State of Vietnam
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|State of Vietnam|
|État du Viêt-Nam
Quốc gia Việt Nam
|Associated state of the French Union;
constituent territory of French Indochina until 1954
"Thanh niên Hành Khúc"
(English: "The March of Youths")
|Chief of State|
|•||1954–1955||Ngô Đình Diệm|
|Historical era||Cold War|
|•||Merger of Cochinchina, Annam, and Tonkin||June 14, 1949|
|•||1955 referendum||October 26, 1955|
|•||1955||173,809 km² (67,108 sq mi)|
|Density||69 /km² (178.8 /sq mi)|
The State of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Quốc gia Việt Nam) was a state that claimed authority over all of Vietnam during the First Indochina War although it controlled about under 5% of national territory of Vietnam. The provisional government was a brief transitional administration between colonial Cochinchina and an independent state. The state was created in 1949 and was internationally recognized in 1950, although its main power was mainly in a small part of the south, whereas the Democratic Republic of Vietnam mainly dominated almost Vietnamese territory. Former emperor Bảo Đại was chief of state (Quốc Trưởng). Ngô Đình Diệm was appointed prime minister in 1954, and after ousting Bảo Đại the following year, became president of the Republic of Vietnam.
- 1 History
- 2 Politics
- 3 Military
- 4 Economy
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Unification of Vietnam (1947–48)
Since the August Revolution, Viet Minh had seized all of territories of Vietnam. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was established by Viet Minh on September 2, 1945 and the DRV had controlled all of territories of Vietnam.
By February 1947, following the pacification of Tonkin (North Vietnam), the Tonkinese capital, Hanoi, and the main traffic axis returned under French control. The derouted Việt Minh partisans were forced to retreat into the jungle and prepared to pursue the war using guerrilla warfare.
In order to reduce Việt Minh leader Hồ Chí Minh's influence over the Vietnamese population, the French authorities in Indochina supported the return to power of the emperor (last ruler of the Nguyễn Dynasty), Bảo Đại by establishing puppet states, including the State of Vietnam. Bao Dai had voluntarily abdicated on August 25, 1945, after the fall of the short-lived Empire of Vietnam, a puppet state of the Empire of Japan.
On June 5, 1948, the Halong Bay Agreements (Accords de la baie d’Along) allowed the creation of a unified State of Vietnam replacing the Tonkin (North Vietnam), Annam (Middle Vietnam) and the Republic of Cochinchina (South Vietnam) associated to France within the French Union then including the neighboring Kingdom of Laos and Kingdom of Cambodia. However, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam had declared the independence of Vietnam and had control almost Vietnam's territory since September 2, 1945. Besides that, the DRV had also hosted the 1946 Vietnamese National Assembly election with the participation of 89% voter in Vietnam (North and South). The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, had officially become the constitutional representatives of Vietnam in 1946.
Since the Halong Bay Agreements resulted in many aspects—excluding the referendum—in the enforcement of the March 6, 1946, Indochinese Independence Convention signed by Communist Hồ Chí Minh’s Democratic Republic of Vietnam and High Commissioner of France in Indochina Admiral Thierry d'Argenlieu, representative of Félix Gouin's Provisional French Republic led by the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO), some regarded the State of Vietnam as a puppet state of the French Fourth Republic.
French Union (1949–54)
Bảo Đại fought against communist leader Hồ Chí Minh for legitimacy as the legitimate government of the entire Vietnam through the struggle between the Vietnamese National Army and the Việt Minh during the First Indochina War.
The State of Vietnam found support in the French Fourth Republic and the United States (1950–1954) while Hồ Chí Minh was backed by the People's Republic of China (since 1950), and to a lesser extent by the Soviet Union.
After the Geneva Conference of 1954, as well as becoming fully independent with its departure from the French Union, the State of Vietnam became territorially confined to those lands of Vietnam south of the 17th parallel, and as such became commonly known as Republic of Vietnam.
Provisional Central Government of Vietnam (1948–49)
On May 27, 1948, Nguyễn Văn Xuân, then President of the Republic of Cochin China, became President of the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam (Thủ tướng lâm thời) following the merging of the government of Cochin China and Vietnam in what is sometimes referred as "Pre-Vietnam".
State of Vietnam (1949–55)
On June 14, 1949, Bảo Đại was appointed Chief of State (Quoc Truong) of the State of Vietnam; he was concurrently Prime Minister for a short while (Kiêm nhiệm Thủ tướng).
On October 26, 1955, the Republic of Vietnam was established and Ngô Đình Diệm became the first President of the Republic.
|Name||Took office||Left office||Title|
|Nguyễn Văn Xuân||May 27, 1948||July 14, 1949||President of the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam|
|1||Bảo Đại||July 14, 1949||January 21, 1950||Prime Minister; remained Chief of State throughout the State of Vietnam|
|2||Nguyễn Phan Long||January 21, 1950||April 27, 1950||Prime Minister|
|3||Trần Văn Hữu||May 6, 1950||June 3, 1952||Prime Minister|
|4||Nguyễn Văn Tâm||June 23, 1952||December 7, 1953||Prime Minister|
|5||Bửu Lộc||January 11, 1954||June 16, 1954||Prime Minister|
|6||Ngô Đình Diệm||June 16, 1954||October 26, 1955||Prime Minister|
1955 referendum, Republic of Vietnam
Following the referendum's results the State of Vietnam ceased to exist on October 26, 1955, and was replaced by the Republic of Vietnam—widely known as South Vietnam—whose reformed army, under American "protection", pursued the struggle against communism; the Việt Cộng replaced the Viet Minh, in the Vietnam War.
Vietnamese National Army (1949–55)
It fought under the State of Vietnam's banner and leadership and was commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Hinh.
The currency used within the French Union was the French Indochinese piastre. Notes were issued and managed by the "Issue Institute of the States of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam" (Institut d’Emission des Etats du Cambodge, du Laos et du Viêt-Nam).
Provisional Central Government of Vietnam
|State of Vietnam
1949 - 1955
Republic of Vietnam