating Blish had seen at least some episodes in rebroadcasts in England, where the BBC began airing it in the summer of 1969.

Blish was credited exclusively on the first eleven volumes, although he acknowledged in the Preface to volume nine his indebtedness to Muriel Lawrence, who was both his secretary and his wife's mother, for her suggestions and advice concerning the text of Star Trek 6 onward. The twelfth and thirteenth volumes — Star Trek 12 (1977) and Star Trek: Mudd's Angels (1978) — were completed by his wife J. A. Lawrence after his death in 1975, and are co-credited to her.

Bantam editor Frederik Pohl was once thought[4] to have been unaware of Muriel Lawrence's contributions until just prior to publication of the eleventh volume. However, in light of the statements published in the preface to Star Trek 9, in 1973, this cannot have been so.

Adaptations of the episodes "Mudd's Women" and "I, Mudd", involving the popular character Harry Mudd, were reserved by Blish for inclusion in an original novel, a follow up to Spock Must Die! The novelisations were duly written by him, and are included in the thirteenth volume, Mudd's Angels[5] (published in 1978), which also contains the further adventures of Mudd, in an original novella entitled The Business, as Usual, During Altercations credited to his wife, the science fiction author Judith A Lawrence, who wrote it on his behalf to keep a promise he had made, when his death in 1975 prevented Blish from doing so himself.[6]

In his forewords to the fourteen books, Blish himself maintained a form of running commentary over the years on Star Trek, giving news of how he became involved with the novelisations (which began publication in 1967 while the show was still in production), news of the publication of Roddenberry's non-fiction volume The Making of Star Trek, of the 1969 cancellation of the show, of its revival in re-runs and at Conventions from 1970-72, publicising the campaign to revive the show on tv and directing his readers on how to send their letters to NBC's New York offices (instead of to him), reporting on the growth of the fan-network and on the founding of the Star Trek Welcommittee, reporting on the show's development into an animated tv series in 1973; and, in addition, he founded an entire Star Trek industry by writing the first ever original spin-off novel, Spock Must Die!, published in 1970.

Photo comics[edit]

In 1977, Bantam published the first volume in a series of full-color photo comics, adapting twelve popular episodes, including novelizations of "The City on the Edge of Forever" and "Amok Time", all credited to the original teleplay writers.

Marketed as a Star Trek Fotonovel ™[a], each book utilized still frames taken from the film master of the episode.[7] The images were then overlaid with speech bubbles inset with typeset text for dialogue, thoughts and stage directions. The format was referred to as "action photographs", and was popular during the 1970s, in an age before the availability of domestic video recorders.

Mandala Productions, who produced the series, said their goal was to publish "accurate and faithful recreations" of the episodes[8]: photographically that was certainly the case; but the dialogue was frequently altered to fit the available space.

Original novels[edit]

Frederik Pohl was given control of Bantam's Star Trek line in 1972, but he later admitted to not paying much attention to the television series, or the book line.[9]:10 When writer Joe Haldeman asked who was responsible for new Star Trek novels, Pohl answered, "You are!" According to Stephen Goldin, Pohl recruited writers whom he felt were dependable enough "to do Star Trek"[9]:17, i.e. without much editorial control. Among the first writers Pohl reached out to was his long-time friend Theodore Cogswell, with whom he was concerned only to be getting the crew of the Enterprise "off the damned ship!"[9]:14

The second original novel, Spock, Messiah!, by Cogswell and Charles Spano, was published in September 1976.[10] The Price of the Phoenix by Sondra Marshak and Myrna Culbreath, and Planet of Judgment by Joe Haldeman, followed in 1977.

After completing his second Star Trek novel, World Without End (1979), Haldeman was "fed up…" and left the Star Trek "enterprise" at "warp factor five", finding the work of writing in-universe stories too restraining.[9]:12 Haldeman told Jeff Ayers, in Voyages of Imagination (2006), that he wrote the first novel in order to explore writing where "all the main characters are already known to the readers", but that he had not expected to do a second.

Other writers recruited by Pohl felt differently about their experience. Gordon Eklund said that Star Trek left room "for just about anything you might want to write."[9]:20 Kathleen Sky, who wrote Vulcan! (1978) and Death's Angel (1981), said Paramount and Pohl made very few requests to her in writing her entries for the series, except to "add more aliens", and for the last novel to "give Kirk a romance."[9]:26

Thirteen original novels, including Spock Must Die!, were published by Bantam between 1970 and 1981.

Additionally during that period, Bantam also published three volumes of short stories: Mudd's Angels (which contained both novelisations of televised episodes by James Blish and an original novella by J A Lawrence), plus two collections of original short stories not based on televised scripts, by various new authors, edited by Sondra Marshak & Myrna Culbreath – published under the titles The New Voyages volumes I and II.

Anthologies and reference works[edit]

Writer Jacqueline Lichtenberg had begun research on the Star Trek phenomenon and fandom in the early 1970s. Her intention was to write a newspaper feature on the subject, but her research amassed enough material for a reference work. A query package was assembled and submitted to the major publishers, but the query was rejected by all, including Bantam Books. Following a delay in the production of a new novel from James Blish, Frederik Pohl acquired the query.[11] After two years of additional research, drafting and rewrites, Star Trek Lives! was published in 1975. A sequel has been suggested by Lichtenberg, but has never been realized.[12]

Star Trek Lives! was a bestseller, and Pohl began exploring the possibility of publishing an anthology of fan-written stories based on the television series. Fan fiction was explored in the last chapter of Star Trek Lives!, and co-writer Sondra Marshak, along with her writing partner Myrna Culbreath, had collected a number of fan-written stories to potentially anthologize. Pohl eventually encouraged Marshak and Culbreath to move forward with an anthology after persuading Paramount Pictures such a book would be "impeccably professional."[9]:12 The New Voyages was published in 1976, and collected nine short stories, all had been previously published in Star Trek fanzines, such as T-Negative, Spockanalia, and Tricorder Readings. A second volume, The New Voyages 2, was published in 1978, which included a short story written by Nichelle Nichols. Additional volumes were announced by Marshak and Culbreath, but none were published.[13]

Star Trek Maps, designed by Jeffrey Maynard, was published by Bantam in 1980. The box set included four four-color wall maps, and a detailed instructional booklet demonstrating the navigation system utilized by the television series. Highly praised, the charts received special mention during the 1992 Star Trek Exhibition presented by the National Air & Space Museum.[14]

Reprints and cover art[edit]

The novelizations by Blish and Lawrence were reprinted many times, often with new cover art. The first volume, Star Trek 1, received twenty-nine printings between 1967 and 1980.[15] Star Trek 11 was reprinted as Day of the Dove in 1985, along with the entire range of original novels, with new cover art by Eric Torres-Prat.[16][17]

From 1993 to 2000, the original novels and The New Voyages anthologies were reprinted by Spectra, featuring cover art by Japanese artist Kazuhiko Sano.[18] Mudd's Angels was reprinted as Mudd's Enterprise as part of that run.[19]

The adaptations and original novels have been translated and reprinted by various other publishers in Western Europe, Japan, Turkey and Israel.

License and rights[edit]

The license for tie-in fiction was awarded to Pocket Books sometime prior to the release of the novelization of Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979). However, three original novels, and one reference book, Star Trek Maps (1980), were published by Bantam following this change. Pocket Books opened their own line of original novels with the release of The Entropy Effect (1981), by Vonda N. McIntyre. None of the lines created by Bantam were continued.

The copyrights to Batam's episode novelizations, photo comics, and original novels are now held by CBS. As of August 2019, none of Bantam's Star Trek titles are commercially available in electronic formats. And all titles are out of print in both hardback and paperback.

The copyright and publishing rights for Star Trek Lives! have since reverted to the original authors. Lichtenberg has attempted to release the book in electronic formats. However, she has been unable to gain the necessary permissions from her co-writers (or in the case of Joan Winston, her estate).[20]


Star Trek (1967–1994)[edit]

Episode novelizations:

Title Author(s) Date Catalog/ISBN
Star Trek (a.k.a. Star Trek 1) James Blish January 1967 F3459
Star Trek 2 James Blish February 1968 F3439
Star Trek 3 James Blish April 1969 F4371
Star Trek 4 James Blish July 1971 S7009
Star Trek 5 James Blish February 1972 S7300
Star Trek 6 James Blish April 1972 S7364
Star Trek 7 James Blish July 1972 S7480
Star Trek 8 James Blish November 1972 SP7550
Star Trek 9 James Blish August 1973 SP7808
Star Trek 10 James Blish February 1974 SP8401
Star Trek 11 James Blish April 1975 Q8717
Star Trek 1[b] (variant) James Blish May 1975 Q2114
Star Trek 12 James Blish and J.A. Lawrence November 1977 0-553-11382-8
Mudd's Angels J.A Lawrence (and James Blish: uncredited[23]) May 1978 0-553-11802-1


  • "Mudd's Women", from teleplay by Stephen Kandel. Adapted by James Blish[24].
  • "I, Mudd", from teleplay by Stephen Kandel. Adapted by James Blish[25].
  • Business As Usual, During Altercations, novella by J.A. Lawrence (Mrs James Blish)
The Day of the Dove[c] (variant) James Blish October 1985 0-553-25169-4
Mudd's Enterprise[d] (variant) J.A Lawrence (and James Blish: uncredited[26]) November 1994 0-553-56982-1

The Classic Episodes (1991)[edit]

In 1991 Bantam published a collection of all the novelizations, as a three volume Omnibus edition, each volume containing one complete season of the television series. New material by D. C. Fontana and other Star Trek writers was included. The novelizations of "Mudd's Women" and "I, Mudd" (not being part of the original 12 volumes) were not included.

Title Author(s) Date ISBN Content
The Classic Episodes 1 James Blish and J. A. Lawrence August 1991 0-553-29138-6 The Season 1 episodes
The Classic Episodes 2 0-553-29139-4 The Season 2 episodes
The Classic Episodes 3 0-553-29140-8 The Season 3 episodes

Original novels (1970–1981)[edit]

Title Author(s) Date Catalog/ISBN
Spock Must Die! James Blish February 1970 H5515
Spock, Messiah! Theodore R. Cogswell and Charles A. Spano, Jr. September 1976 0-553-10159-5
The Price of the Phoenix Sondra Marshak and Myrna Culbreath July 1977 0-553-10978-2
Planet of Judgment Joe Haldeman August 1977 0-553-11145-0
Vulcan! Kathleen Sky September 1978 0-553-12137-5
The Starless World Gordon Eklund November 1978 0-553-12371-8
Trek to Madworld Stephen Goldin January 1979 0-553-12618-0
World Without End Joe Haldeman February 1979 0-553-12583-4
The Fate of the Phoenix Sondra Marshak and Myrna Culbreath May 1979 0-553-12779-9
Devil World Gordon Eklund November 1979 0-553-13297-0
Perry's Planet Jack C. Haldeman II February 1980 0-553-13580-5
The Galactic Whirlpool David Gerrold October 1980 0-553-14242-9
Death's Angel Kathleen Sky April 1981 0-553-14703-X

Reference works (1975–1980)[edit]

Title Author(s) Date Catalog/ISBN
Star Trek Lives! Jacqueline Lichtenberg, Sondra Marshak and Joan Winston July 1975 Y2151
Star Trek Puzzle Manual James Razzi, ed. October 1976 0-553-01054-9
Star Trek Maps Jeffrey Maynard, et al. August 1980 0-553-01202-9

Anthologies (1976–1978)[edit]

Title Editor(s) Date Catalog/ISBN
The New Voyages Sondra Marshak and Myrna Culbreath March 1976 X2719
The New Voyages 2 January 1978 0-553-11392-5

Star Trek Fotonovel (1977–78)[edit]

Photo comics:

No. Title Author(s) Date Catalog/ISBN
1 City on the Edge of Forever Harlan Ellison November 1977 0-553-11345-3
2 Where No Man Has Gone Before Samuel A. Peeples 0-553-11346-1
3 The Trouble With Tribbles David Gerrold December 1977 0-553-11347-X
4 A Taste of Armageddon Robert Hamner and Gene L. Coon January 1978 0-553-11348-8
5 Metamorphosis Gene L. Coon February 1978 0-553-11349-6
6 All Our Yesterdays Jean Lisette Aroeste March 1978 0-553-11350-X
7 The Galileo 7 Oliver Crawford and S. Bar-David May 1978 0-553-12041-7
8 A Piece of the Action David P. Harmon and Gene L. Coon June 1978 0-553-12022-0
9 The Devil in the Dark Gene L. Coon July 1978 0-553-12021-2
10 Day of the Dove Jerome Bixby August 1978 0-553-12017-4
11 The Deadly Years David P. Harmon September 1978 0-553-12028-X
12 Amok Time Theodore Sturgeon October 1978 0-553-12012-3

Related works[edit]

The Star Trek Reader (1976–1978)[edit]

The episode novelizations by Blish, including Spock Must Die! (1970), were collected in a four volume omnibus published by E. P. Dutton. Variants were also made available to the Science Fiction Book Club.

Title Author Date ISBN SFBC
The Star Trek Reader James Blish October 1976 0-8415-0467-9 3136
The Star Trek Reader II August 1977 0-525-20960-3 2351
The Star Trek Reader III September 1977 0-525-20961-1 2031
The Star Trek Reader IV March 1978 0-525-20962-X 3319

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Other Simon & Schuster photo comics were also marketed as Fotonovels ™. It is unclear if Simon & Schuster ever held that word mark.
  2. ^ Star Trek 1 (1975) is a variant of Star Trek (1967) by James Blish.
  3. ^ The Day of the Dove (1985) is a variant of Star Trek 12 (1975) by James Blish.
  4. ^ Mudd's Enterprise (1994) is a variant of Mudd's Angels (1978)


  1. ^ Originally titled simply Star Trek, but retitled when reprinted following publication of Star Trek 2
  2. ^ a b c Ketterer, David (September 1987). Imprisoned in a Tesseract : The Life and Work of James Blish. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87338-334-9.
  3. ^ Blish, James (February 1970). Spock Must Die!. H5515. New York: Bantam Books. pp. ix.
  4. ^ Ayers, Jeff (2006-11-14). Voyages of Imagination: The Star Trek Fiction Companion. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-1-4165-0349-1.
  5. ^ The title refers to the 1970s television series Charlie's Angels
  6. ^ Foreword to Star Trek 12 and Preface to Mudd's Angels
  7. ^ Biggers, Cliff (2013-12-11). Ryall, Chris (ed.). "Video Killed the Fotonovel Star". Star Trek Annual 2013. San Diego: IDW Publishing. pp. 44–47.
  8. ^ Ellison, Harlan (July 1977). The City on the Edge of Forever. New York: Bantam Books. Preface: "Dear Reader". ISBN 978-0-553-11345-7.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Ayers, Jeff (2006-11-14). Voyages of Imagination: The Star Trek Fiction Companion. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-1-4165-0349-1.
  10. ^ The first was Spock Must Die! (1970), by James Blish
  11. ^ Lichtenberg, Jacqueline (2000-04-03). "The WORLDS OF IF connection to STAR TREK and SIME~GEN". Sime~Gen. Sime~Gen Inc. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  12. ^ Pakulak, Lexie, ed. (1978). "An Interview with Jacqueline Lichtenberg". Axanar. Fanzine. Calgary. pp. 30–40.
  13. ^ Marshak, Sondra; Culbreath, Myrna (April 1984). "About the Authors". The Fate of the Phoenix. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-24638-4.
  14. ^ Barton, William A. (December 1980). Johnson, Forrest (ed.). "Capsule Reviews". Reviews. The Space Gamer. No. 34. Austin, Texas: The Space Gamer. p. 34. ISSN 0194-9977.
  15. ^ "Publication: Star Trek". ISFDB. Retrieved 2017-12-15.
  16. ^ "Publication: Day of the Dove". ISFDB. Retrieved 2016-12-13.
  17. ^ "Summary Bibliography: Enric". ISFDB. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  18. ^ "Summary Bibliography: Kazuhiko Sano". ISFDB. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  19. ^ "Publication: Mudd's Enterprise". ISFDB. Retrieved 2016-12-13.
  20. ^ Lichtenberg, Jacqueline (2012-04-17). Donoghue, Steve (ed.). "Notes for a Star Trek Bibliography: The End of an Era!". Stevereads. Disqus comment (published 2011-02-01). Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  21. ^ The Introduction to Mudd's Angels states that this episode was polished by Mrs Blish, based on a completed draft written by her husband
  22. ^ The Introduction to Mudd's Angels states that this episode was polished by Mrs Blish, based on a completed draft written by her husband
  23. ^ The Foreword to Star Trek 12 (1977) states explicitly that the two teleplays by Stephen Kandel were adapted by James Blish prior to his death in 1975, and that only the outstanding novella would be written by his wife Judith
  24. ^ The Foreword to Star Trek 12 states explicitly that the episode was adapted by James Blish
  25. ^ The Foreword to Star Trek 12 states explicitly that the episode was adapted by James Blish
  26. ^ The Foreword to Star Trek 12 (1977) states explicitly that the two teleplays by Stephen Kandel were adapted by James Blish prior to his death in 1975, and that only the outstanding novella would be written by his wife Judith

External links[edit]