Starshina

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Flag of Russia.svg
Starshina
in the Russian Army
P6-starsh.png 6starsh.png
Rank insignia Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
Introduction 1942 to the Red Army
Rank group Non-commissioned officers
Army / Air Force Starshina
Navy Glavnyj starshina of the ship
NATO
equivalent
OR-8
Group of Soviet soldiers, in the foreground starshina with appropriate insignia introduced in 1943 (Bulgaria, 1944).

Starshina (Russian: Старшина; IPA: [stərʂɨˈna]), in Slavic armed forces, is either the designation of a military rank comparable to OR-8[1] in NATO, or a military appointment comparable to company sergeant major in the Army. The equivalent in the modern Russian Navy is Glavnyj starshina of the ship, which is equivalent to OR-8 as well.

Russian Federation[edit]

Starshina (Russian: старшина́, Ukrainian: старши́на, from старший, starshyi, "senior"), initially it was a Cossacks officership, but in Soviet time it was, and in the Russian Federation it is used as the Company sergeant major at the one hand and the top non-commissioned officer at the other hand.

In Tsardom of Russia and later Imperial Russia of 17-20th centuries a volostnoy starshina was a chief of a volost (a rural administrative unit). He was in charge of the distribution of taxes, resolving conflicts within obshchina, distribution of the usage of community lands, assigning people for military service, etc.

The rank of voiskovoi starshina (Войсковой старшина - "Starshina of the Army (Host)") was introduced into Russian military ranks in 1826, as equivalent of a Lieutenant Colonel in the Cossack cavalry.

In the Soviet Army, a starshina was the highest non-commissioned officer among conscripts; this was changed by reintroduction of the higher-ranking praporshchik in 1972. In the Soviet Navy, it was introduced in 1942 as a petty officer rank; every enlisted seaman ranking above Matrose, 1st class is a starshina of various ranks.

In the army of the Russian Federation there are four ranks in the NCO´s career group, which means:

Sequence of ranks in the USSR and Russian Federation
junior rank Starshina
OR-8
senior rank
USSR State Emblem of the Soviet Union.svg from 1935 Mladshy kom'vsvoda Mladshy leytenant
OF-1-c
c 1940 Starshy sershant
OR-7
с 1971 Praporshchik
OR-9b
RF Coat of arms of the Russian Federation (1992-1993).svg from 1991
Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation.svg from 1993

Red Army (RA), Soviet Army (SA), and Russian Federation Armed Forces (RFAF) starshina rank insignia[edit]

Rank insignia versions Starshina (ОR-8) in the USSR and Russian Federation
Rank Red Army flag.svg
Red Army
Naval Ensign of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Navy / USSR
Emblem of the Военно-Морской Флот Российской Федерации.svg Russian Navy
(Chief starshina of the ship)

Collar patch

sleeve insignia

shoulder strap
Soviet Red Star Insignia.png RA I K2a 1924v.jpg 1935-i-pg06v.png RA I Starshina 1941v.png RAF N R8Starshina 1924-1940.gif RAF N R8Starshina 1924-1940.gif Rank insignia of главный корабельный старшина of the Soviet Navy.svg RAF N R8SCPO 1994-2010.svg RAF N R8SCPO 1994-2010par.png RAF N R8-GlKorStarsh 2010–.svg Rank insignia of главный корабельный старшина 2 of the Soviet Navy.svg
RA OR8-Starshina 1919v1.svg
starshina
(1919—1924)
sleeve
insignia
(1924—1935)
...
(1935—1940)
...
(1941—1943)
starshina
navy
group
(1924—1935)
...
sea
fleet
(1935—1940)
Navy
(1955—1963)

Navy
(1994—2010)

dress
(1994—2010)

after
2010

dress
(after 2010)
Чин Medium emblem of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (27.01.1997-present).svg
Armed forces of the Russian Federation
Погон
RA-SA A-engin R8FirstSg 1955.png RA-SA A R8FirstSg 1955field.gif SA A-inf R8FirstSg 1963v.svg SA AF R8FirstSg 1963v.svg RFAF - Starshina - Every day green.png Starshina.png RAF AF-ABTr R8Kursant 2010.png Rus starshina field.png Погон старшины ВВС с 2010 года.png Старшина ВВ(Р).png Russian police master sergeant.png
...
technical
troops
(1943—1946)
...
field
(1943—1955)
Ground forces
(1955—1963)
AF, ABF, aviation SADF
(1955—1963)
...
SMT, ABF
(1994—2010)

GF, SMT
(1994—2010)

dress
kursant with rank starshina AF or ABF
(1994—2011)

field
(1994—2010)

AF and ABF
(1963—1994 и 2011—2015)

ITR
(1995—2016)
and FD MES
(1995—2001)

police
ITR specialised units

Cossack Hetmanate[edit]

Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg
Starshyna
in the Cossack Army
Rank insignia Cossack Hetmanate
Introduction 1648
Rank group Commissioned officers
Army Starshyna
NATO
equivalent
OF-6 thru OF-10

Among Cossacks in Ukraine, starshyna was a collective noun for categories of officership and state officials. It derived from the offices in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Sharshyna was subdivided into military estates, per se (or rank types):

  • General starshyna (Генеральна старшина), headed by Hetman (or Quartermaster General as acting Hetman)
    • Quartermaster General
    • Judge General
    • Secretary General
    • Adjutant General
    • Treasurer General
    • Ensign General
    • Bunchuk General
  • Regimental [Polkova] starshyna, headed by Polkovnyk (Colonel)
  • Starshyna of hundred [Sotenna], headed by Sotnyk
  • Junior starshyna (Молодша старшина), headed by Otaman

Later sometime after the Khmelnytsky's Uprising it also was associated with the Ukrainian nobility which derived out of the officership and the Hetman.

See also[edit]

Rank designation in other countries[edit]

In the countries below, spelling is similar and the classification to a separate rank group is equivalent.

References[edit]

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Russian Wikipedia.
  1. ^ The NATO abbreviation "OR" stands for "other ranks"