State Batteries in Western Australia

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State Batteries in Western Australia were government owned and run ore-crushing facilities for the gold mining industry. Western Australia was the only Australian state to provide batteries to assist gold prospectors and small mines.[1] They existed in almost all of the mineral fields of Western Australia.

State Batteries were gold batteries where ore was crushed to separate gold ore. Stamp mills were gauged by the number of heads they had in operation for the crushing of ore.[2]

Many of the government operated batteries had very short operating times, some for a year or two, while a few were 50 years or more in operation. They were part of the Western Australian Department of Mines operations.[3][4]

Origins[edit]

The first private battery in Kalgoorlie was constructed at the Croesus mine in 1894.[5] As early as 1897 there was consideration of ore-crushing facilities being funded by private or government means.[6][7] The first government battery was constructed at Norseman in 1898.[8] But by 1906 there was a Batteries Inquiry Board.[9]

Decline[edit]

In the 1930s, despite the depression, a significant number still operated.[10] There were close to 100 operating Batteries in Western Australia – either private or Government in 1949, and by 1958 there were less than 50.[11] currently there are no operating batteries.

By 1982 a Government review of State Battery operations[12] eventuated in a functional review,[13] and the eventual closure of State Batteries in 1987.[14][15][16]

List[edit]

[17]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sheppard, RT (2001), "West Australian Government Stamp Batteries 1898 to 1987", Eleventh National Conference on Engineering Heritage: Federation Engineering a Nation; Proceedings, Institution of Engineers, Australia: 183–191, ISBN 978-1-74092-215-9
  2. ^ http://booksgeology.com/mining_history_illustrations.htm for explanations of operations
  3. ^ Western Australia. Dept. of Mines. State Batteries Branch (1935), Scale of crushing charges at State Batteries, retrieved 19 April 2012
  4. ^ Ware, Harry.1976 History of state batteries of Western Australia / Typescript in Battye Library
  5. ^ Dwyer, J.J. (John Joseph); HRRC (1900), Kalgoorlie's first battery, erected on Croesus Mine in 1894, retrieved 20 April 2012
  6. ^ Editorial considers the provision of publicly funded versus privately funded batteries. Golden age, 13 Dec. 1897, p.4,
  7. ^ Bogle, William. Government crushing batteries. Letter supporting government funding of batteries. West Australian, 10 June 1897, p.6
  8. ^ "AU WA A241 - Bamboo Creek State Battery". State Records Office of WA. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  9. ^ Western Australia. State Batteries Inquiry Board. Report and recommendations of the State Batteries Inquiry Board. Perth [W.A.] : The Board, 1906. in Battye Library
  10. ^ Western Mail (Perth, W.A.) (1933), The golden west The "Western Mail" map showing the auriferous areas of Western Australia, Western Mail, retrieved 19 April 2012 Includes information on State Batteries, prospecting activity and has advertisements in margins. Published as centrefold (p. 24-25) in the Western Mail 11 May 1933.
  11. ^ page 263 of Official Yearbook Australian Bureau of Statistics. Western Australian Office (1960), Western Australian yearbook, Commonwealth of Australia, retrieved 19 April 2012)
  12. ^ http://aeon.sro.wa.gov.au/Investigator/Details/Item_Detail.asp?Entity=Global&Search=state%20batteries&Op=All&Page=1&Id=427540&SearchPage=Global
  13. ^ http://aeon.sro.wa.gov.au/Investigator/Details/Item_Detail.asp?Entity=Global&Search=state%20batteries&Op=All&Page=1&Id=427508&SearchPage=Global
  14. ^ http://aeon.sro.wa.gov.au/Investigator/Details/Item_Detail.asp?Entity=Global&Search=state%20batteries&Op=All&Page=1&Id=426356&SearchPage=Global
  15. ^ State government to close nine of the 13 state batteries. West Australian, 4 September 1987, p.29
  16. ^ Halligan, R. (Robert); Heritage Council of Western Australia (1994), Preliminary study of mining heritage in Western Australia : interviews on state batteries, Heritage Council of Western Australia, retrieved 19 April 2012
  17. ^ This list was first made from Higham, G. J; Geoproject Solutions (2004), Where WAS that? : an historical gazetteer of Western Australia (1st ed.), Geoproject Solutions Pty Ltd, ISBN 978-0-646-44186-3 where state battery was part of the name of the entry
  18. ^ "Some rich crushings". The Sunday Times. Perth. 20 August 1933. p. 3 Section: First Section. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  19. ^ "Some Bulong crushings". Kalgoorlie Western Argus. WA. 27 February 1906. p. 5. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  20. ^ "Coolgardie State Battery". Western Argus. Kalgoorlie, WA. 12 August 1930. p. 5. Retrieved 20 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  21. ^ Hughes, Evan E; Kalgoorlie Metallurgical Laboratory; Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (Australia) (1948), Analyses of scheelite concentrates and residues from Coolgardie State Battery, CSIR, retrieved 20 April 2012
  22. ^ "Mining". Geraldton Guardian and Express. WA. 11 April 1931. p. 1. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  23. ^ "Desdemona". Kalgoorlie Western Argus. WA. 23 November 1909. p. 2. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  24. ^ "Linden". Kalgoorlie Western Argus. WA. 6 October 1908. p. 3. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  25. ^ "Duketon State Battery". Kalgoorlie Western Argus. WA. 11 July 1905. p. 7. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  26. ^ "Recent crushings". The Sunday Times. Perth. 10 March 1935. p. 19 Section: First Section. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  27. ^ "Good yields". The West Australian. Perth. 27 September 1938. p. 12. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  28. ^ "AU WA A981 - State Batteries - Kalgoorlie". State Records Office of WA. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  29. ^ "Kalpini State Battery". Kalgoorlie Western Argus. WA. 25 December 1906. p. 7. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  30. ^ "Mining and stocks and shares". The West Australian. Perth. 2 May 1911. p. 6. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  31. ^ "LAVERTON STATE BATTERY". Laverton Mercury. XII (680). Western Australia. 20 May 1916. p. 1. Retrieved 8 March 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  32. ^ "LAVERTON STATE BATTERY". Kalgoorlie Miner. 47 (12, 135). Western Australia. 22 May 1941. p. 1. Retrieved 8 March 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  33. ^ Known to be operating between 1907 and 1936 "LEONORA STATE BATTERY". The Mt. Leonora Miner. 8 (452). Western Australia. 26 January 1907. p. 2. Retrieved 8 March 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  34. ^ "LEONORA STATE BATTERY". Western Argus. 42 (2426). Western Australia. 15 December 1936. p. 6. Retrieved 8 March 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  35. ^ "LINDEN STATE BATTERY". Western Argus. Kalgoorlie, WA. 5 May 1931. p. 3. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  36. ^ "State battery returns". Kalgoorlie Western Argus. WA. 5 September 1911. p. 30. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  37. ^ "MARVEL LOCH". Kalgoorlie Miner. 18 (5321). Western Australia. 23 October 1912. p. 3. Retrieved 8 March 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  38. ^ A new battery established in 1949/1950 "Crushings At Marvel Loch". Sunday Times (2734). Perth. 23 July 1950. p. 29 (Sporting Section). Retrieved 8 March 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  39. ^ "Yalgoo goldfield". The Daily News (THIRD EDITION ed.). Perth. 2 June 1910. p. 7. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  40. ^ "MENZIES STATE BATTERY". Kalgoorlie Western Argus. XIII (651). Western Australia. 7 May 1907. p. 6. Retrieved 8 March 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  41. ^ "MENZIES STATE BATTERY". Kalgoorlie Western Argus. XX (998). Western Australia. 30 December 1913. p. 4. Retrieved 8 March 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  42. ^ "Mining news". The West Australian. Perth. 11 October 1922. p. 7. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  43. ^ "The mining industry". The West Australian. Perth. 17 September 1912. p. 9. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  44. ^ "Yilgarn". Western Mail. Perth. 18 April 1913. p. 21. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  45. ^ "Mining news". The West Australian. Perth. 26 April 1922. p. 8. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  46. ^ Western Australia. Dept. of Lands and Surveys (1890), Mines & batteries from Kalgoorlie to Sir Samuel & Lake Way, The Dept, retrieved 19 April 2012
  47. ^ "MINISTER ON TOUR". The West Australian. XXX (3, 778). Western Australia. 26 May 1914. p. 8. Retrieved 8 March 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  48. ^ 1905 complaint by prospector re condition and operating standards "Mulwarrie State Battery". The Sun (337). Kalgoorlie. 19 February 1905. p. 6. Retrieved 8 March 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  49. ^ "THE NANNINE STATE BATTERY". Geraldton Guardian. I (64). Western Australia. 14 May 1907. p. 3. Retrieved 8 March 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  50. ^ "Norseman State Battery". Kalgoorlie Miner. 56 (15, 789). Western Australia. 12 October 1950. p. 1. Retrieved 8 March 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  51. ^ "Ora Banda State Battery". The Sunday Times. Perth. 29 July 1934. p. 13 Section: First Section. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  52. ^ "The Paddington Battery Fire". The West Australian. Perth. 14 February 1899. p. 5. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  53. ^ "Mining". Western Mail. Perth. 27 April 1939. p. 48. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  54. ^ "State Battery returns". Kalgoorlie Western Argus. WA. 14 December 1909. p. 5. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  55. ^ "December yields". Kalgoorlie Western Argus. WA. 3 February 1914. p. 5. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  56. ^ "State batterie". The Daily News. Perth. 12 November 1910. p. 5. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  57. ^ "NEW SANTA CLAUS CRUSHING". The Daily News. Perth. 4 December 1909. p. 9. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  58. ^ from evidence – there never was a state battery, it was at commercial mines that batteries existed – such as Battery at Floater Mine, Ravensthorpe, 1908, retrieved 8 March 2017
  59. ^ "State batteries". The West Australian. Perth. 18 February 1929. p. 13. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  60. ^ 1903 opening – "TELEGRAPHIC". Kalgoorlie Miner. 8 (19030). Western Australia. 1 December 1903. p. 5. Retrieved 8 March 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  61. ^ "Mining news". The West Australian. Perth. 26 July 1917. p. 4. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  62. ^ "YALGOO GOLDFIELD". The West Australian. Perth. 30 November 1940. p. 11. Retrieved 20 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  63. ^ "GOVERNMENT BATTERY, WIDGIEMOULTHA". Western Mail. Perth. 29 June 1907. p. 21. Retrieved 20 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  64. ^ "COOLGARDIE MINING NOTES". Kalgoorlie Western Argus. WA. 12 November 1907. p. 5. Retrieved 20 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  65. ^ "WILUNA STATE BATTERY". Western Argus. Kalgoorlie, WA. 19 November 1935. p. 3. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  66. ^ "YALGOO STATE BATTERY". The Sunday Times. Perth. 12 April 1936. p. 17 Section: First Section. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  67. ^ "YARRI". The Sunday Times. Perth. 13 January 1935. p. 3 Section: First Section. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  68. ^ "YERILLA,". Kalgoorlie Western Argus. WA. 25 December 1900. p. 49. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  69. ^ "YOUANMI". Western Mail. Perth. 21 July 1916. p. 20. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  70. ^ "YUNDAMINDERA". Western Argus. Kalgoorlie, WA. 19 August 1919. p. 5. Retrieved 19 April 2012 – via National Library of Australia.