Stateless nation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

A stateless nation is an ethnic/national minority that does not possess its own state[1] and is not the majority population in any nation state.[2] The term "stateless" itself seems to imply that the group "should have" such a state.[3] Members of stateless ethnic groups may be citizens/nationals of the country in which they live, or they may be denied citizenship by that country. Stateless nations are usually not represented as a nation in international sports such as FIFA, Olympics or in international communities such as the United Nations. Nations without state are classified as fourth world nations.[4][5][6] Some of the stateless nations have a history of statehood, some were always a stateless nation, dominated by another nation.

Stateless nations either are dispersed across a number of states (for example, the Yoruba people are found in the African states of Nigeria, Benin and Togo) or form the native population of a province within a larger state (such as the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region within the People's Republic of China). Some stateless nations historically had a state, which was absorbed by another; for example, Tibet's declaration of independence in 1913 was not recognized, and it was invaded in 1951 by the People's Republic of China which claims that Tibet is an integral part of China, while the Tibetan government-in-exile maintains that Tibet is an independent state under unlawful occupation.[7][8] Some ethnic groups were once a stateless nation that later became a nation state (for example, the nations of the Balkans such as the Croats, Serbs, Bosniaks, Slovenes, Montenegrins, Kosovars and Macedonians were once part of a multinational state of Yugoslavia; since the breakup of Yugoslavia many nation states were formed).

Stateless nations can have large populations. For example, the Tamils are a stateless nation in South Asia[9] with a population of more than 75 million.[10] They form one of the largest ethnic groups in South India.[10] Governments may respond differently to stateless nations in their states. For example, the suppression of the Tamil people in Sri Lanka [11] led to the Sri Lankan civil war between 1983 and 2009, one of the longest and most violent separatist conflicts.[9] However, a similar ethnic conflict was absent among Tamils in India during this period, because they were peacefully integrated into the federal structure of India.[12] Multiple stateless nations can reside in the same region; for example, Catalans, Basques, Aragonese, Galicians, Asturians, Valencians and Andalusians in the Iberian peninsula, or the Brahui, Santhals and Balochs in South Asia.[13]

The Romani people are another stateless people. They may be a special case being distributed among numerous countries with no clear homeland; as a traditionally "nomadic" people, the Romani/Roma are a classical "stateless nation" without aspiration to sovereign territory. As not all states are nation states, there are a number of ethnic groups who live in a multinational state without being considered "stateless nations".

Nation-states and nations without states[edit]

The symbiotic relation between nations and states arose in early modern Western Europe (18th century) and it was exported to the rest of the world through colonial rule. Whereas the Western European nation-states are at present relinquishing some of their powers to the European Union, many of the former colonies are now the zealous defenders of the concept of nation-state.[3]

Only a small fraction of the world's national groups have associated nation-states. The proportion was estimated to be 3 percent by Minahan. The rest are distributed in one or more states. Of the 192 member states of the United Nations in 2006, fewer than 20 are nation-states. Thus nation-states are not as common as often assumed, and stateless nations are the overwhelming majority of nations in the world.[3]

Consequences of colonialism and imperialism[edit]

During the imperial and colonial era, powerful nations extended their influence outside their homeland and this resulted in many colonized nations ceasing to be self-governing and have since been described as stateless nations.[14] Some nations have been victims of "carve out" and their homeland was divided among several countries. Even today the colonial boundaries form modern national boundaries. These often differ from cultural boundaries. This results in situations where people of the same language or culture are divided by national borders, for example New Guinea splits as West Papua (former Dutch colony) and Papua New Guinea (former British colony).[15] During decolonization, the colonial powers imposed a unified state structure irrespective of the ethnic differences and granted independence to their colonies as a multinational state. This led states with many minority ethnic groups in the successor states.[16][17][18] Some of these minority groups have campaigned for self-determination. Because of the ethnic differences in some countries, problems such as discrimination, ethnic conflict, separatism, ethnic cleansing, genocide, forced assimilation, and partition have occurred.[19][20]

Nationalism and stateless nations[edit]

People with a common origin, history, language, culture, customs or religion can turn into a nation by awakening of national consciousness.[21] A nation can exist without a state, as is exemplified by the stateless nations. Citizenship is not always the nationality of a person.[22] In a multinational state different national identities can coexist or compete: for example, in Britain both English nationalism and Scottish nationalism exist and are held together by British nationalism.[23] Nationalism is often connected to separatism, because a nation achieves completeness through its independence.[24]

Throughout history, numerous nations declared their independence, but not all succeeded in establishing a state. Even today, there are active autonomy and independence movements around the world. The claim of the stateless nations to self-determination is often denied due to Geopolitical interests and increasing globalization of the world.[25][26][27][28] Stateless nations sometimes show solidarity with other stateless nations.[29][30]

Not all peoples claim themselves to be nations or aspire for a state. Some identify themselves more as part of the multinational state and believe that their interests are well represented by it. This is also associated with Pan-nationalism. (Spanish nationalism, Indian nationalism or Chinese nationalism).[31]

Claims of stateless nations[edit]

The following is a list of stateless nations that meet these criteria:

People Flag Language Predominant religion Population (approx.) Continent States Homeland Irredentist movement Notes
Tamil people
Bicolor flag of Tamil Eelam.svg
Tamil language Hinduism with significant Christian and Muslim minorities 78,000,000[35] Asia Sri Lanka and India Tamilakam and Tamil Eelam Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism, Tamil nationalism, LTTE, Sri Lankan Civil War, TNLA [36], TGTE Regional autonomy in Tamil Nadu (India). Demand autonomy in North Eastern Province or total secession from Sri Lanka.
African American people
Flag of the UNIA.svg
African American Vernacular English, American English Christianity, minority Islam 45,000,000 America United States and Canada Republic of New Afrika Black Nationalism, Communist Party USA, Black Panther Party, Black Liberation Army African Americans are an Ethno-racial group. Some aspire to establish an autonomous African American state in the Southeastern United States.
Flag of Sindhudesh.svg
Sindhi Islam 40,000,000[37] Asia Pakistan Sindhudesh JSQM, JSMM, Sindhudesh Liberation Army
Yoruba people
Flag of the Yoruba people.svg
Yoruba language Christianity 35,000,000[38][39] Africa Nigeria, Benin and Togo Yorubaland Oodua Peoples Congress
Flag of Kurdistan.svg
Kurdish Islam 32,000,000[40] Asia Iraq, Turkey, Iran and Syria Kurdistan Kurdish–Turkish conflict, Kurdish-Iranian conflict, Iraqi-Kurdish conflict, and Kurdish–Syrian conflict Regional autonomy in Iraqi Kurdistan and Rojava.
Igbo people
Flag of Biafra.svg
Igbo language Christianity 30,000,000[41] Africa Nigeria Biafra Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, Indigenous People of Biafra
Punjabi language Sikhism 30,000,000[42] Asia India and Pakistan Khalistan Khalistan movement Majority in Indian State of Punjab. Sikhs are a ethnoreligious group.
Occitan people
Flag of Occitania (with star).svg
Occitan, French Christianity 16,000,000 Europe France, Italy and Spain (Val d'Aran) Occitania Occitan nationalism (Occitan Party, Partit de la Nacion Occitana, Libertat)
Uyghur people
Kokbayraq flag.svg
Uyghur language Islam 15,000,000[43] Asia China East Turkestan Irredentism is politically fragmented (East Turkestan Liberation Organization, East Turkestan independence movement) Limited autonomy in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.
Zulu people
Conjectural flag of Zululand (1884-1897) by Roberto Breschi taken from The South African Flag Book by A.P.Burgers.png
Zulu language Christianity, Zulu religion 12,159,000[44] Africa South Africa, Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Swaziland KwaZulu-Natal Inkatha Freedom Party Limited autonomy in the KwaZulu-Natal region, which maintains a traditional Zulu king.
Baloch people
Flag of Balochistan.png
Balochi Islam 10,000,000[45] Asia Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan Balochistan Balochistan conflict
Kabyle people
Kabyle language, Algerian Arabic Islam 10,000,000[46] Africa Algeria Kabylie Movement for the Autonomy of Kabylie, Provisional Government of Kabylia
Andalusian people
Flag of Andalucía.svg
Andalusian Spanish Christianity 9,500,000 Europe Spain Andalucia Andalusian nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
Puerto Rican people
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg
Spanish, English Christianity 9,000,000 America United States Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña, Boricua Popular Army, Puerto Rican Independence Party Unincorporated territory of the United States.
Catalan people
Flag of Catalonia.svg
Catalan, Spanish, French, Aranese Christianity 8,500,000[47] Europe Spain and France Catalonia Catalan independence movement, Catalan nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
Mon people
Mon National Party.svg
Mon language Buddhism 8,145,500 Asia Myanmar, Thailand Mon State Mon Nationalism, Mon National Party, All Mon Region Democracy Party
Flag of Adygea.svg
Circassian language Islam 8,000,000 Europe Russia Circassia Russo-Circassian War, Circassian nationalism Regional autonomy in Circassia.
Hong Kong people
Hong Kong Autonomy Movement Flag.svg
Hong Kong Cantonese, Hong Kong English Chinese folk religion 7,184,000 Asia China Hong Kong Hong Kong Autonomy Movement, Hong Kong independence movement Special Administrative Region.
Karen people
Karen National Union Flag.png
Karen language Theravada Buddhism, Christianity 7,000,000 Asia Thailand, Myanmar Karen State Karen Nationalism, Karen National Union, Karen National Liberation Army
Maya peoples
Maya flag.svg
Mayan languages Christianity, Maya religion 7,000,000 America Guatemala, Mexico, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador Mesoamerica Pan-Maya movement, Rigoberta Menchú
Flag of Tatarstan.svg
Tatar language Islam 7,000,000 Europe Russia Tatarstan All-Tatar Public Center Regional autonomy in Tatarstan.
Tibetan people
Flag of Tibet.svg
Tibetan language Buddhism 7,000,000[48] Asia China Tibet Tibetan independence movement Limited autonomy in the Tibet Autonomous Region.
Indian Gorkha
Flag of Gurkhaland.svg
Nepali language Hinduism 6,360,000[49] Asia India Gorkhaland Gorkha National Liberation Front, Gorkha Janmukti Morcha Gorkhaland is a proposed state in India demanded by the people of the Darjeeling Hills and the people of Indian Gorkhas ethnic origin on the Northern part of West Bengal.
Flag of Quebec.svg
French language Christianity 6,200,000 America Canada Quebec Quebec sovereignty movement The total population of the Province of Quebec is 7.9 million, of which 6.2 million are French speakers.
Riffian people
Flag of the Republic of the Rif.svg
Riffian language Islam 6,000,000[50] Africa Morocco and Spain Rif Rif War, Rif Republic 95% of the land is controlled by Morocco with the rest being controlled by the Spanish territories of Ceuta and Melilla as autonomous cities.
Shan people
Flag of the Shan State.svg
Shan language Buddhism 6,000,000 Asia Burma Shan State Declaration of independence in 2005; see also Hso Khan Pha
Kashmiri people
Kashmir independent.svg
Kashmiri language Islam 5,600,000 Asia India, Pakistan and China Kashmir Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir Administered by India (Kashmir Valley, Jammu, Ladakh), Pakistan (Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan) and China (Aksai Chin).
Flag of Wallonia.svg
Walloon, French, Picard, German Christianity 5,200,000 Europe Belgium Wallonia Partition of Belgium, Walloon Movement Regional autonomy in Wallonia; seeks independence from Belgium or reunion with France.
Lozi people
Flag of Barotseland.svg
Lozi Christianity 5,153,000 Africa Zambia Barotseland Barotse Patriotic Front[51]
Kuki people
Flag of Chin State.svg
Kukish languages Christianity 5,000,000 Asia Burma and India Mizoram and Chin State Mizo National Front, Chin National Front, Kuki National Army Kuki people are known as Chin in Chin state and Mizo in Mizoram state.
Scottish people
Flag of Scotland.svg
Scottish Gaelic, Scots, English Christianity 5,000,000 (only Scotland)[52] Europe United Kingdom Scotland Scottish independence Regional autonomy in Scotland.
Sicilian Flag.svg
Sicilian, Italian, Gallo-Italic of Sicily, Arbëresh Christianity 5,000,000 (only Sicily) Europe Italy Sicily Sicilian nationalism Regional autonomy in Sicily.
Valencian people
Senyera del nacionalisme valencià.svg
Valencian, Spanish Christianity 5,000,000 Europe Spain Valencian Country Valencian nationalism, Valencianism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
Northern Irish people[54]
Flag of the Ulster Nation.svg
English, Ulster Scots, Irish Christianity 1,810,863 Europe United Kingdom Northern Ireland Ulster nationalism Independence for Northern Ireland.
Acehnese people
Flag of Aceh.svg
Acehnese language Islam 4,200,000[55] Asia Indonesia Aceh Insurgency in Aceh Regional autonomy in Aceh.
Hmong people
Hmong flag.svg
Hmong language Buddhism with native 4,000,000 Asia Laos, China, Vietnam and Thailand Hmong ChaoFa Federated State Insurgency in Laos
Rohingya people
Flag of Rahmanland (Rohingya).png
Rohingya language Islam 3,600,000 Asia Burma Rohang State Rohingya insurgency in Western Myanmar
Afrikaner Vryheidsvlag.svg
Afrikaans Christianity 3,500,000 Africa South Africa and Namibia Volkstaat Afrikaner Nationalism, Freedom Front Afrikaners are an Ethno-racial group. Demand autonomy or total secession from South Africa.
Assyrian people
Flag of Assyria.svg
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Turoyo, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Christianity 3,300,000[56] Asia Syria, Iraq, Iran and Turkey Assyria Assyrian nationalism, Assyrian independence movement
Breton people
Flag of Brittany (Gwenn ha du).svg
Breton, French, Gallo Christianity 3,120,288 Europe France Brittany Breton nationalism
Basque people
Flag of the Basque Country.svg
Basque Christianity 3,000,000[57] Europe France and Spain Basque Country Basque nationalism
Iraqi Turkmen people
Flag of Iraq Turkmen FrontVEC.svg
Turkish language, Azerbaijani language Islam 3,000,000 Asia Iraq Turkmeneli Iraqi Turkmen Front Not to be confused with Syrian Turkmen of Latakia or Central Asian Turkmens of Turkmenistan who share only their ethnonym.[58]
Welsh people
Flag of Wales 2.svg
Welsh, English Christianity 3,000,000 Europe United Kingdom Wales Welsh independence Regional autonomy in Wales.
Galician people
Bandeira galega civil.svg
Galician language Christianity 2,800,000 Europe Spain Galiza Galician nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
Kachin people
Kachin Independence Army flag.svg
Jingpo, Zaiwa, Maru, Lashi, Azi Buddhism, Christianity, Animism 2,750,000 (2002)[59] Asia Burma Kachin State Kachin Independence Army, Kachin Independence Organisation, Kachin conflict The tribes of Kachin Hills form the Kachin Nation.
Aragonese people
Flag of Aragon.svg
Aragonese language Christianity 2,278,000 (Spain only)[60] Europe Spain Aragon Aragonese nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
Chechen people
Flag of Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.svg
Chechen language Islam 2,000,000 Europe Russia Chechnya Chechen insurgency, Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Regional autonomy in Chechnya.
Naga people
Unofficial flag of Nagaland.svg
Tibeto-Burman dialects / Nagamese creole Christianity 2,000,000 Asia India Nagaland Naga National Council, Insurgency in Northeast India Regional autonomy in Nagaland.
Flag of Alsace (historical).svg
Alsatian Christianity ~1,800,000 Europe France Alsace Alsace independence movement, Alsace First, Unser Land
Sardinian people[61][62][63][64]
Bandera nacionalista sarda.svg
Sardinian, Corso-Sardinian, Italian, Catalan, Ligurian Christianity 1,661,521 Europe Italy Sardinia Sardinian nationalism National devolution, further autonomy or total secession from Italy.
Canarian people
Guanche language (extinct), Spanish Christianity 1,600,000 Africa Spain Canary Islands Canarian nationalism National devolution, further autonomy or total secession from Mainland Spain.
Ryukyuan people
Flag of Republic Ryukyu Independists.png
Ryukyuan, Japanese Buddhism 1,600,000[65] Asia Japan Ryukyu Islands Ryukyu independence movement
Flag of Frisia.svg
Frisian, Dutch, German Christianity 1,500,000 Europe Netherlands and Germany Frisia Frisian National Party, Groep fan Auwerk The creation of a new Frisian state.
Bodo people
Bandera Bodoland.svg
Bodo language Hinduism 1,300,000 Asia India Bodoland National Democratic Front of Bodoland
Tuareg people
MNLA flag.svg
Tuareg language Islam 1,200,000 Africa Mali and Niger Azawad Tuareg rebellion (2012)
Flag of the Mapuches.svg
Mapudungun Christianity 1,000,000[66] America Argentina and Chile Araucanía Mapuche conflict
Asturian people
Flag of Asturias.svg
Asturian language Christianity 925,000 (2002)[67] Europe Spain Asturias Asturian nationalism, See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
POL województwo śląskie flag.svg
Silesian, Polish, German, Czech Christianity 900,000 Europe Poland, Czech Republic and Germany Silesia Silesian Autonomy Movement Divided into Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia.
Lezgian flag.svg
Lezgian Islam 800,000+ Europe Russia, Azerbaijan Lezgistan Lezgin Nationalism Unification of the Lezgin people in Azerbaijan and Dagestan (Russia).
Māori people
Tino Rangatiratanga Maori sovereignty movement flag.svg
Māori, English Christianity with native 750,000 Oceania New Zealand New Zealand Māori protest movement
Australian Aborigines
Australian Aboriginal Flag.svg
Aboriginal languages Christianity with native 680,000 Oceania Australia Australia Movement is fragmented or focused on specific aboriginal groups
Cornish people
Flag of Cornwall.svg
Cornish, Cornish English Christianity 534,300 (only Cornwall) Europe United Kingdom Cornwall Cornish nationalism, Mebyon Kernow, Cornish Nationalist Party National devolution or further autonomy from the United Kingdom.
Hawaiian people
Kanaka Maoli flag.svg
Hawaiian language Christianity with native 527,000 Oceania United States Hawaii Hawaiian sovereignty movement
Banner of arms of Moravia.svg
Czech (Moravian dialects) Irreligion 525,000[68][69] Europe Czech Republic and Slovakia Moravia Moravians
Kashubian flag.svg
Kashubian Christianity ~0.5 million (2002–07)[70][71] of which 233,000 as ethnic-national identity (2011) Europe Poland Pomerania Kaszëbskô Jednota
Ogoni people
Flag of the Ogoni people.svg
Ogoni language Christianity with native 500,000 Africa Nigeria Ogoniland Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People
Bandera Front Alliberament Cham.svg
Cham language Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism 400,000 Asia Vietnam South Central Coast United Front for the Liberation of Oppressed Races, Cham rights movement, Cham today Historically occupied the Champa state

The Cham in Vietnam are only recognized as a minority, and not as an indigenous people by the Vietnamese government despite being indigenous to the region. Vietnamese continue to destroy evidence of Cham culture and artifacts left behind.[72]

Corsican people
Flag of Corsica.svg
Corsican, French, Ligurian Christianity 322,120 Europe France Corsica Corsica Libera Territorial collectivity in France.
Sikkimese people
Flag of Sikkim (1967-1975).svg
Sikkimese language Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity 290,000 Asia India Sikkim Sikkim Bhutia Lepcha Apex Committee Formerly the Kingdom of Sikkim

The Sikkimese people are split among the Lepcha, Limbu and Bhutias

In 1990 Sikkimese Nationalist leaders declared the annexation of Sikkim by India to be illegal[73]

Sami people
Sami flag.svg
Sami languages, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Christianity 163,400 Europe Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia Sapmi Sámi politics Have their own Parliaments in Norway, Sweden & Finland but Sami groups seek more territorial autonomy.
Flag of Greenland.svg
Inuit languages Christianity with native 135,991 America Canada, United States and Denmark Siberia, Alaska, Northern Canada and Greenland Greenland Referendum, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami Semi-autonomous rule in Greenland with autonomy in Canada.
Lakota people
Pine Ridge Flag.svg
Lakota, English Christianity with native 103,255 America United States Lakotah Sioux Wars, Lakota Freedom Movement Native American reservation politics.
Carpathian Rusyns
Flag of Carpathian Ruthenia.svg
Rusyn language Christianity 68,000 (official; the actual population may be 1.2 million) Europe Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary and Romania Carpathian Ruthenia World Congress of Rusyns The Rusyn ethnicity is not recognised by Ukraine and does not appear in the Ukrainian census. Many speakers of the Lemko and Hutsul dialects identify primarily as Lemkos and Hutsuls, rather than Rusyns or Ukrainians. A separate population, the Pannonian Rusyns, are a minority in Serbia and Croatia.
Faroese people
Flag of the Faroe Islands.svg
Faroese language Christianity 66,000 Europe Denmark Faroe Islands Faroese independence movement Regional autonomy in Faroe Islands.
Flag of Sorbs.svg
Sorbian language Christianity 60,000-70,000 (est.) Europe Germany and Czech Republic Lusatia Domowina Divided into Upper Sorbs and Lower Sorbs.
2007 Flag of Orkney.svg
Norn language (extinct),Scottish English, Insular Scots Christianity 21,349 Europe United Kingdom Orkney Orkney and Shetland Movement Formerly a part of the Earldom of Orkney (along with Shetland)

Many residents have hoped for greater autonomy from the Scottish Government in the past, and were promised more powers in the event of Scottish independence[74]

Rapa Nui people
Easter Island flag 1876 to 1888.png
Rapa Nui language, Spanish language Christianity 5,682 Oceania Chile Easter Island Rapa Nui independence movement [75][76] The Rapa Nui Parliament is a pro-independence organisation [77]
Ahwazi Arabs Arabic Islam 10,000,000[78] Asia Iran Khuzestan Arab separatism in Khuzestan Regional autonomy in Ahwazi Arabs

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Dictionary Of Public Administration, U.C. Mandal, Sarup & Sons 2007, 505 p.
  2. ^ Frank L. Kidner; Maria Bucur; Ralph Mathisen; Sally McKee; Theodore R. Weeks (2013), Making Europe: The Story of the West, Volume II: Since 1550, Cengage Learning, pp. 668–, ISBN 1-285-50027-X 
  3. ^ a b c d Chouinard, Stéphanie (2016), "Stateless nations", in Karl Cordell; Stefan Wolff, The Routlesdge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict, Routledge, pp. 54–66, ISBN 9781317518921 
  4. ^ David Newman, Boundaries, Territory and Postmodernity
  5. ^ Ethnic Minority Media: An International Perspective, Stephen Harold Riggins, 217p.
  6. ^ Language in Geographic Context, Colin H. Williams, 39p.
  7. ^ Clark, Gregory, In fear of China, 1969, saying: "Tibet, although enjoying independence at certain periods of its history, had never been recognised by any single foreign power as an independent state. The closest it has ever come to such recognition was the British formula of 1943: suzerainty, combined with autonomy and the right to enter into diplomatic relations."
  8. ^ "The Legal Status of Tibet". Cultural Survival. 
  9. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups around the World, 2nd Edition: Ethnic and National Groups around the World, pp. 411-412
  10. ^ a b Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia by James Minahan (2012), p.315
  11. ^ Law and Society: Strategy for Public Choice, 2001 by Naorem Sanajaoba, p.178
  12. ^ Nira Wickramasinghe (2015). Sri Lanka in the Modern Age: A History. Oxford University Press. pp. 274–293. ISBN 978-0-19-022579-7. 
  13. ^ Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups around the World, 2nd Edition: Ethnic and National Groups around the World, pp. 59-60, 79-80, 366-367
  14. ^ Redie Bereketeab, Self-Determination and Secession in Africa: The Post-Colonial State
  15. ^ Richard Devetak, Christopher W. Hughes, Routledge, 2007-12-18, The Globalization of Political Violence: Globalization's Shadow
  16. ^ Cultural Analysis: Towards Cross-cultural Understanding (2006), Hans Gullestrup, 130p.
  17. ^ Ethnicity and Christian leadership in west African sub-region: proceedings of the conference of the fifteenth CIWA Theology Week held at the Catholic Institute of West Africa (2004), Port Harcourt, p.272
  18. ^ Mussolini Warlord: Failed Dreams of Empire, 1940-1943 (2013), H. James Burgwyn, Chapter V
  19. ^ Donald L. Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict
  20. ^ Ethnic Groups in Conflict (2009), Karl Cordell, Stefan Wolff
  21. ^ George W. White, Nationalism and Territory: Constructing Group Identity in Southeastern Europe
  22. ^ Understanding National Identity by David McCrone, Frank Bechhofer, p.22
  23. ^ Unionist-Nationalism: Governing Urban Scotland, 1830-1860 by Graeme Morton, 1999
  24. ^ James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: A-C
  25. ^ Nationalism and Globalisation (2015), Stephen Tierney
  26. ^ The Tamil Genocide by Sri Lanka: The Global Failure to Protect Tamil Rights Under International Law, Francis Boyle, chapter self determination.
  27. ^ Turmoil in the Middle East: Imperialism, War, and Political Instability (1999), Berch Berberoglu, 69p.
  28. ^ "Europe's Stateless Nations in the Era of Globalization, The Case for Catalonia's Secession by Josep Desquens". 
  29. ^ The delegates were linked with the Scottish group ‘SNP Friends of Catalonia’, which itself had members recently visit the Catalan parliament in Barcelona in a show of solidarity to the country’s hopes of self-determination."Catalan delegates in solidarity visit to Scotland's independence movement". 
  30. ^ While there has been informal solidarity between Tamils and Kurds in the past, the present conditions of both struggles suggest that a more concrete Tamil-Kurdish alliance is politically and morally necessary."Stateless nations: Tamil solidarity with Kurds". 
  31. ^ Ian Adams, Political Ideology Today p.73
  32. ^ Dictionary Of Public Administration, U.C. Mandal, Sarup & Sons 2007, 505 p.
  33. ^ Frank L. Kidner; Maria Bucur; Ralph Mathisen; Sally McKee; Theodore R. Weeks (2013), Making Europe: The Story of the West, Volume II: Since 1550, Cengage Learning, pp. 668–, ISBN 1-285-50027-X 
  34. ^ Iraqi Kurdistan in Middle Eastern Politics (2016), Alex Danilovich, p.131
  35. ^ Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia by James Minahan (2012), p.315
  36. ^ Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World A-Z (2002), James Minahan
  37. ^ Carl Skutsch, Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities (2013), p.1104
  38. ^ "Benue-Congo languages". 
  39. ^ John A. Shoup III, Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East: An Encyclopedia 2011 p.237
  40. ^ Lokman I. Meho, The Kurds and Kurdistan: A Selective and Annotated Bibliography 1997 p.1
  41. ^ James Minahan, Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups around the World, 2nd Edition: Ethnic and National Groups around the World 2016 p.178
  42. ^ James Minahan, Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups around the World, 2nd Edition: Ethnic and National Groups around the World 2016 p.385
  43. ^ "About Uyghurs". 
  44. ^ "Zulu people". Wikipedia. 2017-07-07. 
  45. ^ Syed Farooq Hasnat, Pakistan 2011 p.82
  46. ^ "The Kabyle People". Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  47. ^ James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World A-Z 2002 p.402
  48. ^ James B. Minahan, Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations 2nd Edition: Ethnic and National Groups around the World 2016 p.422
  49. ^ James B. Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: D-K 2002 p.677
  50. ^ James B. Minahan, Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations 2nd Edition: Ethnic and National Groups around the World 2016 p.352
  51. ^ "Assessment for Lozi in Zambia". Minorities at Risk. Retrieved 2009-04-10. 
  52. ^ Jeffrey Cole, Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia 2011 p.235
  53. ^ James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World A-Z 2002 p.1714
  54. ^ Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations. Greenwood Press. p. 4000. Retrieved 15 September 2017. 
  55. ^ Acehnese. Encyclopædia Britannica. ©2016 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved on July 8, 2016.
  56. ^ "UNPO: Assyria". Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  57. ^ Jeffrey Cole, Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia 2011 p.38
  58. ^ Larry Clark. Turkmen Reference Grammar. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1998; p. 11. ISBN 9783447040198
  59. ^ James B. Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World A-Z 2002 p.870
  60. ^ "Aragonese in Spain". 
  61. ^ "Eurominority – La solidarité avec le peuple palestinien". 
  62. ^ Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations, James Minahan, pg. 1661
  63. ^ Mikael Bodlore-Penlaez (2011). Atlas of Stateless Nations in Europe : Minority People in Search of Recognition. Y Lolfa Cyf. p. 70. ISBN 1847713793. 
  64. ^ "La Sardegna nel club delle nazioni: un capitolo nella Bibbia dell'etnie del mondo - Cronaca - L'Unione". 11 January 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  65. ^ "The Amazing Ryukyu Culture". Retrieved 2016-05-05. 
  66. ^ Christopher Blomquist, A Primary Source Guide to Chile 2005 p.15
  67. ^ James B. Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: D-K 2002 p.211
  68. ^ Census 2011 - final results
  69. ^
  70. ^ "The Institute for European Studies, Ethnological institute of UW" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  71. ^ "Kaschuben heute: Kultur-Sprache-Identität" (PDF) (in German). pp. 8–9. Retrieved 2016-01-03. 
  72. ^ "Human rights in Vietnam". Wikipedia. 2017-06-25. 
  73. ^ Minahan, James (2002-05-30). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World A-Z [4 Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313076961. 
  74. ^ "Orkney 'seeks independence from Scotland'". Mail Online. Retrieved 2017-07-10. 
  75. ^ Legrand, Christine (2013-01-15). "Easter Island issues Chile with independence threat". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-08-13. 
  76. ^ East, 101. "The Fight for Rapa Nui". Retrieved 2017-08-13. 
  77. ^ Romero, Simon (2012-10-06). "Slow-Burning Rebellion Against Chile on Easter Island". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-08-13. 
  78. ^ Lokman I. Meho, The Arabs and Al-Ahwaz: A Selective and Annotated Bibliography 1997 p.1

External links[edit]

Media related to Flags of stateless nations at Wikimedia Commons