The Star Wars franchise's logo, introduced in the original film A New Hope
|Created by||George Lucas|
|Original work||Star Wars (1977)|
|Novel(s)||List of novels|
|Comics||List of comics|
|Films and television|
|Video game(s)||List of video games|
|Radio program(s)||Star Wars|
|Original music||Music of Star Wars|
The franchise began in 1977 with the release of the film Star Wars (later subtitled Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981), which became a worldwide pop culture phenomenon. It was followed by the successful sequels The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Return of the Jedi (1983); these three films constitute the original Star Wars trilogy. A prequel trilogy was released between 1999 and 2005, which received mixed reactions from both critics and fans. A sequel trilogy began in 2015 with the release of Star Wars: The Force Awakens. All seven films were nominated for Academy Awards (with wins going to the first two films) and have been commercial successes, with a combined box office revenue of over US$7.5 billion, making Star Wars the third highest-grossing film series. Spin-off films include the animated Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008) and Rogue One (2016), the latter of which is the first in a planned series of anthology films.
The series has spawned an extensive media franchise including books, television series, computer and video games, theme park attractions, and comic books, resulting in significant development of the series' fictional universe. Star Wars also holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2015, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$42 billion, making Star Wars the second highest-grossing media franchise of all time.
In 2012, The Walt Disney Company bought Lucasfilm for US$4.06 billion and earned the distribution rights to all subsequent Star Wars films, beginning with the release of The Force Awakens in 2015. The former distributor, 20th Century Fox, retains the physical distribution rights for the first two Star Wars trilogies, owns permanent rights for the original 1977 film and continues to hold the rights for the prequel trilogy and the first two sequels to A New Hope until May 2020. Walt Disney Studios owns digital distribution rights to all the Star Wars films, excluding A New Hope.
- 1 Setting
- 2 Theatrical films
- 2.1 Original trilogy
- 2.2 Prequel trilogy
- 2.3 The Clone Wars
- 2.4 Sequel trilogy
- 2.5 Anthology films
- 3 In other media
- 4 Merchandising
- 5 Themes, comparisons and influences on other franchises
- 6 Cultural impact
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
The Star Wars franchise takes place in a distant unnamed fictional galaxy at an undetermined point in the ancient past, where many species of aliens (often humanoid) co-exist. People own robotic droids, who assist them in their daily routines, and Space travel is common.
The spiritual and mystical element of the Star Wars galaxy is known as "The Force". It is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things [that] surrounds us, penetrates us, [and] binds the galaxy together". The people who are born deeply connected to the Force have better reflexes; through training and meditation, they are able to achieve various supernatural feats (such as telekinesis, clairvoyance, precognition, and mind control). The Force is wielded by two major factions at conflict: the Jedi whom harness the light side of the Force, and the Sith whom use the dark side of the force through hate and aggression.
||It has been suggested that portions of this section be split out into another article titled List of Star Wars films and television series. (Discuss) (July 2017)|
|Film||Release date||Director(s)||Screenwriter(s)||Producer(s)||Distributor(s)||Running time|
|Original trilogy (Episodes IV-VI)|
|Episode IV –
A New Hope
||George Lucas||Gary Kurtz||20th Century Fox[a]||121 minutes|
|Episode V –
The Empire Strikes Back
||Irvin Kershner||Leigh Brackett and Lawrence Kasdan||124 minutes|
|Episode VI –
Return of the Jedi
||Richard Marquand||George Lucas and Lawrence Kasdan||Howard Kazanjian||133 minutes|
|Prequel trilogy (Episodes I-III)|
|Episode I –
The Phantom Menace
||George Lucas||George Lucas||Rick McCallum||20th Century Fox[a]||133 minutes|
|Episode II –
Attack of the Clones
||George Lucas and Jonathan Hales||142 minutes|
|Episode III –
Revenge of the Sith
||George Lucas||140 minutes|
|Sequel trilogy (Episodes VII-IX)|
|Episode VII –
The Force Awakens
||J. J. Abrams||Lawrence Kasdan, J. J. Abrams and Michael Arndt||Kathleen Kennedy, J. J. Abrams and Bryan Burk||Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures||135 minutes|
|Episode VIII –
The Last Jedi
||Rian Johnson||Kathleen Kennedy and Ram Bergman||TBA|
||J. J. Abrams||J. J. Abrams and Chris Terrio||Kathleen Kennedy, Michelle Rejwan and J. J. Abrams||TBA|
|Film||Release date||Director(s)||Screenwriter(s)||Producer(s)||Distributor(s)||Running time|
The Clone Wars
|August 15, 2008||Dave Filoni||Henry Gilroy, Steven Melching & Scott Murphy||George Lucas & Catherine Winder||Warner Bros.||98 minutes|
A Star Wars Story
||Gareth Edwards||John Knoll and Gary Whitta (story)
Chris Weitz and Tony Gilroy (screenplay)
|Kathleen Kennedy, Allison Shearmur & Simon Emanuel||Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures||133 minutes|
|Untitled Han Solo film||
||Ron Howard||Lawrence Kasdan and Jon Kasdan||TBA|
||This article's plot summary may be too long or excessively detailed. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
In 1971, Universal Studios made a contract for George Lucas to direct two films. In 1973, American Graffiti was completed, and released to critical acclaim including Academy Award nominations for Best Director and Original Screenplay for George Lucas. Months later, Lucas started work on his second film, by starting the script draft, The Journal of the Whills told the tale of the training of apprentice CJ Thorpe as a "Jedi-Bendu" space commando by the legendary Mace Windy. After Universal rejected the film, 20th Century Fox decided to invest on it. On April 17, 1973, Lucas felt frustrated about his story being too difficult to understand, so he began writing a 13-page script with thematic parallels to Akira Kurosawa's The Hidden Fortress, this draft was renamed The Star Wars. By 1974, he had expanded the script into a rough draft screenplay, adding elements such as the Sith, the Death Star, and a protagonist named Annikin Starkiller. Numerous subsequent drafts would go, through numerous drastic changes, before evolving into the script of the original film.
Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977. It was followed by The Empire Strikes Back, released on May 21, 1980, and Return of the Jedi, released on May 25, 1983. The opening crawl of the sequels disclosed that they were numbered as "Episode V" and "Episode VI" respectively, though the films were generally advertised solely under their subtitles. Though the first film in the series was simply titled Star Wars, with its 1981 re-release it had the subtitle Episode IV: A New Hope added to remain consistent with its sequel, and to establish it as the middle chapter of a continuing saga. The plot of the original trilogy centers on the Galactic Civil War of the Rebel Alliance trying to free the galaxy from the crutches of the Galactic Empire, as well as on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi.
A New Hope
Near the orbit of the desert planet Tatooine, a Rebel spaceship is intercepted by the Empire. Aboard, the deadliest Imperial agent Darth Vader and his stormtroopers capture Princess Leia Organa, a secret member of the rebellion. Before her capture, Leia makes sure the astromech R2-D2, along with the protocol droid C-3PO, escapes with stolen Imperial blueprints stored inside and a holographic message for the retired Jedi Knight Obi-Wan Kenobi, who has been living in exile on Tatooine. The droids fall under the ownership of Luke Skywalker, an orphan farm boy raised by his step-uncle and aunt. Luke helps the droids locate Obi-Wan, now a solitary old hermit known as Ben Kenobi, who reveals himself as a friend of Luke's absent father, the Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker. Obi-Wan confides to Luke that Anakin was "betrayed and murdered" by Vader (who was Obi-Wan's former Jedi apprentice) years ago, and he gives Luke his father's former lightsaber to keep. After viewing Leia's message, they both hire the smuggler Han Solo and his Wookiee co-pilot Chewbacca to, aboard their space freighter the Millennium Falcon, help them deliver the stolen blueprints inside R2-D2 to the Rebel Alliance with the hope of finding a weakness to the Empire's planet-destroying space station: the Death Star.
For The Star Wars second draft, Lucas made heavy simplifications. It added a mystical energy field known as "The Force" and introduced the young hero on a farm as Luke Starkiller. Annikin became Luke's father, a wise Jedi knight. The third draft killed the father Annikin, replacing him with mentor figure Ben Kenobi. Later, Lucas felt the film would not in fact be the first in the sequence, but a film in the second trilogy in the saga. The draft contained a sub-plot leading to a sequel about "The Princess of Ondos", and by that time some months later Lucas had negotiated a contract that gave him rights to make two sequels. Not long after, Lucas hired author Alan Dean Foster, to write two sequels as novels. In 1976, a fourth draft had been prepared for principal photography. The film was titled Adventures of Luke Starkiller, as taken from the Journal of the Whills, Saga I: The Star Wars. During production, Lucas changed Luke's name to Skywalker and altered the title to simply The Star Wars and finally Star Wars. At that point, Lucas was not expecting the film to have sequels. The fourth draft of the script underwent subtle changes it discarded "the Princess of Ondos" sub-plot, to become a self-contained film, that ended with the destruction of the Galactic Empire itself by way of destroying the Death Star. However, Lucas previously conceived of the film as the first of a series. The intention was that if Star Wars was successful, Lucas could adapt Dean Foster's novels into low-budget sequels. By that point, Lucas had developed an elaborate backstory to aid his writing process.
Before its release, Lucas considered walking away from Star Wars sequels, thinking the film would be a flop. However the film exceeded all expectations. The success of the film, as well as its merchandise sales, and Lucas desire to create an independent film-making center. Both led Lucas to make Star Wars the basis of an elaborate film serial, and use the profits to finance his film-making center, Skywalker Ranch. Alan Dean Foster was already writing the first sequel-novel Splinter of the Mind's Eye, released in 1978. But Lucas decided not to adapt Foster's work. Knowing a sequel, would be allowed more budget. At first, Lucas envisioned a series of films with no set number of entries, like the James Bond series. In an interview with Rolling Stone in August 1977, he said that he wanted his friends to each take a turn at directing the films and giving unique interpretations on the series. Also adding that the backstory in which Darth Vader turns to the dark side, kills Luke's father and fights Obi-Wan Kenobi on a volcano as the Galactic Republic falls would make an excellent sequel.
The Empire Strikes Back
Three years after the destruction of the Death Star, the Rebels are forced to evacuate their secret base on Hoth as they are hunted by the Empire. At the request of the late Obi-Wan's spirit, Luke travels to the swamp-infested world of Dagobah to find the exiled Jedi Master Yoda and begin his Jedi training. However, Luke's training is interrupted by Vader, who lures him into a trap by capturing Han and Leia at Cloud City, governed by Han's old friend Lando Calrissian. During a fierce lightsaber duel with the Sith Lord, Luke learns that Vader is his father.
After the success of the original film, Lucas hired science fiction author Leigh Brackett to write Star Wars II with him. They held story conferences and, by late November 1977, Lucas had produced a handwritten treatment called The Empire Strikes Back. It was similar to the final film, except that Darth Vader does not reveal he is Luke's father.
Brackett finished her first draft in early 1978; in it, Luke's father appeared as a ghost to instruct Luke. Lucas has said he was disappointed with it, but before he could discuss it with her, she died of cancer. With no writer available, Lucas had to write his next draft himself. It was this draft in which Lucas first made use of the "Episode" numbering for the films; Empire Strikes Back was listed as Episode II. As Michael Kaminski argues in The Secret History of Star Wars, the disappointment with the first draft probably made Lucas consider different directions in which to take the story. He made use of a new plot twist: Darth Vader claims to be Luke's father. According to Lucas, he found this draft enjoyable to write, as opposed to the yearlong struggles writing the first film, and quickly wrote two more drafts, both in April 1978. This new story point of Darth Vader being Luke's father had drastic effects on the series. After writing these two drafts, Lucas revised the backstory between Anakin Skywalker, Kenobi, and the Emperor.
With this new backstory in place, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy, changing Empire Strikes Back from Episode II to Episode V in the next draft. Lawrence Kasdan, who had just completed writing Raiders of the Lost Ark, was then hired to write the next drafts, and was given additional input from director Irvin Kershner. Kasdan, Kershner, and producer Gary Kurtz saw the film as a more serious and adult film, which was helped by the new, darker storyline, and developed the series from the light adventure roots of the first film.
Return of the Jedi
A year after Vader's shocking revelation, Luke leads a rescue attempt to save Han from the gangster Jabba the Hutt. Afterward, Luke returns to Dagobah to complete his Jedi training, only to find the 900-year-old Yoda on his deathbed. In his last words Yoda confirms that Vader is Luke's father, Anakin Skywalker, and that Luke must confront his father again in order to complete his training. Moments later, the spirit of Obi-Wan reveals to Luke that Leia is his twin sister, but Obi-Wan also insists that Luke must face Vader again. As the Rebels lead an attack on the Death Star II, Luke engages Vader in another lightsaber duel as Emperor Palpatine watches; both Sith Lords intend to turn Luke to the dark side of the Force and take him as their apprentice.
By the time Lucas began writing Episode VI in 1981 (then titled Revenge of the Jedi), much had changed. Making Empire Strikes Back was stressful and costly, and Lucas' personal life was disintegrating. Burned out and not wanting to make any more Star Wars films, he vowed that he was done with the series in a May 1983 interview with Time magazine. Lucas' 1981 rough drafts had Darth Vader competing with the Emperor for possession of Luke—and in the second script, the "revised rough draft", Vader became a sympathetic character. Lawrence Kasdan was hired to take over once again and, in these final drafts, Vader was explicitly redeemed and finally unmasked. This change in character would provide a springboard to the "Tragedy of Darth Vader" storyline that underlies the prequels.
After losing much of his fortune in a divorce settlement in 1987, George Lucas had no desire to return to Star Wars, and had unofficially canceled the sequel trilogy by the time of Return of the Jedi. At that point, the prequels were only still a series of basic ideas partially pulled from his original drafts of "The Star Wars". Nevertheless, technical advances in the late 1980s and 1990s continued to fascinate Lucas, and he considered that they might make it possible to revisit his 20-year-old material. After Star Wars became popular once again, in the wake of Dark Empire and other comics in Dark Horse's comic book line and Timothy Zahn's trilogy of novels, Lucas saw that there was still a large audience. His children were older, and with the explosion of CGI technology he was now considering returning to directing.
The prequel trilogy consists of Episode I: The Phantom Menace, released on May 19, 1999; Episode II: Attack of the Clones, released on May 16, 2002; and Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, released on May 19, 2005. The plot focuses on the fall of the Galactic Republic, as well as the tragedy of Anakin Skywalker's turn to the dark side.
The Phantom Menace
About 32 years before the start of the Galactic Civil War, the corrupt Trade Federation sets a blockade around the planet Naboo. The Sith Lord Darth Sidious had secretly planned the blockade to give his alter ego, Senator Palpatine, a pretense to overthrow and replace the Supreme Chancellor of the Republic. At the Chancellor's request, the Jedi Knight Qui-Gon Jinn and his apprentice, a younger Obi-Wan Kenobi, are sent to Naboo to negotiate with the Federation. However, the two Jedi are forced to instead help the Queen of Naboo, Padmé Amidala, escape from the blockade and plead her planet's crisis before the Republic Senate on Coruscant. When their starship is damaged during the escape, they land on Tatooine for repairs. Palpatine dispatches his first Sith apprentice, Darth Maul, to hunt down the Queen and her Jedi protectors. While on Tatooine, Qui-Gon discovers a nine-year-old slave named Anakin Skywalker. Qui-Gon helps liberate the boy from slavery, believing Anakin to be the "Chosen One" foretold by a Jedi prophecy to bring balance to the Force. However, the Jedi Council (led by Yoda) suspects the boy possesses too much fear and anger within him.
By 1993, it was announced, in Variety among other sources, that Lucas would be making the prequels. He began penning more to the story, now indicating the series would be a tragic one examining Anakin Skywalker's fall to the dark side. Lucas also began to change how the prequels would exist relative to the originals; at first they were supposed to be a "filling-in" of history tangential to the originals, but now he saw that they could form the beginning of one long story that started with Anakin's childhood and ended with his death. This was the final step towards turning the film series into a "Saga". In 1994, Lucas began writing the screenplay to the first prequel, initially titled Episode I: The Beginning. Following the release of that film, Lucas announced that he would also be directing the next two, and began work on Episode II.
Attack of the Clones
Ten years after the Battle of Naboo, Anakin is reunited with Padmé, now serving as the Senator of Naboo, and they fall in love despite Anakin's obligations to the Jedi Order. At the same time, the entire galaxy gets swept up in the Clone Wars between the armies of the Republic, led by the Jedi Order, and the Confederacy of Independent Systems, led by the fallen Jedi Count Dooku.
The first draft of Episode II was completed just weeks before principal photography, and Lucas hired Jonathan Hales, a writer from The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, to polish it. Unsure of a title, Lucas had jokingly called the film "Jar Jar's Great Adventure". In writing The Empire Strikes Back, Lucas initially decided that Lando Calrissian was a clone and came from a planet of clones which caused the "Clone Wars" mentioned by both Luke Skywalker and Princess Leia in A New Hope; he later came up with an alternate concept of an army of clone shocktroopers from a remote planet which attacked the Republic and were repelled by the Jedi. The basic elements of that backstory became the plot basis for Episode II, with the new wrinkle added that Palpatine secretly orchestrated the crisis.
Revenge of the Sith
Three years after the start of the Clone Wars, Anakin and Obi-Wan lead a rescue mission to save the kidnapped Chancellor Palpatine from Count Dooku and the droid commander General Grievous. Later, Anakin begins to have prophetic visions of his secret wife Padmé dying in childbirth. Palpatine, who had been secretly engineering the Clone Wars to destroy the Jedi Order, convinces Anakin that the dark side of the Force holds the power to save Padmé's life. Desperate, Anakin submits to Palpatine's Sith teachings and is renamed Darth Vader. While Palpatine re-organizes the Republic into the tyrannical Empire, Vader participates in the extermination of the Jedi Order; culminating in a lightsaber duel between himself and his former master Obi-Wan on the volcanic planet Mustafar.
Lucas began working on Episode III before Attack of the Clones was released, offering concept artists that the film would open with a montage of seven Clone War battles. As he reviewed the storyline that summer, however, he says he radically re-organized the plot. Michael Kaminski, in The Secret History of Star Wars, offers evidence that issues in Anakin's fall to the dark side prompted Lucas to make massive story changes, first revising the opening sequence to have Palpatine kidnapped and his apprentice, Count Dooku, murdered by Anakin as the first act in the latter's turn towards the dark side. After principal photography was complete in 2003, Lucas made even more massive changes in Anakin's character, re-writing his entire turn to the dark side; he would now turn primarily in a quest to save Padmé's life, rather than the previous version in which that reason was one of several, including that he genuinely believed that the Jedi were evil and plotting to take over the Republic. This fundamental re-write was accomplished both through editing the principal footage, and new and revised scenes filmed during pick-ups in 2004.
The Clone Wars
Lucas often exaggerated the amount of material he wrote for the series; much of it stemmed from the post‐1978 period when the series grew into a phenomenon. Michael Kaminski explained that these exaggerations were both a publicity and security measure. Kaminski rationalized that since the series' story radically changed throughout the years, it was always Lucas' intention to change the original story retroactively because audiences would only view the material from his perspective.
A sequel trilogy was reportedly planned (Episodes VII, VIII and IX) by Lucasfilm as a sequel to the original Star Wars trilogy (Episodes IV, V and VI), released between 1977 and 1983. While the similarly discussed Star Wars prequel trilogy (Episodes I, II and III) was ultimately released between 1999 and 2005, Lucasfilm and George Lucas had for many years denied plans for a sequel trilogy, insisting that Star Wars is meant to be a six-part series. In May 2008 , speaking about the upcoming Star Wars: The Clone Wars film, Lucas maintained his status on the sequel trilogy: "I get asked all the time, 'What happens after Return of the Jedi?,' and there really is no answer for that. The movies were the story of Anakin Skywalker and Luke Skywalker, and when Luke saves the galaxy and redeems his father, that's where that story ends."
In January 2012, Lucas announced that he would step away from blockbuster films and instead produce smaller arthouse films. Asked whether the criticism he received following the prequel trilogy and the alterations to the re-releases of the original trilogy had influenced his decision to retire, Lucas said: "Why would I make any more when everybody yells at you all the time and says what a terrible person you are?"
Despite insisting that a sequel trilogy would never happen, Lucas began working on story treatments for three new Star Wars films in 2011. In October 2012, The Walt Disney Company agreed to buy Lucasfilm and announced that Star Wars Episode VII would be released in 2015. Later, it was revealed that the three new upcoming films (Episodes VII–IX) would be based on story treatments that had been written by George Lucas prior to the sale of Lucasfilm. The co-chairman of Lucasfilm, Kathleen Kennedy became president of the company, reporting to Walt Disney Studios chairman Alan Horn. In addition, Kennedy will serve as executive producer on new Star Wars feature films, with franchise creator and Lucasfilm founder Lucas serving as creative consultant.
The sequel trilogy began with Episode VII: The Force Awakens, released on December 18, 2015.
The Force Awakens
About 30 years after the destruction of the Death Star II, Luke Skywalker has vanished following the demise of the new Jedi Order he was attempting to build. The remnants of the Empire have become the First Order, and seek to destroy Luke and the New Republic, while the Resistance opposes, led by princess-turned-general Leia Organa and backed by the Republic. On Jakku, Resistance pilot Poe Dameron obtains a map to Luke's location. Stormtroopers under the command of Kylo Ren, the son of Leia and Han Solo, capture Poe. Poe's droid BB-8 escapes with the map, and encounters a scavenger Rey. Kylo tortures Poe and learns of BB-8. Stormtrooper FN-2187 defects from the First Order, and frees Poe who dubs him "Finn", while both escape in a TIE fighter that crashes on Jakku, seemingly killing Poe. Finn finds Rey and BB-8, but the First Order does too; both escape Jakku in a stolen Millennium Falcon. The Falcon is recaptured by Han and Chewbacca, smugglers again since abandoning the Resistance. They agree to help deliver the map inside BB-8 to the Resistance.
The screenplay for Episode VII was originally set to be written by Michael Arndt, but in October 2013 it was announced that writing duties would be taken over by Lawrence Kasdan and J. J. Abrams. On January 25, 2013, The Walt Disney Studios and Lucasfilm officially announced J. J. Abrams as Star Wars Episode VII's director and producer, along with Bryan Burk and Bad Robot Productions.
The Last Jedi
On November 20, 2012, The Hollywood Reporter reported that Lawrence Kasdan and Simon Kinberg will write and produce Episodes VIII and IX. Kasdan and Kinberg were later confirmed as creative consultants on those films, in addition to writing standalone films. In addition, John Williams, who wrote the music for the previous six episodes, has been hired to compose the music for Episodes VII, VIII and IX.
On March 12, 2015, Lucasfilm announced that Looper director Rian Johnson would direct Episode VIII with Ram Bergman as producer for Ram Bergman Productions. Reports initially claimed Johnson would also direct Episode IX, but it was later confirmed he would write only a story treatment. Johnson later wrote on his Twitter that the information about him writing a treatment for Episode IX is old, and he's not involved with the writing of that film. When asked about Episode VIII in an August 2014 interview, Johnson said "it's boring to talk about, because the only thing I can really say is, I'm just happy. I don't have the terror I kind of expected I would, at least not yet. I'm sure I will at some point."
Principal photography on The Last Jedi began in February 2016. Additional filming took place in Dubrovnik from March 9 to March 16, 2016, as well as in Ireland in May 2016. Principal photography wrapped in July 2016. On December 27, 2016, Carrie Fisher died after going into cardiac arrest a few days earlier. Before her death, Fisher had completed filming her role as General Leia Organa in The Last Jedi. The film is to be released on December 15, 2017.
Production on Episode IX is scheduled to begin sometime in 2017. Variety and Reuters reported that Carrie Fisher was slated for a key role in Episode IX. Now, Lucasfilm, Disney and others involved with the film will need to find a way to address her death and what will become of her character. In January 2017, Lucasfilm stated they would not digitally generate Fisher's performance for the film. In April 2017, Todd Fisher and Billie Lourd gave Disney permission to use recent footage of Fisher for the film, but later that month, Kennedy stated that Fisher will not appear in the film. Principal photography of Star Wars: Episode IX is set to begin in June 2018.
On February 5, 2013, Disney CEO Bob Iger confirmed the development of two standalone films, each individually written by Lawrence Kasdan and Simon Kinberg. On February 6, Entertainment Weekly reported that Disney is working on two films featuring Han Solo and Boba Fett. Disney CFO Jay Rasulo has described the standalone films as origin stories. Kathleen Kennedy explained that the standalone films will not crossover with the films of the sequel trilogy, stating, "George was so clear as to how that works. The canon that he created was the Star Wars saga. Right now, Episode VII falls within that canon. The spin-off movies, or we may come up with some other way to call those films, they exist within that vast universe that he created. There is no attempt being made to carry characters (from the standalone films) in and out of the saga episodes. Consequently, from the creative standpoint, it's a roadmap that George made pretty clear."
In April 2015, Lucasfilm and Kennedy announced that the standalone films would be referred to as the Star Wars Anthology films. Rogue One: A Star Wars Story was released on December 16, 2016 as the first in an anthology series of films separate from the main episodic saga.
The story about the group of rebels who stole the Death Star plans, ending directly before Episode IV: A New Hope.
The idea for the film was conceived by John Knoll who worked as a visual effects supervisor of the prequel trilogy films. In May 2014, Lucasfilm announced Gareth Edwards as the director of the first anthology film, with Gary Whitta writing the first draft, for a release on December 16, 2016. On March 12, 2015, the film's title was revealed to be Rogue One, with Chris Weitz rewriting the script, and starring Felicity Jones, Ben Mendelsohn, and Diego Luna. In April 2015, a teaser trailer was shown during the closing of the Star Wars Celebration. Lucasfilm also announced filming would begin in the summer of 2015, and the plot synopsis. Director Edwards stated, "It comes down to a group of individuals who don't have magical powers that have to somehow bring hope to the galaxy."; and describing the style of the film as similar to that of a war film: "It's the reality of war. Good guys are bad. Bad guys are good. It's complicated, layered; a very rich scenario in which to set a movie." After its debut, Rogue One received generally positive reviews, with its performances, action sequences, soundtrack, visual effects and darker tone being praised. The film grossed over US$500 million worldwide within a week of its release. Characters from the animated series appear, Saw Gerrera (from The Clone Wars) in a pivotal role in the plot and Chopper (from Star Wars: Rebels) in a cameo.
Untitled Han Solo film
A film focusing on Han Solo before the events of Episode IV: A New Hope.
The script was written by Star Wars veteran Lawrence Kasdan, and his son Jon Kasdan. The film also stars Alden Ehrenreich as a young Han Solo, Joonas Suotamo as Chewbacca (after serving as a double for the character in The Force Awakens and The Last Jedi), Donald Glover as Lando Calrissian, and also Emilia Clarke and Woody Harrelson. Directors Phil Lord and Christopher Miller began principal photography on the film, but due to creative differences, the pair left the project in June 2017 with three and a half weeks remaining in principal photography. Academy Award-winning director Ron Howard was announced as their replacement. While his first Star Wars film, Howard had previously collaborated with producing company Lucasfilm as an actor in the George Lucas-directed film American Graffiti (1973) and as a director (Willow (1988). Howard was one of the three directors George Lucas asked to direct Episode I: The Phantom Menace, though Howard declined, saying, "George, you should do it!". The film is distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures and will be released on May 25, 2018.
Untitled Anthology film
On February 6, 2013, Entertainment Weekly reported that Lucasfilm hired Josh Trank to direct a Star Wars stand-alone film, with the news being confirmed soon after. However, in November 2016, Disney announced that their contract with Trank was terminated due to the overwhelmingly negative reviews of the Fantastic Four. It was reported that the film was still in early development at Lucasfilm, and it was rumored that the film would focus on bounty hunter Boba Fett. However Lucasfilm never confirmed what the plot was about, however it confirmed the film Josh Trank left was a different film from the Han Solo spin-off.
In August 2016, Ewan McGregor stated he would be open to return to the role of Obi-Wan Kenobi, albeit for a spin-off film on the character, should he be approached, wanting to tell a story between Episode III and IV. Fans showed interest in the idea; a fan-trailer for an Obi-Wan film, with footage from the film Last Days in the Desert (on which starred McGregor) became viral and widely praised by fans. The film was voted as the most wanted anthology film in a pool by The Hollywood Reporter despite being only rumors. Lucasfilm and McGregor have denied the development of such film, despite fans' continued interest, and rumors. Days before the Star Wars Rebels episode "Twin Suns" (where Obi-Wan appeared) aired, McGregor said again, that he would like to do it, if Lucasfilm wanted him to. Fellow cast member Joel Edgerton who played Luke Skywalker's step uncle, Owen, in the prequel trilogy, said he would like to reprise his role in an Obi-Wan standalone film, if it were to be made, and also expressed interest in playing Boba Fett without taking off the mask, in the rumored Boba Fett film. By August 2017, a film focusing on Obi-Wan Kenobi was reported to be in development, with Stephen Daldry in early talks to direct. The same report also said Lucasfilm was considering various films about different characters including movies focusing on Boba Fett, as well as Jedi Master Yoda. In 2015, director Guillermo Del Toro pitched on idea to Lucasfilm for a film about Jabba the Hutt, and by 2017, it was reported that it is among the projects being considered by the studio.
Samuel L. Jackson has expressed interest in returning as Mace Windu, insisting that his character survived his death. Fans have also expressed interest towards the possibility of Ahsoka Tano appearing in a live-action film, with Rosario Dawson expressing interest in the role. However, Lucasfilm still has not given an official confirmation on any of the rumored projects.
In other media
From 1977 to 2014, the term Expanded Universe ( abbreviated as EU), was an umbrella term for all officially licensed Star Wars storytelling materials set outside the events depicted within the theatrical films, including television series, novels, comics, and video games. Lucasfilm maintained internal continuity between the films and television content and the EU material until April 25, 2014, when the company announced all of the EU works would cease production. Existing works would no longer be considered canon to the franchise and subsequent reprints would be rebranded under the Star Wars Legends label, with downloadable content for the massively multiplayer online game Star Wars: The Old Republic being the only Legends material to still be produced. The Star Wars canon was subsequently restructured to only include the existing six feature films, the animated film Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008), and its companion animated series Star Wars: The Clone Wars. All future projects and creative developments across all types of media would be overseen and coordinated by the Story Group, announced as a division of Lucasfilm created to maintain continuity and a cohesive vision on the storytelling of the franchise. Lucasfilm announced that the change was made "to give maximum creative freedom to the filmmakers and also preserve an element of surprise and discovery for the audience". The animated series Star Wars Rebels was the first project produced after the announcement, followed by multiple comics series from Marvel, novels published by Del Rey, and the sequel film The Force Awakens (2015).
In the two-hour Star Wars Holiday Special produced for CBS in 1978, Chewbacca returns to his home planet of Kashyyyk to celebrate "Life Day" with his family. Along with the stars of the original 1977 film, celebrities Bea Arthur, Art Carney, Diahann Carroll, and Jefferson Starship appear in plot-related skits and musical numbers. The Holiday Special also features the first appearance of bounty hunter Boba Fett, in an 11-minute animated sequence. Lucas loathed the special and forbade it to ever be aired again after its original broadcast, or reproduced on home video. The television film Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure aired on ABC on Thanksgiving weekend in 1984. With a story by Lucas and a screenplay by Bob Carrau, it features the Ewok Wicket from Return of the Jedi as he helps two children rescue their parents from a giant known as Gorax. The 1985 sequel, Ewoks: The Battle for Endor, finds Wicket and his friends protecting their village from invaders.
The animated series Star Wars: Droids (1985–1986), which aired for one season on ABC, follows the adventures of the droids C-3PO and R2-D2, 15 years before the events of the 1977 film Star Wars. Its sister series Star Wars: Ewoks (1985–1987) features the adventures of the Ewoks before Return of the Jedi and the Ewok movies.
Depicting events between the prequel films Attack of the Clones and Revenge of the Sith, Star Wars: Clone Wars aired on the Cartoon Network from 2003 to 2005, and won Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Animated Program in 2004 and 2005.
A new CGI-animated series Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008–2014) was introduced, set in the same time period as the previous Clone Wars series and related to the 2008 animated film of the same name. It was followed by the current CGI-animated series Star Wars Rebels, which debuted on Disney XD in 2014. Set between Revenge of the Sith and A New Hope, the series follows a band of rebels as they fight the Galactic Empire. The Clone Wars, its originating film, and Rebels were accepted as part of the canon by Lucasfilm when previous works were reassigned to the Legends brand in 2014.
Potential television projects
A parody animated series called Star Wars Detours was produced prior to the Disney acquisition, but its release was postponed in 2013 and it ultimately never aired, despite 39 episodes having been completed and 62 additional scripts finished. A live-action television project has also been in varying stages of development at Lucasfilm since 2005, when Lucas announced plans for a television series set between the prequel and original trilogies. Producer Rick McCallum revealed the working title, Star Wars: Underworld, in 2012, and said in 2013 that 50 scripts had been written. He called the project "The most provocative, the most bold and daring material that we've ever done." The proposed series explores criminal and political power struggles in the decades prior to A New Hope, and as of December 2015 was still in development at Lucasfilm.
Star Wars-based fiction predates the release of the first film, with the 1976 novelization of Star Wars (ghost-written by Alan Dean Foster and credited to Lucas). The first Expanded Universe story appeared in Marvel Comics' Star Wars #7 in January 1978 (the first six issues of the series having been an adaptation of the film), followed quickly by Alan Dean Foster's novel Splinter of the Mind's Eye the following month.
Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker, the 1976 novelization of Star Wars: A New Hope by Alan Dean Foster, was followed by Foster's Splinter of the Mind's Eye (1978), an alternate sequel commissioned by Lucas. The film novelizations for The Empire Strikes Back (1980) by Donald F. Glut and Return of the Jedi (1983) by James Kahn followed, as well as The Han Solo Adventures trilogy (1979–1980) by Brian Daley, and The Adventures of Lando Calrissian (1983) trilogy by L. Neil Smith.
The bestselling Thrawn trilogy (1991–1993) by Timothy Zahn reignited interest in the franchise and introduced the popular characters Grand Admiral Thrawn, Mara Jade, Talon Karrde, and Gilad Pellaeon. The first novel, Heir to the Empire, reached #1 on the New York Times Best Seller list, and the series finds Luke, Leia, and Han facing off against tactical genius Thrawn, who is plotting to retake the galaxy for the Empire. Though Thrawn was designated a Legends character in 2014, he was reintroduced into the canon in the 2016 third season of Star Wars Rebels. In The Courtship of Princess Leia (1994) by Dave Wolverton, set immediately before the Thrawn trilogy, Leia considers an advantageous political marriage to Prince Isolder of the planet Hapes, but she and Han ultimately marry. Steve Perry's Shadows of the Empire (1996), set in the as-yet-unexplored time period between The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi, was part of a multimedia campaign that included a comic book series and video game. The novel introduced the crime lord Prince Xizor, another popular character who would appear in multiple other works. Other notable series from Bantam include the Jedi Academy trilogy (1994) by Kevin J. Anderson, the 14-book Young Jedi Knights series (1995–1998) by Anderson and Rebecca Moesta, and the X-wing series (1996–2012) by Michael A. Stackpole and Aaron Allston.
Del Rey took over Star Wars book publishing in 1999, releasing what would become a 19-installment novel series called The New Jedi Order (1999–2003). Written by multiple authors, the series was set 25 to 30 years after the original films and introduced the Yuuzhan Vong, a powerful alien race attempting to invade and conquer the entire galaxy. The bestselling multi-author series Legacy of the Force (2006–2008) chronicles the crossover of Han and Leia's son Jacen Solo to the dark side of the Force; among his evil deeds, he kills Luke's wife Mara Jade as a sacrifice to join the Sith. The story parallels the fallen son of Han and Leia, Ben Solo/Kylo Ren, in the 2015 film The Force Awakens. Three series were introduced for younger audiences: the 18-book Jedi Apprentice (1999–2002) chronicles the adventures of Obi-Wan Kenobi and his master Qui-Gon Jinn in the years before The Phantom Menace; the 11-book Jedi Quest (2001–2004) follows Obi-Wan and his own apprentice, Anakin Skywalker in between The Phantom Menace and Attack of the Clones; and the 10-book The Last of the Jedi (2005–2008), set almost immediately after Revenge of the Sith, features Obi-Wan and the last few surviving Jedi.
Marvel Comics published a Star Wars comic book series from 1977 to 1986. Original Star Wars comics were also serialized in the Marvel magazine Pizzazz between 1977 and 1979. The 1977 installments were the first original Star Wars stories not directly adapted from the films to appear in print form, as they preceded those of the Star Wars comic series. From 1985–1987, the animated children's series Ewoks and Droids inspired comic series from Marvel's Star Comics line.
In the late 1980s, Marvel dropped a new Star Wars comic it had in development, which was picked up by Dark Horse Comics and published as the popular Dark Empire sequence (1991–1995). Dark Horse subsequently launched dozens of series set after the original film trilogy, including Tales of the Jedi (1993–1998), X-wing Rogue Squadron (1995–1998), Star Wars: Republic (1998–2006), Star Wars Tales (1999–2005), Star Wars: Empire (2002–2006), and Knights of the Old Republic (2006–2010).
After Disney's acquisition of Lucasfilm, it was announced in January 2014 that in 2015 the Star Wars comics license would return to Marvel Comics, whose parent company, Marvel Entertainment, Disney had purchased in 2009. Launched in 2015, the first three publications in were titled Star Wars, Star Wars: Darth Vader, and the limited series Star Wars: Princess Leia.
The first official licensed Star Wars electronic game was Kenner's 1979 table-top Star Wars Electronic Battle Command. The first licensed Star Wars video game was Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back, published in 1982 for the Atari 2600 by Parker Brothers. Atari's 1983 rail shooter arcade game Star Wars was based on the 1977 film and used vector graphics. The next game, Return of the Jedi (1984), was based on the third film and used more traditional raster graphics. The third game, The Empire Strikes Back (1985), was a remake of the first game and based on the second movie.
In 1993, LucasArts released its first Star Wars video game and first space flight simulation game, Star Wars: X-Wing, after publishing several World War II flight combat games. X-Wing was one of the best-selling games of 1993, and established its own series of games.
Released in 1995, Dark Forces was the first Star Wars first-person shooter video game. A hybrid adventure game incorporating puzzles and strategy, it also featured new gameplay features and graphical elements not then common in other games, made possible by LucasArts' custom-designed game engine, called the Jedi. The game was well received and well reviewed, and was followed by four sequels. Dark Forces introduced the popular character Kyle Katarn, who would later appear in multiple games, novels, and comics. Katarn is a former Imperial stormtrooper who joins the Rebellion and ultimately becomes a Jedi, a plot arc similar to that of Finn in the 2015 film The Force Awakens.
- Star Wars: Shadows of the Empire (1996) is a Lucasfilm multimedia project set in the as-yet-unexplored time period between The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi that included a novel by Steve Perry, a comic book series, a video game, and toys.
- The Force Unleashed (2008–2010) is a similar project, set between Revenge of the Sith and A New Hope, that includes a 2008 novel, a 2008 video game and its 2010 sequel, a graphic novel, a role-playing game supplement, and action figures.
Radio and audio drama
A 13-episode radio adaptation of the original 1977 film written by science fiction author Brian Daley and directed by John Madden was first broadcast on National Public Radio in 1981. Lucas, a fan of the NPR-affiliated campus radio station at his alma mater the University of Southern California, licensed the Star Wars radio rights to KUSC-FM for US$1. Mark Hamill and Anthony Daniels reprised their roles from the film. The production used John Williams' original score from the films and Ben Burtt sound designs from the film. The broadcast was an overwhelming success, and a 10-episode adaptation of The Empire Strikes Back followed in 1982, with Hamill and Daniels joined by Billy Dee Williams. Return of the Jedi was adapted into six episodes in 1996, featuring Daniels.
In 1983, Buena Vista Records released an original, 30-minute Star Wars audio drama titled Rebel Mission to Ord Mantell, written by Daley. In the 1990s, Time Warner Audio Publishing adapted several Star Wars series from Dark Horse Comics into audio dramas: the three-part Dark Empire saga, Tales of the Jedi, Dark Lords of the Sith, the Dark Forces trilogy, and Crimson Empire (1998).
Theme park attractions
Before Disney's acquisition of the franchise, George Lucas had established a partnership in 1986 with the company's Imagineering division to create an attraction at Disney parks. The first such attraction, Star Tours, opened at Disneyland in 1987, with several versions opening at other Disney theme parks over the following years. The Star Tours rides at Disneyland and Disney's Hollywood Studios closed in 2010, while Tokyo Disneyland's version closed in 2012 and Disneyland Paris' in 2016. All of the original Star Tours rides were then refurbished into Star Tours–The Adventures Continue. The new attraction randomly shuffles several scenes, allowing up to 54 combinations of different adventures. The successor attraction opened at Disney's Hollywood Studios and Disneyland in 2011, at Tokyo Disneyland in 2013, and at Disneyland Paris in 2017.
From 1997 to 2015, Disney's Hollywood Studios park hosted Star Wars Weekends, an annual festival, during specific dates from May to June. Since 2007, the parks include the live show Jedi Training: Trials of the Temple, where children are selected to learn the teachings of the Jedi Knights and the Force to become Padawan learners; the show is present at Disney's Hollywood Studios and at the Tomorrowland Terrace at Disneyland. Since November 2015, Disneyland hosts a seasonal Star Wars-themed event entitled Season of the Force, which also runs in Disney's Hollywood Studios in Walt Disney World. An exhibition called Star Wars Launch Bay, featuring exhibits and meet-and-greets was also added.
Disney, which now owns the Star Wars franchise, expressed plans to expand the franchise's presence in all of their theme parks since August 2014. At that time, there were rumors to include a major Star Wars-themed expansion to Disney's Hollywood Studios. When asked whether or not Disney has an intellectual property franchise that's comparable to Harry Potter at Universal theme parks, Disney chairman and CEO Bob Iger mentioned Cars, Disney Princesses, and promised that Star Wars, "is going to be just that." Iger formally announced a 14-acre Star Wars-themed land expansion at the 2015 D23 Expo. In the 2017 D23, it was revealed that the area would be named Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge. The area will debut at Disneyland and Disney's Hollywood Studios at an unspecified date—will include two new attractions inspired by the Millennium Falcon and "a climactic battle between the First Order and the resistance". A Star Wars-themed hotel, a deluxe resort to be built near Disney's Hollywood Studios, was also announced at the 2017 D23 Expo.
|Title||Parks||Debut date||Final date|
|Star Tours||Disneyland||January 9, 1987||July 27, 2010|
|Tokyo Disneyland||July 12, 1989||April 2, 2012|
|Disney's Hollywood Studios||December 15, 1989||September 7, 2010|
|Disneyland Paris||April 12, 1992||March 16, 2016|
|Star Wars Weekends||Disney's Hollywood Studios||1997||2015|
|Star Wars: Where Science Meets Imagination||Multiple locations||October 19, 1015||March 23, 2014|
|Jedi Training Academy||Disneyland||July 1, 2006||November 15, 2015|
|Disney's Hollywood Studios||October 9, 2007||October 5, 2015|
|Star Tours – The Adventures Continue||Disney's Hollywood Studios||May 20, 2011||-|
|Disneyland||June 3, 2011||-|
|Tokyo Disneyland||May 7, 2013||-|
|Disneyland Paris||March 26, 2017||-|
|Star Wars Launch Bay||Disneyland||November 16, 2015||-|
|Disney's Hollywood Studios||December 4, 2015||-|
|Shanghai Disneyland Park||June 16, 2016||-|
|Jedi Training: Trials of the Temple||Disney's Hollywood Studios||December 1, 2015||-|
|Disneyland||December 8, 2015||-|
|Disneyland Paris||July 11, 2015||-|
|Hong Kong Disneyland||June 25, 2016||-|
|Star Wars: A Galactic Spectacular||Disney's Hollywood Studios||June 17, 2016||-|
The success of the Star Wars films led the franchise to become one of the most merchandised franchises in the world. In 1977, while filming the original film, George Lucas decided to take a 500,000-dollar pay-cut to his own salary as director, in exchange for fully owning the merchandising rights of the franchise to himself. Over the franchise's lifetime, such exchange cost 20th Century Fox, more than US$20 billion in merchandising revenue profits. Disney acquired the merchandising rights when part of purchasing Lucasfilm.
Kenner made the first Star Wars action figures to coincide with the release of the film, and today the remaining 80's figures sell at extremely high prices in auctions. Since the 90's Hasbro holds the rights to create action figures based on the saga. Pez dispensers have been produced. Star Wars was the first intellectual property to be licensed in Lego Group history, which has produced a Star Wars Lego theme. Lego has produced animated parody short films to promote their sets, among them Revenge of the Brick (2005) and The Quest for R2-D2 (2009), the former parodies Revenge of the Sith, while the later The Clone Wars film. Due to their success, LEGO created animated comedy mini-series among them The Yoda Chronicles (2013-2014) and Droid Tales (2015) originally airing on Cartoon Network, but since 2014 moved into Disney XD. The Lego Star Wars video games are critically acclaimed best sellers.
In 1977 with the board game Star Wars: Escape from the Death Star (not to be confused with another board game with the same title, published in 1990). The board game Risk has been adapted to the series in two editions by Hasbro: and Star Wars Risk: The Clone Wars Edition (2005) and Risk: Star Wars Original Trilogy Edition (2006).
Three different official tabletop role-playing games have been developed for the Star Wars universe: a version by West End Games in the 1980s and 1990s, one by Wizards of the Coast in the 2000s, and one by Fantasy Flight Games in the 2010s.
Star Wars trading cards have been published since the first "blue" series, by Topps, in 1977. Dozens of series have been produced, with Topps being the licensed creator in the United States. Some of the card series are of film stills, while others are original art. Many of the cards have become highly collectible with some very rare "promos", such as the 1993 Galaxy Series II "floating Yoda" P3 card often commanding US$1 000 or more. While most "base" or "common card" sets are plentiful, many "insert" or "chase cards" are very rare. From 1995 until 2001, Decipher, Inc. had the license for, created and produced a collectible card game based on Star Wars; the Star Wars Collectible Card Game (also known as SWCCG).
Themes, comparisons and influences on other franchises
Aside from its well-known science fictional technology, Star Wars features elements such as knighthood, chivalry, and princesses that are related to archetypes of the fantasy genre. The Star Wars world, unlike fantasy and science-fiction films that featured sleek and futuristic settings, was portrayed as dirty and grimy. Lucas' vision of a "used future" was further popularized in the science fiction-horror films Alien, which was set on a dirty space freighter; Mad Max 2, which is set in a post-apocalyptic desert; and Blade Runner, which is set in a crumbling, dirty city of the future. Lucas made a conscious effort to parallel scenes and dialogue between films, and especially to parallel the journeys of Luke Skywalker with that of his father Anakin when making the prequels.
Comparisons with historical events
Star Wars contains many themes of political science that mainly favor democracy over dictatorship. Political science has been an important element of Star Wars since the franchise first launched in 1977. The plot climax of Revenge of the Sith is modeled after the fall of the democratic Roman Republic and the formation of an empire.
The stormtroopers from the movies share a name with the Nazi stormtroopers (see also Sturmabteilung). Imperial officers' uniforms also resemble some historical German Army uniforms (see Wehrmacht) and the political and security officers of the Empire resemble the black clad SS down to the imitation silver death's head insignia on their officer's caps. World War II terms were used for names in Star Wars; examples include the planets Kessel (a term that refers to a group of encircled forces), Hoth (Hermann Hoth was a German general who served on the snow laden Eastern Front), and Tatooine (Tataouine - a province south of Tunis in Tunisia, roughly where Lucas filmed for the planet; Libya was a WWII arena of war). Palpatine being Chancellor before becoming Emperor mirrors Adolf Hitler's role as Chancellor before appointing himself Dictator. The Great Jedi Purge alludes to the events of The Holocaust, the Great Purge, the Cultural Revolution, and the Night of the Long Knives. In addition, Lucas himself has drawn parallels between Palpatine and his rise to power to historical dictators such as Julius Caesar, Napoleon Bonaparte, and Adolf Hitler. The final medal awarding scene in A New Hope, however, references Leni Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will. The space battles in A New Hope were based on filmed World War I and World War II dogfights.
Continuing the use of Nazi inspiration for the Empire, J. J. Abrams, the director of Star Wars: The Force Awakens, has said that the First Order, an Imperial offshoot which will possibly serve as the main antagonist of the sequel trilogy, is also inspired by another aspect of the Nazi regime. Abrams spoke of how several Nazis fled to Argentina after the war and he claims that the concept for the First Order came from conversations between the scriptwriters about what would have happened if they had started working together again.
The Star Wars saga has had a significant impact on modern popular culture. Star Wars references are deeply embedded in popular culture; Phrases like "evil empire" and "May the Force be with you" have become part of the popular lexicon. The first Star Wars film in 1977 was a cultural unifier, enjoyed by a wide spectrum of people. The film can be said to have helped launch the science fiction boom of the late 1970s and early 1980s, making science fiction films a blockbuster genre or mainstream. This very impact also made it a prime target for parody works and homages, with popular examples including Spaceballs, Family Guy's Laugh It Up, Fuzzball, Robot Chicken's "Star Wars Episode I", "Star Wars Episode II" and "Star Wars Episode III", and Hardware Wars by Ernie Fosselius.
In 1989, the Library of Congress selected the original Star Wars film for preservation in the U.S. National Film Registry, as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant." Its sequel, The Empire Strikes Back, was selected in 2010. Despite these callings for archival, it is unclear whether copies of the 1977 and 1980 theatrical sequences of Star Wars and Empire—or copies of the 1997 Special Edition versions—have been archived by the NFR, or indeed if any copy has been provided by Lucasfilm and accepted by the Registry.
The Star Wars saga has inspired many fans to create their own non-canon material set in the Star Wars galaxy. In recent years, this has ranged from writing fan-fiction to creating fan films. In 2002, Lucasfilm sponsored the first annual Official Star Wars Fan Film Awards, officially recognizing filmmakers and the genre. Because of concerns over potential copyright and trademark issues, however, the contest was initially open only to parodies, mockumentaries, and documentaries. Fan-fiction films set in the Star Wars universe were originally ineligible, but in 2007 Lucasfilm changed the submission standards to allow in-universe fiction entries. Lucasfilm, for the most part, has allowed but not endorsed the creation of these derivative fan-fiction works, so long as no such work attempts to make a profit from or tarnish the Star Wars franchise in any way. While many fan films have used elements from the licensed Expanded Universe to tell their story, they are not considered an official part of the Star Wars canon.
- Architecture of Star Wars
- Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy
- Jedi census phenomenon
- List of Star Wars creatures
- Physics and Star Wars
- Star Wars canon
- Star Wars Day
- Star Wars expanded universe
- Star Wars music
- Star Wars role play
- Star Wars: Evolution of the lightsaber duel
- The Story of Star Wars
- Technology in Star Wars
- List of space science fiction franchises
- Until 2020
- Kit, Borys (July 7, 2015). "'Star Wars' Han Solo Spinoff In the Works With 'Lego Movie' Directors (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- James Ryan. "When did Star Wars become known as A New Hope? - In A Far Away Galaxy".
- ScreenPrism. "Why was "Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope" originally released under another title - ScreenPrism".
- "Star Wars – Box Office History". The Numbers. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- "Movie Franchises". The Numbers. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- Chew, Jonathan (December 24, 2015). "Star Wars Franchise Worth More Than Harry Potter and James Bond, Combined". Fortune. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
- Detrick, Paul (November 20, 2015). "The Star Wars Economy is Bigger Than You Think". Reason. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Schou, Solvej (December 21, 2012). "Mickey meets 'Star Wars': Walt Disney Co. completes acquisition of Lucasfilm". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
- Masters, Kim (October 30, 2012). "Tangled Rights Could Tie Up Ultimate 'Star Wars' Box Set (Analysis)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "The Walt Disney Company FY 2013 SEC Form 10-K Filing" (PDF). The Walt Disney Company. November 20, 2013. p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 11, 2015. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
Prior to the Company's acquisition, Lucasfilm produced six Star Wars films (Episodes 1 through 6). Lucasfilm retained the rights to consumer products related to all of the films and the rights related to television and electronic distribution formats for all of the films, with the exception of the rights for Episode IV, which are owned by a third-party studio. All of the films are distributed by a third-party studio in the theatrical and home video markets. The theatrical and home video distribution rights for these films revert to Lucasfilm in May 2020 with the exception of Episode IV, for which these distribution rights are retained in perpetuity by the third-party studio.
- Vlessing, Etan (April 6, 2015). "'Star Wars' Movie Franchise Headed to Digital HD". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
- Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (DVD). 20th Century Fox. 2006.
- "STAR WARS (U)". British Board of Film Classification. June 30, 1977. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "STAR WARS EPISODE VI: RETURN OF THE JEDI (U)". British Board of Film Classification. May 12, 1983. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "STAR WARS EPISODE I: THE PHANTOM MENACE (U)". British Board of Film Classification. June 8, 1999. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "STAR WARS EPISODE II: ATTACK OF THE CLONES (PG) (CUT)". British Board of Film Classification. May 7, 2002. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "STAR WARS EPISODE III: REVENGE OF THE SITH". British Board of Film Classification. April 27, 2005. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "STAR WARS: THE FORCE AWAKENS [2D] (12A)". British Board of Film Classification. December 7, 2015. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Parker, Ryan; Galuppo, Mia (September 12, 2017). "J.J. Abrams to Replace Colin Trevorrow as 'Star Wars: Episode IX' Writer and Director". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
- "J.J. Abrams to Write and Direct Star Wars: Episode IX". StarWars.com. September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
- Kroll, Justin (August 1, 2017). "'Star Wars': 'Wonder' Writer to Polish 'Episode IX' Script". Variety. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
- "STAR WARS - THE CLONE WARS (PG)". British Board of Film Classification. July 18, 2008. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Rogue One: A Star Wars Story (2016)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Sofka, Samantha (November 16, 2016). "Breaking: Live-Action Mulan, A Wrinkle in Time, and More Disney Movies Have Set Release Dates". Oh My Disney. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
- Rinzler 2007, p. 8.
- Kaminski 2007, p. 50.
- Lucas, George (2004). DVD commentary for Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- "Star Wars plot summary". Ruined Endings. Retrieved March 29, 2008.
- Rinzler 2007, p. 107.
- "Starkiller". Jedi Bendu. Archived from the original on June 28, 2006. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- Kaminski 2007, p. 38.
- Kaminski 2007, p. 134.
- Kaminski 2007, p. 142.
- Baxter, John (1999). Mythmaker. p. 173. ISBN 0-380-97833-4.
- "Ralph McQuarrie's Most Memorable Masterpieces - StarWars.com". August 16, 2016.
- The Empire Strikes Back (DVD). 20th Century Fox. 2004.
- Biodrowski, Steve. "Star Wars: The Original Trilogy – Then And Now". Hollywood Gothique. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
- Bouzereau 1997, p. 144.
- Bouzereau 1997, p. 135.
- Kaminski 2007, p. 161.
- Bouzereau 1997, p. 123
- Kaminski 2007, pp. 120–21.
- Kaminski 2007, pp. 164–65.
- Kaminski 2007, p. 178.
- Return of the Jedi (DVD). 20th Century Fox. 2004.
- "Lawrence Kasdan". Star Wars. Archived from the original on June 6, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
- Kaminski 2007, p. 227.
- Kaminski 2007, pp. 294–95.
- "Episode III Release Dates Announced". Star Wars. April 5, 2004. Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace (DVD). 20th Century Fox. 2001.
- Kaminski 2007, pp. 299–300.
- "Star Wars Insider". Star Wars Insider (45): 19.
- Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones (DVD). 20th Century Fox. 2002.
- Kaminski 2007, p. 371.
- Kaminski 2007, p. 374.
- Bouzereau 1997, p. 196.
- Kaminski 2008, p. 158.
- Kaminski 2008, p. 162.
- Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith (DVD). 20th Century Fox. 2005.
- Rinzler 2005, pp. 13–15.
- Rinzler 2005, p. 36.
- Kaminski 2007, pp. 380–84.
- Star Wars: Episode III Revenge of the Sith documentary "Within a Minute" (DVD documentary). 2005.
- Arnold, William (May 12, 2005). "Director George Lucas Takes a Look Back—and Ahead". Seattle Post-Intelligencer.
- "Mark Hamill talks Star Wars 7, 8 and 9!". Movieweb. September 10, 2004. Retrieved October 18, 2008.
- "George Lucas talks on Star Wars sequels 7, 8 & 9". Killer Movies. September 13, 2004. Retrieved October 18, 2008.
- Mr. Showbiz. "George Lucas (Star Wars: Episode I)". Industry Central. Retrieved October 18, 2008.
- Davis, Erik (May 7, 2008). "Will Lucas Extend His Star Wars Story Beyond Return of the Jedi?". Cinematical. Retrieved October 18, 2008.
- "George Lucas Done With 'Star Wars' Fanboys, Talks 'Red Tails'". The Huffington Post. January 17, 2012. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
- Leonard, Devin. "How Disney Bought Lucasfilm—and Its Plans for 'Star Wars'". Businessweek.com. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
- Block, Alex (October 30, 2012). "Disney to Buy Lucasfilm for Billion; New 'Star Wars' Movie Set for 2015". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
- "Michael Arndt to write screenplay for Star Wars: episode VII", Star Wars
- "MASTER FILMMAKING TEAM ANNOUNCED FOR STAR WARS: EPISODE VII". Star Wars. October 24, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- "Star Wars Is Being Kick-Started with Dynamite J.J. Abrams to Direct Star Wars: Episode VII". Star Wars. January 25, 2013. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
- Kit, Borys (November 20, 2012). "J.J. Abrams Set to Direct Next 'Star Wars' Film (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- Peat, Calvin (August 3, 2013). "John Williams Confirmed to Score Star Wars Episodes VII-IX". Shadowlocked. Archived from the original on August 6, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- "ROGUE ONE IS THE FIRST STAR WARS STAND-ALONE FILM, RIAN JOHNSON TO WRITE AND DIRECT STAR WARS: EPISODE VIII". StarWars.com. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- Fleming, Mike (June 20, 2014). "'Star Wars' Bombshell! Rian Johnson To Write, Direct Next Two Films". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
- Kroll, Justin (June 20, 2014). "'Star Wars': Rian Johnson to Write, Direct Episode VIII". Variety. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- Johnson, Rian (April 24, 2017). "That's old info, I haven't been involved in writing IX.".
- McMillan, Graeme (August 18, 2014). "Rian Johnson Says Next 'Star Wars' Will Have Less CGI, More Practical Effects". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- "STAR WARS: EPISODE VIII NOW FILMING". starwars.com. February 15, 2016. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
- "Star Wars Episode VIII Starts Shooting in Dubrovnik This Week". Croatia Week. March 8, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- Harris, David (March 26, 2016). "Star Wars: Episode VIII Filming Update: Luke in a Casino, Poe takes Charge". Dork Side of the Force. Archived from the original on April 5, 2016. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
- Barrett, David (March 20, 2016). "Star Wars Episode VIII returns to new locations in Ireland". The Telegraph. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
- Nevets, Stephen (July 11, 2016). "'Star Wars 8' wraps production, Mark Hamill, Anthony Daniels turn to Twitter as Star Wars Celebration 2016 nears". The Global Dispatch. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- Trivedi, Sachin (July 12, 2016). "'Star Wars: Episode 8' production update: Filming wraps; Big party in London with cast and crew". International Business Times. Archived from the original on July 13, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- Romano, Nick (July 22, 2016). "Star Wars: Episode VIII director Rian Johnson announces end of production". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Blankstein, Andrew (December 27, 2016). "'Star Wars' Actress Carrie Fisher Dies at 60 After Suffering Heart Attack". NBC News. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- Stolworthy, Jacob (December 14, 2016). "Star Wars 8: Adam Driver doesn't think there should be a trailer". Independent. London. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- Sarma, Jyotirupa (December 7, 2016). "'Star Wars: Episode IX' Release Date, News & Update: Filming Will Begin In 2017, Scene Will Be Shot In Real Outer Space?". GameNGuide. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
- "How will Carrie Fisher's death affect the Star Wars franchise and will they recast Princess Leia?". Telegraph. December 28, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- Littleton, Cynthia (December 27, 2016). "Carrie Fisher Completed Work on 'Star Wars: Episode VIII' Before Her Death". Variety. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- Maresca, Rachel (December 27, 2016). "Carrie Fisher Wrapped Filming on 'Star Wars: Episode VIII': What Does Her Death Mean for 'Episode IX'?". Entertainment Tonight. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- Sheridan, Wade (December 28, 2016). "Carrie Fisher to appear in new 'Family Guy' shows, 'Star Wars: Episode VIII'". UPI. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
- "Lucasfilm: Carrie Fisher won't be digitally recreated". BBC News. January 14, 2017. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
- Desborough, James (April 7, 2017). "The late Carrie Fisher will appear in 'Star Wars: Episode IX', says brother Todd Fisher". New York Daily News. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
- Parker, Ryan (April 14, 2017). "Carrie Fisher Will Not Appear in 'Star Wars: Episode IX'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- Khatchatourian, Manne (April 14, 2017). "Carrie Fisher Won't Appear in 'Star Wars: Episode IX'". Variety. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
- Kroll, Justin (September 12, 2017). "'Star Wars: Episode IX' Release Date Moves to December 2019". Variety. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
- "Disney Earnings Beat; 'Star Wars' Spinoffs Planned". CNBC. February 5, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
- Breznican, Anthony (February 6, 2013). "'Star Wars' spin-offs: A young Han Solo movie, and a Boba Fett film – Exclusive". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- Graser, Marc (September 12, 2013). "'Star Wars': The 'Sky's the Limit' for Disney's Spinoff Opportunities". Variety. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Gallagher, Brian. "'Star Wars' Spin-Offs Will Not Crossover with the New Trilogy". Movieweb. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- "Rogue One Details Revealed at Star Wars Celebration Anaheim". Star Wars.com. April 19, 2015. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- Breznican, Antonghy (April 19, 2015). "Star Wars: Rogue One and mystery standalone movie take center stage". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- Breznican, Anthony (November 22, 2016). "As Rogue One looms, Lucasfilm develops secret plans for new Star Wars movies". Entertainment Weekly.
- "ROGUE ONE - A STAR WARS STORY: John Knoll - Overall VFX Supervisor & Chief Creative Officer - Industrial Light & Magic - The Art of VFXThe Art of VFX". www.artofvfx.com.
- Kit, Borys (May 22, 2014). "'Star Wars' Spinoff Hires 'Godzilla' Director Gareth Edwards (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- Collura, Scott (March 12, 2015). "ROGUE ONE WILL BE FIRST STAR WARS STAND-ALONE FILM". IGN. Retrieved March 12, 2015.
- Fleming, Mike, Jr (March 3, 2015). "Ben Mendelsohn Orbiting 'Star Wars' Spin Off 'Rogue One'?". Deadline.
- Breznican, Anthony (April 19, 2015). "Star Wars: Rogue One and mystery stand-alone movie take center stage". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- Bishop, Bryan (April 19, 2015). "Star Wars: Rogue One will be about the Rebel Alliance stealing plans for the Death Star". The Verge. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- "Rogue One (2016)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- "The Star Wars Rebels Easter Eggs and Connections in Rogue One - StarWars.com". December 20, 2016.
- Masters, Kim (June 22, 2017). "Ron Howard Steps In to Direct Han Solo Movie (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- DiClaudio, Dennis (November 25, 2015). "Ron Howard could have saved us from The Phantom Menace, but chose not to". A.V. Club. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
- Auty, Dan (August 14, 2015). "Star Wars Han Solo, Boba Fett Spinoff Movies Get New Details". GameSpot. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
- Long, Stephanie (September 21, 2016). "Disney CEO Bob Iger Talks 'Star Wars' Plans Through 2020". Moviefone. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
- Breznican, Anthony (February 6, 2013). "'Star Wars' spin-offs: A young Han Solo movie, and a Boba Fett film". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- Cowden, Catarina (May 2, 2015). "Why Star Wars Spinoff Director Josh Trank Was Fired". Cinema Blend. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
- Marc, Christopher (December 24, 2016). "'Boba Fett' Standalone Movie Seemingly Revived and Coming In 2020?". Omega Underground. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
- Keene, Allison (April 29, 2016). "Ewan McGregor Clarifies Status of an Obi-Wan Kenobi Solo Film". Collider.com. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Chitwood, Adam (August 18, 2016). "'Kenobi' Fan Teaser Teases the Inevitable 'Star Wars' Spinoff". Collider.com. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
- Couch, Aaron; McMillan, Graeme (August 26, 2016). "Darth Vader Deserves a 'Star Wars' Spinoff (But Not Everyone Agrees)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
- Guerrasio, Jason (March 18, 2017). "Ewan McGregor is still up to play Obi-Wan Kenobi again: 'It would be fun to do'". Business Insider. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
- Hayman, Amanda (June 8, 2017). "Joel Edgerton Wants to Reprise Uncle Owen in the Obi-Wan Movie". Scree Rant. Retrieved June 30, 2017.
- Kit, Borys (August 17, 2017). "'Star Wars' Obi-Wan Kenobi Film in the Works (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- Kroll, Justin (August 17, 2017). "'Star Wars' Obi-Wan Kenobi Movie in Early Development at Disney". Variety. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- Marnell, Blair (July 13, 2015). "Guillermo Del Toro Wants to Make Star Wars: Jabba the Hutt Origin Film". Nerdist. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Hood, Cooper (August 18, 2017). "Star Wars: Jabba the Hutt Spinoff Being Considered By Lucasfilm". Screen Rant. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Chavez, Danette (August 18, 2017). "You will soon learn to appreciate the Jabba the Hutt spin-off in development". A.V. Club. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Hood, Cooper (April 13, 2017). "Star Wars: Samuel L. Jackson Wants Mace Windu Return". Screen Rant. Retrieved June 30, 2017.
- Wood, Matt (April 21, 2017). "Star Wars: Watch Rosario Dawson Campaign To Play Ahsoka In Live-Action". Cinema Blend. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- "The Legendary Star Wars Expanded Universe Turns a New Page". StarWars.com. April 25, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- "Dave Filoni Now Overseeing Creative Development of New Lucasfilm Animation Projects". September 26, 2016.
- Warren, Robert Burke (December 25, 2014). "The Star Wars holiday special George Lucas wants to smash every copy of with a sledgehammer". Salon. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Conterio, Martyn (December 1, 2015). "May the farce be with you: the Star Wars Holiday Special they want us to forget". The Guardian. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Alter, Ethan (December 15, 2015). "Star Wars: How the Ewoks Came to TV 31 Years Ago". Yahoo!. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- O'Connor, John J. (November 23, 1984). "TV Weekend; The Ewok Adventure, Sunday Movie on ABC". The New York Times. 134 (46,237). p. C34. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Newbold, Mark (April 15, 2013). "Star Wars in the UK: The Dark Times, 1987—1991". StarWars.com. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
- Corry, John (November 24, 1985). "New Shows For Children: Should We Expect More?". The New York Times. 135 (46,603). p. H29. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Veekhoven, Tim (April 1, 2014). "From Boonta to Baobab: Droids and the Star Wars Prequels". Starwars.com. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Snyder, Jon Bradley (1995). "A Star Wars CELibration". Star Wars Insider (27): 63–65. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- "100 Top Animated Series: 21. Star Wars: Clone Wars (2003 TV series)". IGN. 2009. Archived from the original on February 28, 2017. Retrieved February 28, 2017.
- Granshaw, Lisa (April 29, 2015). "How the Clone Wars microseries led the way for Star Wars' return to TV". Blastr. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- "Star Wars: Clone Wars". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. 2004. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- "Star Wars: Clone Wars Vol. 2 (Chapters 21-25)". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. 2005. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- "George Lucas Talks Star Wars: The Clone Wars". StarWars.com. March 17, 2008. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011.
- Franich, Darren (March 11, 2013). "Star Wars TV: Clone Wars canceled, Detours postponed". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- Itzkoff, Dave (February 14, 2014). "Clone Wars Moves to Netflix". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2017.
- Goldman, Eric (March 8, 2014). "Star Wars: The Clone Wars – Season 6 "The Lost Missions" Review". IGN. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Goldman, Eric (October 2, 2014). "Greg Weisman Leaves Star Wars Rebels". IGN. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Goldman, Eric (March 9, 2015). "Star Wars Rebels: Season 1 Review". IGN. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Goldman, Eric (April 12, 2016). "Star Wars Rebels: Season 2 Review". IGN. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- McMilian, Graeme (April 25, 2014). "Lucasfilm Unveils New Plans for Star Wars Expanded Universe". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- Lieberman, Jason; Goldman, Eric (June 29, 2010). "Exclusive: Seth Green Talks Star Wars Series". IGN. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Paur, Joey (September 20, 2013). "Update on the Star Wars: Detours Animated Series". GeekTyrant.com. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Hibberd, James (January 10, 2013). "ABC to look at Star Wars live-action TV series". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Collura, Scott (January 9, 2012). "Is This the Star Wars Live-Action Show's Title?". IGN. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Jeffery, Morgan (May 22, 2012). "Star Wars TV series will be 'provocative, bold and daring'". Digital Spy. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Sciretta, Peter (December 9, 2015). "George Lucas' Star Wars TV Show & 1313 Not Dead?". /Film. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- "Lost Star Warriors". AOL. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- Britt, Ryan (January 24, 2013). "Weird Differences Between the First Star Wars Movie and Its Preceding Novelization". Tor.com. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
- Fry, Jason (July–August 2000). "Alan Dean Foster: Author of the Mind's Eye". Star Wars Insider (50).
- Allison, Keith (December 25, 2014). "A Long Time Ago ...". The Cultural Gutter. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Allison, Keith (January 22, 2015). "... In a Galaxy Far, Far Away". The Cultural Gutter. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- "Critical Opinion: Heir to the Empire Reviews". StarWars.com. April 4, 2014. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
- Breznican, Anthony (November 2, 2012). "Star Wars sequel author Timothy Zahn weighs in on new movie plans". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- "Timothy Zahn: Outbound Flight Arrival". StarWars.com. January 31, 2006. Archived from the original on February 4, 2006. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- Kaminski, Michael. The Secret History of Star Wars (3rd ed.). pp. 289–291.
- "The New York Times Best Seller List" (PDF). Hawes.com. June 30, 1991. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Britt, Ryan (February 28, 2013). "How Timothy Zahn's Heir to the Empire Turned Star Wars into Science Fiction". Tor.com. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Truitt, Brian (July 16, 2016). "Thrawn to make grand appearance in Star Wars Rebels". USA Today. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "The Rebels Face Grand Admiral Thrawn When Star Wars Rebels Season Three Premieres Saturday, September 24". StarWars.com. August 8, 2016. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
- "Star Wars: The Courtship of Princess Leia (Review)". Kirkus Reviews. May 20, 2010. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Wolverton, Dave (1994). The Courtship of Princess Leia. Bantam Spectra. ISBN 0-553-08928-5.
- Webster, Andrew (December 2, 2012). "The Classics: Star Wars: Shadows of the Empire". The Verge. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- "Shadows of the Empire Checklist". Rebelscum.com. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- "Databank: Xizor, Prince". StarWars.com. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Creamer, Matt Timmy (January 20, 2016). "Star Wars: The Force Awakens borrowed heavily from Kevin J. Anderson’s Jedi Academy Trilogy". Moviepilot. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "ConDFW XIII 2014: Kevin J. Anderson Profile". ConDFW.org. March 7, 2013. Archived from the original on November 27, 2013.
- Goldstein, Rich (March 26, 2014). "Is the New ‘Star Wars’ Trilogy the Story of the Solo Twins and Darth Caedus?". The Daily Beast. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
- Britt, Ryan (March 27, 2014). "Even More Kids on the Playground: X-Wing #1 Rogue Squadron". Tor.com. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "Paperback Best Sellers: February 22, 1998 (X-Wing #5: Wraith Squadron)". The New York Times. February 22, 1998. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "Paperback Best Sellers: August 29, 1999 (X-Wing #9: Starfighters of Adumar)". The New York Times. August 29, 1999. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- Britt, Ryan (July 6, 2016). "Star Wars Was Nearly Ruined By A Hacky Alien Invasion Storyline". The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Eng, Dinah (June 23, 2004). "Star Wars books are soldiering on". USA Today. Archived from the original on November 20, 2013. Retrieved February 28, 2017.
- McMillan, Graeme (December 23, 2015). "How the Abandoned Star Wars Expanded Universe Inspired Force Awakens". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
- Bouie, Jamelle (December 16, 2015). "How The Force Awakens Remixes the Star Wars Expanded Universe". Slate. Retrieved December 20, 2015.
- Kendrick, Ben (December 18, 2015). "Star Wars 7: Kylo Ren Backstory Explained". Screen Rant. Retrieved December 20, 2015.
- Saavedra, John (December 17, 2015). "Star Wars: The Force Awakens Easter Eggs and Reference Guide (Kylo Ren/Ben Solo and the Knights of Ren)". Den of Geek. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
- Anders, Charlie Jane (January 24, 2013). "The guy who put zombies in the Star Wars universe is sending Darth Maul behind bars". io9. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- Ward, Jason (January 28, 2014). "MakingStarWars.net Interviews Joe Schreiber, Author of Star Wars: Maul: Lockdown". MakingStarWars.net. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- "Transcript: Del Rey's Facebook Chat With Maul: Lockdown Author Joe Schreiber". TheForce.Net. February 12, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- "Star Wars #1 (April 1977)". Marvel Comics. Archived from the original on November 6, 2016. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
- "Star Wars #1 (April 1977)". Grand Comics Database. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
- "Star Wars". The Comic Reader (142). April 1977.
- "Star Wars #107 (May 1986)". Marvel Comics. Archived from the original on November 6, 2016. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
- Cronin, Brian (June 17, 2011). "Comic Book Legends Revealed #318". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- McMillan, Graeme (January 10, 2013). "Leaving an Imprint: 10 Defunct MARVEL Publishing Lines: Star Comics". Newsarama. Archived from the original on October 12, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- Ceimcioch, Marck (December 2014). "Marvel for Kids: Star Comics". Back Issue! (77). Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- Handley, Rich (April 20, 2013). "Droids and Ewoks Return: Spain's Lost Star Wars Comic Strips". StarWars.com. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- Cronin, Brian (November 29, 2007). "Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed #131". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
- Whitbrook, James (December 12, 2014). "The Greatest Dark Horse Star Wars Comics To Buy Before They're Gone". Gizmodo. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- Saavedra, John (January 4, 2015). "Star Wars: The 13 Greatest Dark Horse Comics Stories". Den of Geek. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- McMillan, Graeme (January 3, 2014). "Disney Moves Star Wars Comics License to Marvel". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- Wilkerson, David B. (August 31, 2009). "Disney to Acquire Marvel Entertainment for $4B". MarketWatch.com. Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- Brooks, Dan (July 26, 2014). "SDCC 2014: Inside Marvel's New Star Wars Comics". StarWars.com. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- Wheeler, Andrew (July 26, 2014). "Force Works: Marvel Announces Three New Star Wars Titles From All-Star Creative Teams". Comics Alliance. Archived from the original on October 8, 2016. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- Yehl, Joshua (July 26, 2014). "SDCC 2014: Marvel Announces 3 Star Wars Comics for 2015". IGN. Archived from the original on November 21, 2015. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- "Kenner Star Wars Battle Command". Handheldmuseum.com. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- Coopee, Todd. "Star Wars Electronic Battle Command Game". ToyTales.ca. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- Bogost, Ian; Montfort, Nick (2009). Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-01257-7.
- "A Brief History of Star War Games, Part 1 (Slide 1–6)". Tom's Hardware. May 20, 2007. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
- "Star Wars: Return of the Jedi". MobyGames. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- "The making of The Empire Strikes Back". Retro Gamer (70): 82–83. November 2009.
- "LucasArts Entertainment Company: 20th Anniversary (Part Two: The Classics, 1990–1994)". LucasArts. June 23, 2006. Archived from the original on June 23, 2006. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- "A Brief History of Star War Games, Part 1 (Slide 29–32)". Tom's Hardware. May 20, 2007. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
- Mizell, Leslie (October 1994). "Star Wars: Dark Forces preview". PC Gamer. Future Publishing: 34–37.
- Staten, James (December 4, 1995). "Dark Forces". MacWEEK. Archived from the original on July 19, 2009. Retrieved August 15, 2013. – via AccessMyLibrary (subscription required)
- Turner, Benjamin; Bowen, Kevin (December 11, 2003). "Bringin' in the DOOM Clones". GameSpy. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- Baldazo, Rex (December 1995). "Today's hot first-person 3-D shoot-'em-ups". Byte. Archived from the original on November 23, 2008. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- "Video game of the week: Star Wars: Dark Forces". Knight Ridder. March 21, 1995. Archived from the original on July 19, 2009. Retrieved August 15, 2013. – via AccessMyLibrary (subscription required)
- Kent, Steven L. (March 19, 1995). "Tech Reviews CD-Rom – Dark Forces". The Seattle Times. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- "Star Wars Dark Forces – PC". GameRankings. Retrieved December 30, 2008.
- Dulin, Ron (May 1, 1996). "Star Wars Dark Forces Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- Boulding, Aaron (November 19, 2002). "Star Wars Jedi Knight II: Jedi Outcast Xbox review". IGN. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
- "Star Wars Jedi Knight: Jedi Academy Designer Diary #1". GameSpot. August 25, 2003. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
- Schedeen, Jesse (August 12, 2008). "Top 25 Star Wars Heroes: Day 2". IGN. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
- "Star Wars: Dark Forces". MobyGames. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
- "Katarn, Kyle". StarWars.com. Archived from the original on September 12, 2011. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
- "Star Wars: The Force Unleashed". LucasArts. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- "The Force Unleashed Sells 1.5 Million Units Worldwide in Under One Week". StarWars.com. September 23, 2008. Archived from the original on April 2, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- John, Derek. "That Time NPR Turned Star Wars Into A Radio Drama—And It Actually Worked". All Things Considered. NPR. Archived from the original on June 20, 2016. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Sterling, Christopher H. (2004). Encyclopedia of Radio (Vol. 3). Routledge. p. 2206. ISBN 9781135456498. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- "5 Awesome Star Wars Media Collectibles". StarWars.com. April 9, 2015. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Brown, Alan (December 16, 2015). "Sounds of Star Wars: The Audio Dramas". Tor.com. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Surrell, Jason (March 27, 2014). "Imagineering Star Tours, Part 2: Lightspeed to Endor". Retrieved August 12, 2016.
- Surrell, Jason (April 11, 2014). "Imagineering Star Tours, Part 3: Visual Effects (and Disney) Magic". Retrieved August 12, 2016.
- McFadden, James (August 22, 2013). "Convenient Daily Departures: The History of Star Tours". Retrieved August 12, 2016.
- Smith, Thomas. "Disney’s Hollywood Studios to Debut New Star Wars Experiences in December". disneyparks.disney.go.com. Disney Parks. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Pedicini, Sandra; Santana, Marco. "Star Wars Weekends ending at Disney's Hollywood Studios". orlandosentinel.com. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Jedi Training: Trials of the Temple | Disney's Hollywood Studios". touringplans.com. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- "Jedi Training Trials of the Temple – Disney's Hollywood Studios". allears.net. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- "Details on Season of the Force, Coming November 16 to Disneyland Park in California". Disney Parks Blog.
- "New Star Wars Offerings Land At Disney’s Hollywood Studios". Disney Parks Blog.
- Bevil, Dewayne (1 December 2015). "Star Wars Launch Bay finds fans quickly at Disney". OrlandoSentinel.com.
- Graser, Marc (2014-08-05). "Significant ‘Star Wars’ Presence Planned for Disney Theme Parks". Variety. Retrieved 2017-07-21.
- "Disney plans expanded 'Star Wars' presence at theme parks". EW.com. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- Bishop, Bryan (July 16, 2017). "Disney wants to build a Westworld for Star Wars fans". The Verge. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
- "'Star Wars' Themed Lands Coming to Disney Parks, Says Bob Iger". Variety. August 15, 2015. Retrieved August 15, 2015.
- Kumparak, Greg. "Disney is opening an immersive Star Wars Hotel where each guest gets a storyline - TechCrunch". Archived from the original on July 16, 2017.
- Bevil, Dewayne. "Coming to Disney World: Tron, Guardians of the Galaxy ride, 'Star Wars' hotel". OrlandoSentinel.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
- Fickley-Baker, Jennifer. "Plans Unveiled for Star Wars-Inspired Themed Resort at Walt Disney World". Disney Parks Blog. Archived from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
- "The Real Force Behind 'Star Wars': How George Lucas Built an Empire".
- "Lego gets Lord Of The Rings and Hobbit licence". Metro.
- Link Voxx. "Star Wars Episode 7 News - New LEGO Star Wars Mini-Series Retelling the Whole Saga Coming to DisneyXD". Star Wars Episode 7 News.
- Star Wars: Escape from the Death Star (description), Board game geek, 1977
- Star Wars: Escape from the Death Star (description), Board game geek, 1990
- "Star Wars Clone Wars Edition". Hasbro. Retrieved March 23, 2009.
- "Risk Star Wars: The Original Trilogy Edition". Board game geek. Retrieved March 23, 2009.
- "Star Wars Trading Cards". Starwarscards.net. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- "Star Wars Promotional Trading Card List". The Star Wars Collectors Archive. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
- Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy (DVD). Star Wars Trilogy Box Set DVD documentary. 2004.
- The Force Is With Them: The Legacy of Star Wars. Star Wars Original Trilogy DVD Box Set: Bonus Materials. 2004.
- Star Wars and History - Lucasfilm - Google Books. Books.google.ca. October 15, 2012. ISBN 9781118285251. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- Utc.edu Archived June 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Radio New Zealand : National : Nights : 26 Aug 2010 : Star Wars and the Roman Empire". Radionz.co.nz. August 26, 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- Christopher Klein. "The Real History That Inspired "Star Wars"". HISTORY.com.
- "Star Wars: Attack of the Clones". Time. 2002-04-21. Archived from the original on 2002-06-05. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
The people give their democracy to a dictator, whether it's Julius Caesar or Napoleon or Adolf Hitler. Ultimately, the general population goes along with the idea ... That's the issue I've been exploring: how did the Republic turn into the Empire?
- Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy (documentary). 2004.
- James Dyer (2015). "JJ Abrams Spills Details On Kylo Ren". Empireonline.com. Retrieved February 2, 2016.
- Danesi, Marcel (2012). Popular Culture: Introductory Perspectives. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 165–. ISBN 978-1-4422-1783-6.
- Brooker, Will (2002). Using the Force: Creativity, Community, and Star Wars Fans. New York [u.a.]: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-5287-6.
- "The power of the dark side". Chicago Tribune. 2005-05-08. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
- Emerson, Jim (2007). "How Star Wars Shook The World". MSN Movies. Archived from the original on June 3, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
- "Online NewsHour: The Impact of the Star Wars Trilogy Films – May 19, 2005". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on November 17, 2007. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
- Booker, M. Keith; Thomas, Anne-Marie (30 March 2009). The Science Fiction Handbook. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 9–11. ISBN 978-1-4443-1035-1.
- "U.S. National Film Registry Titles". U.S. National Film Registry. Archived from the original on August 21, 2006. Retrieved September 2, 2006.
- "'Empire Strikes Back' among 25 film registry picks". Retrieved December 28, 2010.
- Barnes, Mike (December 28, 2010). "'Empire Strikes Back,' 'Airplane!' Among 25 Movies Named to National Film Registry". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
- Andrews, Mallory (July 21, 2014). "A 'New' New Hope: Film Preservation and the Problem with 'Star Wars'". soundonsight.org. Sound on Sight. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
the NFR does not possess workable copies of the original versions…Government-mandated agencies such as the National Film Registry are unable to preserve (or even possess) working copies of the films on their list without the consent of the author and/or copyright holder.
- "Request Denied: Lucas Refuses to Co-Operate with Government Film Preservation Organizations". savestarwars.com. Saving Star Wars. 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
When the request was made for STAR WARS, Lucasfilm offered us the Special Edition version. The offer was declined as this was obviously not the version that had been selected for the Registry.
- "Filmmaker Kevin Smith Hosts 'The Official Star Wars Fan Film Awards' on SCI FI Channel; George Lucas to Present Special Honor". Business Wire. April 23, 2002. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
- Knapton, Sarah (April 7, 2008). "Court to rule in Star Wars costume battle". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
- Arnold, Alan (1980). Once Upon a Galaxy: A Journal of the Making of The Empire Strikes Back. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-29075-5.
- Bouzereau, Laurent (1997). The Annotated Screenplays. Del Rey. ISBN 0-345-40981-7.
- Kaminski, Michael (2007). The Secret History of Star Wars.
- ——— (2008) . The Secret History of Star Wars (3.0 ed.). Legacy Books Press. ISBN 978-0-9784652-3-0.
- Rinzler, Jonathan W (2005). The Making of Star Wars, Episode III – Revenge of the Sith. Del Rey. ISBN 0-345-43139-1.
- ——— (2007). The Making of Star Wars: The Definitive Story Behind the Original Film (Star Wars). Del Rey. ISBN 0-345-49476-8.
- Decker, Kevin S. (March 10, 2005). Star Wars and Philosophy. Open Court. ISBN 0-8126-9583-6.
- Campbell, Joseph (June 1, 1991). The Power of Myth. Anchor. ISBN 0-385-41886-8.
- Henderson, Mary (November 3, 1997). Star Wars: The Magic of Myth. Bantam. ISBN 0-553-10206-0.
- Larsen, Stephen (April 1, 2002). Joseph Campbell: A Fire in the Mind. Inner Traditions. ISBN 0-89281-873-5.
- Cavlelos, Jeanne (May 1999). The Science of Star Wars. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-20958-4.
- Lucasfilms (November 13, 2012). Nancy Reagin, Janice Liedl, ed. Star Wars and History. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 111-82852-55.
- National Geographic Society (October 2005). Star Wars: Where Science Meets Imagination. National Geographic & Boston Museum of Science. ISBN 0-7922-4183-5.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Star Wars|
|Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Star Wars|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Star Wars.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Star Wars tourism.|