|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2008)|
|This article is outdated. (January 2009)|
- This article refers to the automotive technology. For the use of start-stop systems in telecommunication, see asynchronous serial communication.
In automobiles, a start-stop system or stop-start system automatically shuts down and restarts the internal combustion engine to reduce the amount of time the engine spends idling, thereby reducing fuel consumption and emissions. This is most advantageous for vehicles which spend significant amounts of time waiting at traffic lights or frequently come to a stop in traffic jams. This feature is present in hybrid electric vehicles, but has also appeared in vehicles which lack a hybrid electric powertrain. For non-electric vehicles (called micro-hybrids,) fuel economy gains from this technology are typically in the range of 5 to 10 percent.
On a manual transmission vehicle, stop-start is activated as follows: Stop car & press clutch - move gear lever to neutral - release clutch - then the engine stops. The engine won't stop if the car is moving, even if the aforementioned steps are followed. The engine restarts when the clutch is pressed prior to selecting a gear to move the car. The engine may also restart if there is a demand for power from, for example, the AC system.
Since automobile accessories like compressors and water pumps have typically been designed to run on a serpentine belt on the engine, those systems must be redesigned to function properly when the engine is turned off. Typically, an electric motor is used to power these devices instead.
This technology has also been used on Honda Motor scooters in Asian markets for the last decade. Their PCX 125cc model was released in 2010 to be sold in Europe with this technology, though their North American model does not feature it.
Carmakers and models
Devices of this type have been developed by Toyota in 1964 tested since the mid-1970s, when the Toyota corporation fitted a Crown sedan with an electronic device that would automatically switch off the engine after sitting stationary for 1.5 seconds. Testing showed about a 10% improvement in fuel economy in Tokyo traffic.
Some of the earliest production vehicles to use this technology were the Fiat Regata "ES" with the City-matic system and Volkswagen Polo "Formel E" models of the 1980s. The Volkswagen Group also adopted it in the Golf Ecomatic in 1994 and in the Volkswagen Lupo "3L" and the Audi A2 "3L" in 1999. Though these early implementations were considered rather disconcerting by many drivers, and high pricing failed to yield these cars much commercial success, both the Volkswagen Lupo and the Audi A2 (in their "3 litre" leverage) still hold the world record for most fuel efficient production car to date.
BMW is including the technology across many of its cars and the MINI line for 2008 as part of its Efficient Dynamics brand. BMW has been interested in ways to reduce parasitic losses on engines, so the company took the technology a step further. Instead of using an integrated starter generator (ISG), BMW has used an enhanced-starter which is conventional starter, developed by Robert Bosch GmbH, that can withstand the increased number of engine-starts in a stop-start vehicle. BMW has developed the system such that the alternator is not activated most of the time. This means that electrical components in the vehicle are normally running on battery power. When the battery needs to be charged or when decelerating or braking, the alternator is activated to recharge the battery (regenerative braking). Since this battery experiences very different load characteristics than a normal car battery, BMW used an absorptive glass mat type instead. Due to the use of regenerative braking, some have started calling this type of system a micro hybrid, a step below a mild hybrid system where the ISG can be used to assist the engine or even drive the vehicle.
Citroën introduced a more refined system in its C2 and C3 models by 2006, named "Stop and Start". The Citroën implementation combines a SensoDrive automated gearbox and an electronically controlled reversible alternator or integrated starter-generator (ISG). An ISG, also known as "integrated starter-alternator", combines the role of the starter and alternator into one unit; manufacturers include Valeo and Denso.
Fiat introduced the Robert Bosch GmbH made system in the end of 2008 in the Fiat 500. Starting September 2009, Alfa Romeo also introduced this system in its Alfa Romeo Mito series utilising Fiat Powertrain Technologies (FPT) 1.4 L Turbo petrol MultiAir engines.
Late in 2010, Ford announced that its start-stop system, already used in its hybrids as well as several mainstream models in Europe, would be introduced in North America with the 2012 models, initially with 4-cylinder engines and later proliferating into V6s and V8s. Eventually the system will be available in all Ford vehicles. In 2013, it announced that start-stop technology would be brought into the second generation Ford Fusion models, and it built start-stop systems into the Ford F150 2015 model for the first time as a standard feature rather than an option.
In 2014 General Motors announced that the Chevrolet Impala and Malibu would have a (non-eAssist) start-stop system across all models.
While both the Kia Rio and Rio5 share the same new direct-injected four-cylinder 1.6L engine with its cousin Hyundai Accent/Verna (also newly redesigned for 2012), Hyundai made no mention of this feature in their Accent line. Hyundai 1.4 manual has the ISG (Intelligent Stop & Go) system (in Israel).
Honda has been using the start-stop function for over a decade via their IMA mild hybrid system in first generation Insight models in the Japanese domestic market since 1999. and more recently on the Civic Hybrid.
Iran Khodro introduced stop-start-technology in 2010, in its Samand models.
The redesigned 2012 Kia Rio and Rio5 (hatchback) debuted at the 2011 New York Auto Show was announced with their Intelligent Stop and Go (ISG) feature, or stop-start technology. Kia claims the combination of direct fuel injection and stop-start will offer 30MPG City/40MPG on the highway in both 6 speed manual and automatic transmissions.
Mahindra & Mahindra
Mahindra's were the first in India to launch stop-start based Micro Hybrid system in May 2000. This involved home-grown technology and first of its kind component development like Hall sensor based neutral and clutch pedal sensors, and later a joint venture with Bosch for common rail based vehicles.
The i-Stop system, Mazda’s first start stop system, detects which piston is in the best position to restart quickest, which is the one in the combustion stroke phase, where air and fuel are in the cylinder, ready to be ignited. The mixture in this cylinder is ignited by the spark plug, forcing that piston down, and with partial-assistance from the starter motor, results in a near instantaneous engine restart time of 0.35 seconds.
In 2011, Mazda announced i-ELOOP, a system which uses a variable-voltage alternator to convert kinetic energy to electric power during deceleration. The energy stored in a double-layer capacitor, is used to supply power needed by vehicle electrical systems. When used in conjunction with Mazda’s start-stop system, i-Stop, the company claims fuel savings of up to 10%.
Renault introduced the technology in all of its European models in 2010.
Toyota has been selling cars with start-stop system for several years in Japan. Both Toyota and Mazda will be introducing stop-start technology available also outside of Japan in some of their 2009 model year vehicles.
Volkswagen began using start-stop systems with the Polo Formel E with SSA around 1983. Later the LUPO 3L, and after that in the Polo, Golf and Passat BlueMotion, which also include weight and aerodynamic improvements. The system is now commonplace in the Volkswagen range, fitted to all vehicles with the Bluemotion Technology package, though certain other models have the technology too.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in the US raised questions about non-hybrid Honda vehicles equipped with the company's 'Idle Stop' transmissions in February 2001 due to concerns over the "sudden lurching forward of a vehicle in an automatic restart" – rather than the "gradual creeping forward found in current transmission designs." 
Hybrid/electric assist vehicles experience almost no delay in power from a stop, due to the instant availability of power from the traction battery to the electric motor(s). Gasoline/microhybrids on the other hand generally experience slight delays (albeit fractions of a second).
Many people think that long term use may induce additional wear due to lack of oil lubrication, and this is true. For the crankshaft bearing half shells and the big end bearings this can translate into frequent high-speed rotary movement before a hydrodynamic film is established. During this phase of boundary lubrication metal-to-metal contact can occur between the crankshaft surface and the bearing’s sliding surface. This was not an issue while the number of engine restarts totaled at what was generally understood to be a normal magnitude. However, in a vehicle with start-stop system this effect can necessitate new technological solutions to avoid premature bearing wear, depending on the driving cycle. Consequently, future engines for start-stop applications need to be designed for 250,000 to 300,000 starts. Traditional bearing shells with aluminum or copper lining show severe wear after only 100,000 cycles. In a start stop system the short stop times keep the engine and oil warm, retaining lubrication. Some implementations do not use a starter motor, eliminating concerns of starter motor wear. Mazda i-stop used in their Mazda3/Axela line (in Europe and JDM) uses combustion to restart their engine by sensing the position of the piston in the cylinder. They claim quieter and quicker engine restart within 0.35 seconds.
Start-stop systems are heavily reliant on the battery. Testing indicates that AGM batteries diminish in their ability to support start-stop functionality over time. . While alternatives exist (NiZn, Lithium-Ion, supercapacitors, PbC), virtually all automakers continue to use conventional AGM lead acid batteries.
- "Diapositiva 1" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-11-25.
- "Honda Worldwide | World News | News Release | January 22, 2001". World.honda.com. 2001-01-22. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- "Honda unveils economical scooter". RAC. 8 June 2010.
- Bob Dunham (October 1974). Automatic on/off switch gives 10-percent gas saving. Popular Science. p. 170.
- Jongeneel, Jeroen (1983-12-24). "Test: Fiat Regata 85S". Autovisie (in Dutch) (Hilversum, Netherlands: Folio Groep B.V.) 28 (26): 48.
- "18.02.2009 FIAT REGATA SEDAN BOASTED 'STOP-START' TECHNOLOGY MORE THAN TWO DECADES AGO". ItaliaSpeed.com. Retrieved 2009-02-18.
- "Citroen Technology - Stop and Start". Citroen.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-09-08.
- "Valeo and Ricardo launches customer preview program for mild hybrid vehicle with world-class fuel economy" (PDF) (Press release). Valeo. 2002-06-26. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
- "DENSO Develops World's First Belt-Driven Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) for Hybrid Vehicles" (Press release). Denso. 2001-07-19. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
- "07.02.2009 NEW 500 START&STOP GETS STARTED IN THE UK". ItaliaSpeed.com. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- "Alfa MiTo to Get MultiAir Engines, Start-Stop System". autoevolution.com. Retrieved 2010-11-25.
- Previous post Next post (2010-12-29). "Ford Offers Auto Start-Stop Across Model Range | Autopia". Wired.com. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- Content, Thomas (January 12, 2015). "Johnson Controls start-stop battery to boost Ford F-150 pickup's MPG". Milwaukee, Wisconsin Journal-Sentinel. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "37-mpg Malibu Eco heads for U.S. dealers driven by exclusive eAssist™ technology". media.gm.com. 2012-01-19. Retrieved 2014-09-24.
- Hyundai Accent
- "Honda Worldwide | World News | News Releases | September 6, 1999". World.honda.com. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- "IKCO Micro Hybrids". EVWorld.com. Retrieved 2013-10-27.
- Richardson, Aaron (2011-04-21). "New York 2011: Kia debuts all-new 2012 Rio with start-stop, good for 40 MPG — Autoblog". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- "Mazda 3 i-Stop". Topgear.com. Retrieved 2011-12-11.
- Kurt Ernst. Mazda's regenerative braking system switches batteries for capacitors. 2011
- "Tata Motors rolls out micro-hybrid version of Ace LCV". WheelsUnplugged.com. Retrieved 2009-05-13.
- "The Widespread Introduction of the TOYOTA Mild Hybrid Cars(HEV) May Promote". MarkLines.com. Retrieved 2009-02-18.
- "Volvo launches stop/start S60, V60 DRIVe models in Europe". Autoblog.com.
- "NHTSA puts brakes on Honda's 'Idle Stop' transmission technology". Autocentral.com. 2001-02-15. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- Stephen R. Kratzke (2003-05-15). "Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Transmission Shift Lever Sequence, Starter Interlock, and Transmission Braking Effect". Federalregister.gov. Retrieved 2011-08-02.
- "Does stop-start technology wear engines down?". Dsc.discovery.com. Retrieved 2011-08-02.
- "Idling stop technology | Environmental Technology". MAZDA. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- "Maxwell Ultracapacitor Transportation Solutions". Maxwell Technologies website. Retrieved 6 Feb 2014.