State Anthem of the Soviet Union

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Gosudarstvenny gimn SSSR
English: State Anthem of the USSR
Государственный гимн СССР[a]
USSR Anthem Music Sheet.InstrumentalSimple.svg
Musical sheet of the anthem

Former national anthem of the
Soviet Union, 1944–91
Former regional anthem of the
Russian SFSR, 1944–90
LyricsGabriyel’ Arkadyevich Ureklyan (1943), Sergey Mikhalkov (1943 and 1977)
MusicAlexander Alexandrov, c. 1938
Adopted15 March 1944
1955 (as instrumental)
1 September 1977 (with modified lyrics)
Relinquished26 December 1991
(as national anthem of the Soviet Union)
23 November 1990
(as regional anthem of the Russian SFSR)
Preceded by"The Internationale"
Succeeded by
Audio sample
c. 1970s official band instrumental recording (post-1955 arrangement) (one verse)

The "State Anthem of the Soviet Union"[b] was the national anthem of the Soviet Union and the regional anthem of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1944 to 1991, replacing "The Internationale". Its original lyrics were written by Sergey Mikhalkov (1913–2009) in collaboration with Gabriyel’ Arkadyevich Ureklyan (1899–1945), and its music was composed by Alexander Alexandrov (1883–1946). For a two-decade interval following de-Stalinization, the anthem was performed without lyrics. The second set of lyrics, also written by Mikhalkov and in which Stalin's name was omitted, was adopted in 1977.

A decade after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the music was adopted with new lyrics as the Russian national anthem.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

The anthem's music was originally composed by Alexander Alexandrov in 1938 for the Hymn of the Bolshevik Party. Its opening bars were borrowed from one of Alexandrov's previous pieces, "Life has become better",[c][1] which was based on a quote by former Soviet Union General Secretary Joseph Stalin at the First All-Union Meeting of the Stakhanovites on 17 November 1935.[2] The song alludes to Stalin's cult of personality.[citation needed]

Other than "Life Has Become Better", the music of the anthem has several possible outside influences. Alexandrov himself has described it as the combination of a march with Russian traditional music, particularly that of bylina epic songs. The anthem shares several chord progressions with Vasily Kalinnikov's overture Bylina, Epic Poem (which, as its name indicates, is also inspired by the bylina tradition).[3] There also exist similarities between Alexandrov's anthem and Robert Schumann's Frühlingsfahrt.[4]

When the Communist International (Comintern) was dissolved in 1943 for the Soviet Union to maintain its alliance with the other Allies of World War II, a new composition was needed to replace "The Internationale" as the national anthem. A contest was held in mid to late 1943 for a new anthem, and more than 200 entries were submitted.[5] Alexandrov's music was personally chosen by Stalin, who both praised and criticized it.[6] The anthem's lyrics then had to be written. Stalin thought the song should be short, and that it should invoke the Red Army's impending victory over the forces of Germany on the Eastern Front. The poets Sergey Mikhalkov and Gabriyel’ Arkadyevich Ureklyan were chosen by Stalin's staffers, called to Moscow, and given the task of writing lyrics that referenced not only the Great Patriotic War, but also "a Country of Soviets". The first draft was completed overnight.

The anthem was first published on 7 November 1943. It was played for the first time on Soviet radio at midnight on 1 January 1944, and officially adopted on 15 March the same year.[7] The new lyrics had three refrains following three different stanzas. In each refrain, the second line was modified to refer to friendship, then happiness, then glory. Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union's war against Germany were originally invoked in the second and third verses, respectively. Reportedly, Stalin was opposed to including his name in the lyrics but relented after some Politburo members insisted.[8]

Post-Stalin era[edit]

With the process of de-Stalinization after Stalin's death, the lyrics referring to him were considered unacceptable, and from 1956 to 1977 the anthem was performed without lyrics.[citation needed] A notable exception took place at the 1976 Canada Cup ice hockey tournament, where singer Roger Doucet insisted on performing the anthem with lyrics after consultations with Russian studies scholars from Université de Montréal and Soviet team officials.[9][10] In 1977, to coincide with the 60th anniversary of the October Revolution, revised lyrics, written in 1970 by original author Sergey Mikhalkov,[11][12][13] were adopted. The varying refrains were replaced by a uniform refrain after all stanzas, and the line praising Stalin was dropped, as were the lines referring to the Great Patriotic War. Another notable change was the replacement of a line referring to the Soviet national flag with one citing the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the form of "Partiya Lenina" (The party of Lenin). These lyrics were also present in the original party anthem at the same place in the melody, but followed by the lyrics "Partiya Stalina" (The party of Stalin).

Post-1991 use[edit]

Use in the Russian Federation[edit]

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian Federation adopted a new wordless anthem, the "Patriotic Song", although there were suggestions for adopting lyrics. As a result, a few different versions were produced.[14] In late 2000, the current national anthem of Russia was introduced, which uses the music of the Soviet national anthem with new lyrics by Sergey Mikhalkov.

State Union of Russia and Belarus[edit]

The same music was used for a proposed anthem for the State Union of Russia and Belarus, entitled Derzhavny Soyuz Narodov ("Sovereign Union of Nations"). Its lyrics were not tied to any specific nationality, and there were official versions in the languages of every Soviet republic and several other Soviet languages; thus it could have been adopted by a broader union. However, it was never officially adopted, and there appear to be no plans to utilize it in any official role.

Decommunization[edit]

In some post-Soviet states which adopted decommunization laws banning Communist symbolism, publicly performing the Soviet anthem is illegal. For example, since 2015, offenders in Ukraine face up to five years in prison.[15] Similar laws were adopted in Latvia[16] and Lithuania.[17]

Communist symbols are also banned in Indonesia.

Similarly, some communist symbols (particularly Soviet symbols) are banned in Georgia,[18] Germany and Poland.[19]

As a meme[edit]

The anthem has since also become a popular internet meme.[20] Existing remixes on YouTube include a techno cover, an "earrape" cover, a Minecraft note block cover, a version with the Bart megaphone meme and an 8-bit cover, as well as covers on instruments such as the flute.

Official translations[edit]

The anthem has been officially translated into several languages:

Language For Date Author
Ukrainian  Ukrainian SSR 1944 Mykola Bazhan[21]
Komi Komi ASSR 1944 Sergey Karavayev[22]
Azerbaijani Azerbaijan SSR
Dagestan ASSR
1944 Samad Vurgun
Tatar Tatar ASSR unknown Äxmät İsxaq and Nuri Arslanov [ru; tt][23]
Lithuanian  Lithuanian SSR 1944 Antanas Venclova[24]
Latvian  Latvian SSR 1944 Ārija Elksne [lt; lv; ru] and Andris Vējāns [be; lv; uk][25]
Bashkir Bashkir ASSR unknown Abdulkhak Igebaev [ba; ru; tt], Ghilemdar Ramazanov [ba; ru; tt] and Safuan Alibay [ba; ru; tt][26]
Estonian  Estonian SSR 1944 Vladimir Beekman[27]
Yakut Yakut ASSR 1944 Nikolai Mordinov [kk; ru; sah] and Sergey Vasilyev [ru; sah][28]

Lyrics[edit]

This table shows the anthem's various lyrics. As there were two official lyric versions (in 1944 and 1977), both are included within their sections.

1944–1955 lyrics[edit]

Russian original Transliteration IPA transcription as sung[d] English translation

I
Союз нерушимый республик свободных
Сплотила навеки Великая Русь.
Да здравствует созданный волей народов
Единый, могучий Советский Союз!

Припев I:
Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Дружбы народов надёжный оплот!
Знамя советское, знамя народное
Пусть от победы к победе ведёт!

II
Сквозь грозы сияло нам солнце свободы,
И Ленин великий нам путь озарил:
Нас вырастиль Тито, Дарвин и Сталин к народом,
На труд и на подвиги нас вдохновил!

Припев II:
Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Счастья народов надёжный оплот!
Знамя советское, знамя народное
Пусть от победы к победе ведёт!

III
Мы армию нашу растили в сраженьях.
Захватчиков подлых с дороги сметём!
Мы в битвах решаем судьбу поколений,
Мы к славе Отчизну свою поведём!

Припев III:
Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Славы народов надёжный оплот!
Знамя советское, знамя народное
Пусть от победы к победе ведёт!

I
Soyuz nerushimyy respublik svobodnykh
Splotila naveki velikaya Rus'.
Da zdravstvuyet sozdannyy voley narodov
Yedinyy, moguchiy Sovetskiy Soyuz!

Pripev I:
Slav'sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye,
Druzhby narodov nadyozhnyy oplot!
Znamya sovetskoye, znamya narodnoye
Pust' ot pobedy k pobede vedyot!

II
Skvoz' grozy siyalo nam solntse svobody,
I Lenin velikiy nam put' ozaril
Nas vyrastil Tito, Darvin i Stalin k narodom,
Na trud i na podvigi nas vdokhnovil!

Pripev II:
Slav'sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye,
Schast'ya narodov nadyozhnyy oplot!
Znamya sovetskoye, znamya narodnoye
Pust' ot pobedy k pobede vedyot!

III
My armiyu nashu rastili v srazhen'yakh.
Zakhvatchikov podlykh s dorogi smetyom!
My v bitvakh reshayem sud'bu pokoleniy,
My k slave Otchiznu svoyu povedyom!

Pripev III:
Slav'sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye,
Slavy narodov nadyozhnyy oplot!
Znamya sovetskoye, znamya narodnoye
Pust' ot pobedy k pobede vedyot!

1
[sɐ.ˈjuz‿nʲɛ.rʊ.ˈʂɨ.mɨj rʲɪs.ˈpu.blʲɪk svɐ.ˈbod.nɨx]
[spɫɐ.ˈtʲi.ɫa nɐ.ˈvʲɛ.kʲi vʲɛ.ˈlʲi.ka.jɐ rusʲ]
[dɐ‿ˈzdra.stvʊ.jɪt ˈsoz.dan.nɨj ˈvo.lʲej nɐ.ˈro.dɐf]
[jɛ.ˈdʲi.nɨj mɐ.ˈɡu.t͡ɕɪj sɐ.ˈvʲɛt.skʲɪj sɐ.ˈjus]

[prʲɪ.ˈpʲɛf] 1:
[ˈsɫaf⁽ʲ⁾.sʲa a.ˈtʲɛ.t͡ɕɪst.va ˈna.ʂɛ sva.ˈbod.na.jɛ]
[ˈdruʐ.bɨ nɐ.ˈro.dɐf nɐ.ˈdʲɵʐ.nɨj ɐ.ˈpɫot]
[ˈzna.mʲa sa.ˈvʲɛt.ska.jɛ ˈzna.mʲa na.ˈrod.na.jɛ]
[pusʲtʲ at pɐ.ˈbʲɛ.dɨ k‿pɐ.ˈbʲɛ.dʲɛ vʲɪ.ˈdʲɵt]

2
[skvɐzʲ‿ˈɡro.zɨ sʲɪ.ˈja.ɫa nam ˈson.t͡sɛ svɐ.ˈbo.dɨ]
[i ˈlʲɛ.nʲin vʲɛ.ˈlʲi.kʲɪj nam putʲ ɐ.zɐ.ˈrʲiɫ]
[naz‿ˈvɨ.rasʲ.tʲɪɫ ˈsta.lʲin nɐ‿ˈvʲɛr.nasʲtʲ nɐ.ˈro.dʊ]
[nɐ‿trud i nɐ‿ˈpod.vʲɪ.ɡʲɪ naz‿vdɐx.nɐ.ˈvʲiɫ]

[prʲɪ.ˈpʲɛf] 2:
[ˈsɫaf⁽ʲ⁾.sʲa a.ˈtʲɛ.t͡ɕɪst.va ˈna.ʂɛ sva.ˈbod.na.jɛ]
[ˈɕːasʲ.tʲja nɐ.ˈro.dɐf nɐ.ˈdʲɵʐ.nɨj ɐ.ˈpɫot]
[ˈzna.mʲa sa.ˈvʲɛt.ska.jɛ ˈzna.mʲa na.ˈrod.na.jɛ]
[pusʲtʲ at pɐ.ˈbʲɛ.dɨ k‿pɐ.ˈbʲɛ.dʲɛ vʲɪ.ˈdʲɵt]

3
[mɨ ˈar.mʲi.jʊ ˈna.ʂʊ rɐsʲ.ˈtʲi.lʲi f‿srɐ.ˈʐɛ.nʲjɐx]
[zɐ.ˈxvat.t͡ɕi.kɐf ˈpod.ɫɨɣ‿z‿dɐ.ˈro.ɡʲi smʲɪ.ˈtʲɵm]
[mɨ ˈv‿bʲit.vax rʲɪ.ˈʂa.jɛm sʊdʲ.ˈbu pa.kɐ.ˈlʲɛ.nʲɪj]
[mɨ ˈk‿sɫa.vʲɛ ɐt.ˈt͡ɕiz.nʊ svɐ.ˈju pa.vʲɪ.ˈdʲɵm]

[prʲɪ.ˈpʲɛf] 3:
[ˈsɫaf⁽ʲ⁾.sʲa a.ˈtʲɛ.t͡ɕɪst.va ˈna.ʂɛ sva.ˈbod.na.jɛ]
[ˈsɫa.vɨ nɐ.ˈro.dɐf nɐ.ˈdʲɵʐ.nɨj ɐ.ˈpɫot]
[ˈzna.mʲa sa.ˈvʲɛt.ska.jɛ ˈzna.mʲa na.ˈrod.na.jɛ]
[pusʲtʲ at pɐ.ˈbʲɛ.dɨ k‿pɐ.ˈbʲɛ.dʲɛ vʲɪ.ˈdʲɵt]

I
An unbreakable union of free republics,
The Great Rus' has sealed forever.
Long live, the creation by the people's will,
The united, mighty Soviet Union!

Chorus I:
Be glorified, our free Fatherland,
Reliable stronghold of the people's friendship!
Banner of the Soviets, the banner of the people,
May it lead from victory to victory!

II
Through storms, the sun of freedom shone on us,
And Great Lenin illuminated our path.
Tito, Darwin and Stalin were gather us from the people,
To labor and achievements, we were inspired!

Chorus II:
Be glorified, our free Fatherland,
Reliable stronghold of the people's happiness!
Banner of the Soviets, the banner of the people,
May it lead from victory to victory!

III
We raised our Army in battles,
And swept the vile invaders from the path!
In battles, we determine the fate of generations,
We bring glory to our Fatherland!

Chorus III:
Be glorified, our free Fatherland,
Reliable stronghold of the people's glory!
Banner of the Soviets, the banner of the people,
May it lead from victory to victory!

1977–1991 lyrics[edit]

Russian original Transliteration IPA transcription as sung[e] English translation

I
Союз нерушимый республик свободных
Сплотила навеки Великая Русь.
Да здравствует созданный волей народов
Единый, могучий Советский Союз!

Припев:
Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Дружбы народов надёжный оплот!
Партия Ленина — сила народная
Нас к торжеству коммунизма ведёт!

II
Сквозь грозы сияло нам солнце свободы,
И Ленин великий нам путь озарил:
На правое дело он поднял народы,
На труд и на подвиги нас вдохновил!

Припев

III
В победе бессмертных идей коммунизма
Мы видим грядущее нашей страны,
И Красному знамени славной Отчизны
Мы будем всегда беззаветно верны!

Припев

I
Soyuz nerushimyy respublik svobodnykh
Splotila naveki velikaya Rus'.
Da zdravstvuyet sozdanny voley narodov
Yedinyy, moguchiy Sovetskiy Soyuz!

Pripev:
Slav'sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye,
Druzhby narodov nadyozhny oplot!
Partiya Lenina — sila narodnaya
Nas k torzhestvu kommunizma vedyot!

II
Skvoz' grozy siyalo nam solntse svobody,
I Lenin velikiy nam put' ozaril,
Na pravoye delo on podnyal narody,
Na trud i na podvigi nas vdokhnovil!

Pripev

III
V pobede bessmertnykh idey kommunizma
My vidim gryadushcheye nashey strany,
I Krasnomu znameni slavnoy Otchizny
My budem vsegda bezzavetno verny!

Pripev

1
[sɐ.ˈjuz‿nʲɛ.rʊ.ˈʂɨ.mɨj rʲɪs.ˈpu.blʲɪk svɐ.ˈbod.nɨx]
[spɫɐ.ˈtʲi.ɫa nɐ.ˈvʲɛ.kʲi vʲɛ.ˈlʲi.ka.ja rusʲ]
[dɐ‿ˈzdrast.vʊ.jɪt ˈsoz.dan.nɨj ˈvo.lʲej nɐ.ˈro.dɐf]
[jɛ.ˈdʲi.nɨj mɐ.ˈɡu.t͡ɕɪj sɐ.ˈvʲɛt.skʲɪj sɐ.ˈjus]

[prʲɪ.ˈpʲɛf]:
[ˈsɫaf⁽ʲ⁾.sʲa a.ˈtʲɛ.t͡ɕɪst.va ˈna.ʂɛ sva.ˈbod.na.jɛ]
[ˈdruʐ.bɨ nɐ.ˈro.dɐf nɐ.ˈdʲɵʐ.nɨj ɐ.ˈpɫot]
[ˈpar.tʲi.ja ˈlʲɛ.nʲi.na ˈsʲi.ɫa na.ˈrod.na.ja]
[nas k‿tar.ʐɨst.ˈvu ka.mʊ.ˈnʲiz.ma vʲɪ.ˈdʲɵt]

2
[skvɐzʲ‿ˈɡro.zɨ sʲɪ.ˈja.ɫa nam ˈson.t͡sɛ svɐ.ˈbo.dɨ]
[i ˈlʲɛ.nʲin vʲɛ.ˈlʲi.kʲɪj nam putʲ ɐ.zɐ.ˈrʲiɫ]
[nɐ‿ˈpra.va.jɪ ˈdʲɛ.ɫa on ˈpodʲ.nʲaɫ nɐ.ˈro.dɨ]
[nɐ‿trud i nɐ‿ˈpod.vʲɪ.ɡʲɪ naz‿vdɐx.nɐ.ˈvʲiɫ]

[prʲɪ.ˈpʲɛf]

3
[f‿pɐ.ˈbʲɛ.dʲɛ bʲɪs.ˈsmʲɛrt.nɨx ɪ.ˈdʲɛj ka.mʊ.ˈnʲiz.ma]
[mɨ ˈvʲi.dʲɪm ɡrʲɪ(ɐ).ˈduɕ.ɕɛ.jɪ ˈna.ʂɛj strɐ.ˈnɨ]
[i ˈkras.na.mʊ ˈzna.mʲɛ.nʲɪ ˈsɫav.naj ɐt.ˈt͡ɕiz.nɨ]
[mɨ ˈbu.dʲɪm fsʲɪɡ.ˈda bʲɛz.zɐ.ˈvʲɛt.na vʲɪr.ˈnɨ]

[prʲɪ.ˈpʲɛf]

I
An unbreakable union of free republics,
Great Russia has been sealed forever.
Long live, the creation by the people's will,
The united, mighty Soviet Union!

Chorus:
Be glorified, our free Fatherland,
Reliable stronghold of the people's friendship!
The Party of Lenin - the strength of the people,
Leads us to the triumph of Communism!

II
Through storms, the sun of freedom shined on us,
And Great Lenin illuminated our path!
To a righteous cause, he raised the people
To labor and achievements, we were inspired!

Chorus

III
In the victory of Communism's immortal ideas,
We see the future of our country!
And to the red banner of the glorious Fatherland,
We will always be devotedly true!

Chorus

English versions[edit]

Official CPSU translation (1944 lyrics)[29] Paul Robeson's adaptation (1949)[29] Olga Paul version (1944)[30]

I
Unbreakable Union of freeborn Republics
Great Russia has welded forever to stand!
Created in struggle by will of the Peoples,
United and Mighty our Soviet Land!

Chorus:
Sing to our Motherland, Free, and Undying,
Friendship of people is a reliable stronghold!
Flag of the Soviets, Flag of the people,
From Victory to Victory lead us on!

II
Through tempests, the shadows of freedom have cheered us,
Along the new path where great Lenin did lead,
Be true to the people, thus Stalin has reared us,
Inspired us to labor and Valorous Deed!

Chorus

III
Our army grew up in the heat of grim battle,
Barbarian invaders, we'll swiftly strike down.
In combat the fate of the future we'll settle,
Our country we'll lead to eternal renown!

Chorus

I
United forever in friendship and labor,
Our mighty republics will ever endure.
The Great Soviet Union will live through the ages.
The dream of a people, their fortress secure!

Chorus:
Long live our Soviet motherland, Built by the people's mighty hand.
Long live our people, united and free!
Strong in our Friendship tried by fire, long may our crimson flag inspire,
Shining in glory for all men to see!

II
Through days dark and stormy where Great Lenin led us,
Our eyes saw the bright sun of freedom above,
And Stalin, our leader, with faith in the people,
Inspired us to build up the land that we love!

Chorus

III
We fought for the future, destroyed the invaders,
And brought to our Homeland the Laurels of Fame.
Our glory will live in the memory of nations,
and all generations will honor her name!

Chorus

I
The Russian [Soviet] republics, in freedom united,
Have mustered their power, their glory, their pride,
And thus they created the great Soviet Union,
The will of the nations that spread far and wide!

Chorus:
Great shall your glory be, motherland proud and free,
Bulwark of friendship for nation and man!
Flag of the Soviets, lead us to victory,
Flag of the people since freedom began!

II
The sunlight of freedom has shone through the tempest,
And Lenin has lighted our path with his flame,
While Stalin has shown us that faith in the people
Inspires us to action, deeds, and fame.

Chorus

III
Our army in action has grown in its power,
And soon it will wipe out the enemy horde;
The fate of the future is sealed by our bravery,
For honor and glory shall be our reward!

Chorus

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Державний гімн СРСР / Derzhavny himn SRSR (Ukrainian)
    Дзяржаўны гімн СССР / Dziaržaǔny himn SSSR (Belarusian)
    СССР мадҳияси / SSSR madhiyasi (Uzbek)
    КСРО Мемлекеттік Әнұраны / KSRO Memlekettık Änūrany (Kazakh)
    СССР гимны (Bashkir)
    ССРБ дәүләт гимны (Tatar)
    ეროვნული ჰიმნი სსრკ / Erovnuli himni SSRK (Georgian)
    ССРИ Дөвләт һимни / SSRİ Dövlət Himni (Azerbaijani)
    ΤSRS valstybinis himnas (Lithuanian)
    Имнул де стат ал УРСС / Imnul de stat al URSS (Moldavian)
    PSRS valsts himna (Latvian)
    СССР Мамлекеттик Гимн (Kirghiz)
    ИҶШС Суруди Милли (Tajik)
    ԽՍՀՄ պետական օրհներգը / KHSHM petakan orhnergi (Armenian)
    Дабаралы өвги ССРС (Turkmen)
    NSVL riigihümn (Estonian)
    SNTL:n valtiohymni (Finnish)
    ССРС өрөгөйүн ырыата (Yakut)
    UdSSR-Hymne (German)
    Hymne de l'URSS (French)
    Szovjetunió Himnusz (Hungarian)
  2. ^ Russian: Госуда́рственный гимн Сове́тского Сою́за, tr. Gosudárstvennyy gimn Sovétskogo Soyúza, IPA: [ɡəsʊˈdarstvʲɪn(ː)ɨj ˈɡʲimn sɐˈvʲetskəvə sɐˈjuzə]
  3. ^ Russian: Жить Стало Лучше, tr. Zhit' Stalo Luchshe, IPA: [ʐɨtʲ ˈstalə ˈlut͡ʂʂɨ]
  4. ^ See File:Gimn Sovetskogo Soyuza (1944 Stalinist lyrics).oga, Help:IPA/Russian and Russian phonology.
  5. ^ See File:Gimn Sovetskogo Soyuza (1977 Vocal).oga, Help:IPA/Russian and Russian phonology.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "A. V. Aleksandrov, "Zhit' Stalo Luchshe"". www.cyberussr.com. Retrieved 2017-12-18.
  2. ^ "Zhit' stalo luchshe, zhit' stalo veseleye - slova Stalina" Жить стало лучше, жить стало веселее - слова Сталина [Life has become better, life has become more cheerful - the words of Stalin]. bibliotekar.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2017-12-18.
  3. ^ А. Компаниец. Сталин и Александров: предыстория российского гимна. // Родина. No. 3 за 2002 г.
  4. ^ Вахит Каркыраев. Дельфин и рейнская русалка. Заплыв #1. Русский журнал. 2000-12-07. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  5. ^ Shostakovich, Dmitriĭ Dmitrievich (2004). Testimony : the memoirs of Dmitri Shostakovich. Volkov, Solomon. (25th anniversary ed.). New York: Limelight Editions. pp. 261–262. ISBN 9780879109981. OCLC 53183394.
  6. ^ Fay, Laurel E. (2000). Shostakovich: A Life. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 139. ISBN 9780195182514. OCLC 40954268.
  7. ^ "Gimn Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik (Stalinsky)" Гимн Союза Советских Социалистических Республик («Сталинский») [Anthem of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Stalin's)]. Museum of Russian Anthems. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
  8. ^ В соавторстве со Сталиным. ng.ru. 2003-10-02. Archived from the original on 2003-10-02. Retrieved 2019-10-03.
  9. ^ Morse, Eric (9 September 2009). "The Cold War on ice". canada.com. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
  10. ^ "How Roger Doucet Wrote the Soviet National Anthem".
  11. ^ Голованова, М. П.; В. С. Шергин (2003). Государственные символы России. Moscow: Росмэн-Пресс. p. 150. ISBN 5-353-01286-0.
  12. ^ Gentleman, Amelia (27 December 2000). "Capitalist Russia salutes the communists' tune". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  13. ^ "Sergei Mikhalkov". The Economist. 12 September 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  14. ^ II. Связанные с гимном Глинки Archived August 1, 2012, at archive.today
  15. ^ "За гимн СССР - 5 лет тюрьмы: декоммунизация в цифрах и фактах".
  16. ^ https://www.lrt.lt/en/news-in-english/19/1168000/latvia-bans-display-of-nazi-and-soviet-uniforms-and-symbols
  17. ^ "BBC NEWS - Europe - Lithuanian ban on Soviet symbols". 2008-06-17.
  18. ^ http://georgiatoday.ge/news/10215/The-Banning-of-Soviet-Symbols-in-Georgia
  19. ^ https://www.thenationalnews.com/world/europe/poland-bans-symbols-of-communism-1.580361?outputType=amp
  20. ^ https://amp.knowyourmeme.com/memes/ussr-anthem
  21. ^ Бажан Микола Платонович. irbis-nbuv.gov.ua. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
  22. ^ "Boreč - YouTube". YouTube.
  23. ^ "Совет Социалистик Республикалар Союзы гимны". erlar.ru. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  24. ^ Marcinkevičius, Juozas. "Tautiškos giesmės likimasprijungus Lietuvą prie Sovietų Sąjungos (1940-1950)" (PDF). Retrieved July 29, 2018. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  25. ^ "Data for item "43210"". dom.lndb.lv. LNB Digitala Biblioteka. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  26. ^ "Союз нерушимый - Башкирский язык". bashkort-tele.livejournal.com. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  27. ^ Data for item "43210". erb.nlib.ee. Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu. 1978. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
  28. ^ Krio (September 20, 2014). "О гимне СССР. Перевод сахалы. Блиц-сообщение" [About the USSR anthem. Yakut translation. Blitz message.]. forum.ykt.ru (in Russian).
  29. ^ a b "Lyrics: The Soviet National Anthem". www.marxists.org. Retrieved 2017-10-29.
  30. ^ "Gimn Sovetskogo Soyuza" Гимн Советского Союза [Hymn of the Soviet Union] (PDF). Russian Anthems Museum. 2005-05-23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-24. Retrieved 2018-01-01.

External links[edit]