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Stateless nation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A stateless nation is an ethnic group or nation that does not possess its own sovereign state.[1] Use of the term implies that the nation has the right to self-determination, to establish an independent nation-state with its own government.[2][3] Members of stateless nations may be citizens of the country in which they live, or they may be denied citizenship by that country. Stateless nations are usually not represented in international sports or in international organisations such as the United Nations. Nations without a state are classified as fourth-world nations.[4][5][6] Some stateless nations have a history of statehood, while some were always stateless.



The term was coined in 1983 by political scientist Jacques Leruez in his book L'Écosse, une nation sans État about the peculiar position of Scotland within the British state. It was later adopted and popularized by Scottish scholars such as David McCrone, Michael Keating and T. M. Devine.[7]

Ethnicities described as stateless nations can be dispersed across a number of states (for example, the Yoruba people found in the African states of Nigeria, Benin and Togo) or form the native population of a province within a larger state (such as the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region within the People's Republic of China). Some stateless nations historically had a state, which was absorbed by another; for example, Tibet's declaration of independence in 1913 was not recognized, and it was reunited in 1951 by the People's Republic of China - which claims that Tibet is an integral part of China, while the Tibetan government-in-exile maintains that Tibet is an independent state under an unlawful occupation.[8][9] Some ethnic groups were once a stateless nation that later became a nation state (for example, the nations of the Balkans such as the Croats, Serbs, Bosniaks, Slovenes, Montenegrins and Macedonians that were once part of the multinational state of Yugoslavia and gained independence during the breakup of Yugoslavia).

Stateless nations can have large populations; for example, the Kurds have an estimated population of over 30 million people, which makes them one of the largest stateless nations.[10]

Nation-states and nations without states


The symbiotic relationship between nations and states arose in Western Europe during the 18th century, and it was exported to the rest of the world through colonial rule. Whereas the Western European nation-states are at present relinquishing some of their powers to the European Union, many of the former colonies are now the zealous defenders of the concept of national statehood.[3] However, not all peoples within multi-cultural states consider themselves stateless nations. As not all states are nation states, there are ethnic groups who live in multinational states that are not considered "stateless nations".

Only a small fraction of the world's national groups have associated nation states; the rest are distributed in one or more states. While there are over 3000 estimated nations in the world, there were only 193 member states of the United Nations as of 2011, of which fewer than 20 are considered to be ethnically homogeneous nation states. Thus nation states are not as common as often assumed, and stateless nations are the overwhelming majority of nations in the world.[3]

Consequences of colonialism and imperialism


During the imperial and colonial era, powerful nations extended their influence outside their homeland; resulting in many colonized nations ceasing to be self-governing and being described as stateless nations thereafter.[11] Some nations have been victims of "carve-outs" that left their homeland divided among several countries. Even today, the colonial boundaries form modern national boundaries. These boundaries often differ from cultural boundaries which results in situations wherein people who speak the same language or have the same culture are divided by national borders; for example, New Guinea is split into the regions of West Papua (a former Dutch colony) and Papua New Guinea (a former Australian colony).[12] During decolonization, the colonial powers imposed a unified state structure irrespective of the ethnic differences and granted independence to their colonies as a multinational state. This led to successor states with many minority ethnic groups in them, which increased the potential for ethnic conflicts.[13][14][15][16] Some of these minority groups campaigned for self-determination. Stateless nations were not protected in all countries and as a result, they became victims of atrocities such as discrimination, ethnic cleansing, genocide, forced assimilation, and the exploitation of labor and natural resources.[17][18]

Nationalism and stateless nations


People with a common origin, history, language, culture, customs, or religion can turn into a nation through the awakening of national consciousness.[19] A nation can exist without a state, as is exemplified by the stateless nations. Citizenship is not always the nationality of a person.[20] In a multinational state different national identities can coexist or compete: for example, in Britain English nationalism, Scottish nationalism, and Welsh nationalism exist and are held together by British nationalism.[21] Nationalism is often connected to separatism because a nation is considered to achieve completeness through its independence.[22]

Throughout history, numerous nations declared their independence, but not all succeeded in establishing a state. Even today, there are active autonomy and independence movements around the world. The claim of the stateless nations to self-determination is often denied due to geopolitical interests and increasing globalization of the world.[23][24][25][26] Stateless nations sometimes show solidarity with other stateless nations and maintain diplomatic relations.[27][28]

Unionism vs separatism


Not all ethnic groups claim to be a nation or aspire to be a separate state. Some of them see themselves as part of the multinational state they are located in and believe that their interests are well represented in it. The favoring of a united single state is associated with unionism (such as Pakistani nationalism, Indian nationalism, and Belgian nationalism) [citation needed]). In many countries, unionism is also encouraged by governments and separatism is considered illegal.

List of stateless nations


The following is a list of ethnic and national groups where there exist notable independence movements as evidenced by standalone Wikipedia articles.

States made bold under the "homeland" column are countries of the respective ethnic groups which are native to them and still host the majority (more than half) of their population.

People Flag Languages Language family[a] Predominant religion Population Continent States Homeland[b] Irredentist movement Notes
Tamil language Dravidian languages Hinduism (mostly Shaivism) 78,000,000 Asia India, Sri Lanka Tamil Nadu and Tamil Eelam Tamil nationalism, Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism, Greater Tamil Nadu, Sri Lankan Civil War, TNRT, TNLA, LTTE, TGTE, Vaddukoddai Resolution Historically occupied Tamilakam, the Jaffna Kingdom and the Vanni chieftaincies. Seeks more regional autonomy for the Indian state of Tamil Nadu or form a sovereign nation as Dravida Nadu. Demand for autonomy in the Northern and Eastern Provinces or total secession from Sri Lanka.[33]
Cantonese Sino-Tibetan languages Chinese folk religion, Taoism, Buddhism, Christianity (Protestantism and Roman Catholicism) 68,000,000 Asia China Guangdong Cantonese nationalism Historically occupied the Nanyue kingdom.
Pashto language Iranian languages Islam (Sunni, Shia) 42,000,000–50,000,000[36][37] Asia Pakistan, Afghanistan Pashtunistan Pashtun nationalism
Kurdish languages, (originally) Arabic, Turkish, Persian (assimilation) Iranian languages Islam (Sunni, Shia, Alevi), Zoroastrianism, Yarsanism, Yazidism 30,000,000–45,000,000[39][40] Asia Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria (homeland), Germany (largest diaspora) Kurdistan Kurdish nationalism, Kurdish–Turkish conflict, Kurdish-Iranian conflict, Iraqi–Kurdish conflict, and Kurdish–Syrian conflict, 2017 Kurdistan Region independence referendum Regional autonomy achieved in Iraqi Kurdistan and Rojava.[41] Data rough due to censuses not taking ethnicity in homeland countries.
Oromo people[42]
Oromo Cushitic languages Christian, Muslim, Waaqeffanna 41,693,650 [43] Africa Ethiopia, Kenya Oromia Oromo conflict
Yoruba people[38]
Yoruba language Volta-Congo languages Christianity, Islam, Yoruba religion 35,000,000[44][45] Africa Nigeria, Benin and Togo, Ghana Yorubaland Oodua Peoples Congress
Igbo people[46]
Igbo, English Volta-Congo languages Christianity (primarily Roman Catholicism with significant Protestant minorities), Indigenous beliefs 30,000,000[47] Africa Nigeria (almost exclusively) Igboland Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, Indigenous People of Biafra Attempted secession from Nigeria in 1967 sparked the Nigerian Civil war.
Occitan people[48]
Occitan, French, Italian, Spanish Romance languages Roman Catholicism 16,000,000 Europe France, Monaco, Italy and Spain (Val d'Aran) Occitania Occitan nationalism (Occitan Party, Partit de la Nacion Occitana, Libertat) Seek self-determination, greater autonomy or total secession from France.
Assamese people[49][50][51]
Assamese language Indo-Aryan languages Hinduism 15,000,000[52] Asia India Assam Assam separatist movements, ULFA Insurgency in Northeast India Seeks greater regional autonomy for natives of Assam or total secession from India.[53]
Uyghur people[54][55]
Uyghur language Turkic languages Sunni Islam 15,000,000[56] Asia China, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan East Turkestan (Uyghuristan) Irredentism is politically fragmented (East Turkestan Liberation Organization, East Turkestan independence movement) Limited autonomy in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.
Hazaras Hazaragi dialect of Persian Language Iranian Languages Islam

mostly Shia

10,000,000-14,000,000 Asia Afghanistan Hazaristan Persecution of Hazaras Hazara nationalism
Zulu people [citation needed]
Zulu language Volta-Congo languages Christianity, Zulu religion 12,159,000 Africa South Africa, Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Eswatini KwaZulu-Natal Inkatha Freedom Party Limited autonomy in the KwaZulu-Natal region, which maintains a traditional Zulu king.
Romani people[57]
Romani language Indo-Aryan languages Christianity, Islam, Hinduism 12,000,000[58] Worldwide, mostly Eastern Europe and Americas Originally North India;[59]Romanistan (proposed country) The Romani people are a non-territorial nation.
Kongo people [citation needed]
Kongo language, Lingala, Portuguese, French Volta-Congo languages Christianity (Catholicism and Protestantism), African Traditional Religion 10,000,000 Africa Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola Kongo Kongo nationalism, Bundu dia Kongo Historically occupied the independent Kingdom of Kongo.
Baloch people [citation needed]
Balochi Iranian languages Sunni Islam 10,000,000[60] Asia Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan(homeland), UAE (diaspora) Balochistan Balochistan conflict, Baloch nationalism Seeks total independence from Pakistan.
Andalusians [citation needed]
Andalusian Spanish, English (in Gibraltar) Romance languages Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 9,500,000 Europe Spain, Gibraltar Andalusia Andalusian nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
Catalan, Spanish, Occitan, French, Italian Romance languages Roman Catholicism, Agnosticism 8,500,000[63] Europe Spain, Italy, Andorra and France Catalan Countries Catalan independence movement, Catalan nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
French Romance languages Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 8,215,000 America Canada Quebec Quebec sovereignty movement, Quebec nationalism The total population of the Province of Quebec is 8.2 million, of which over 80% are French speakers.
Mon people [citation needed]
Mon language Monic languages Buddhism 8,145,500 Asia Myanmar, Thailand Mon State Mon Nationalism, Mon National Party, All Mon Region Democracy Party Historically occupied the Mon kingdoms.
Hong Kong Cantonese, Hong Kong English Sino-Tibetan languages Christianity (Protestantism and Roman Catholicism), Buddhism, Chinese folk religion, Taoism, Islam 7,498,100[68] Asia China Hong Kong Hong Kong independence movement Limited autonomy in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
Karen people [citation needed]
S'gaw Karen language Karenic languages Christianity, Theravada Buddhism 7,000,000 Asia Myanmar, Thailand Kawthoolei Karen nationalism, Karen National Union, Karen National Liberation Army
Maya peoples [citation needed]
Mayan languages Mayan languages Christianity (Catholicism), Maya religion 7,000,000 America Guatemala, Mexico, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador Mesoamerica Pan-Maya movement, Rigoberta Menchú, Zapatista Army of National Liberation Historically occupied the Maya civilization.
Tibetan people [citation needed]
Tibetan language, Chinese language Sino-Tibetan languages Buddhism 7,000,000[69] Asia China, India, Nepal Tibet Tibetan independence movement Limited autonomy in the Tibet Autonomous Region. Historically occupied the Tibetan Empire.
Riffian people [citation needed]
Riffian language, Arabic Afroasiatic Islam 6,000,000[70] Africa Morocco and Spain Rif Rif War, Rif Republic 95% of the land is controlled by Morocco with the rest being controlled by the Spanish territories of Ceuta and Melilla as autonomous cities.
Shan people [citation needed]
Shan language, Thai Kra-Dai Buddhism 6,000,000 Asia Myanmar Shan State Shan State Army, Declaration of independence in 2005; see also Hso Khan Pha Historically occupied the Shan states.
Kashmiri people [citation needed]
Kashmiri language Indo-Aryan languages Islam 5,600,000 Asia India, Pakistan and China Kashmir Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir Administered by India (Kashmir Valley, Jammu, Ladakh), Pakistan (Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan) and China (Aksai Chin).
Valencians [citation needed]
Catalan, Spanish Romance languages Roman Catholicism[71] 5,111,706 Europe Spain Valencian Community Valencian nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
Moro people [citation needed]
Filipino language, other Philippine languages Islam 5,100,000 Asia Philippines Muslim Mindanao Moro autonomy The Moro people of Muslim Mindanao has since been granted autonomy as the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region with the adoption of the Bangsamoro Organic Law.
Circassians [citation needed]
Circassian language, Russian Circassian languages Islam 5,000,000 Europe Russia Circassia Russo-Circassian War, Circassian nationalism 95–97% of Circassians were killed or exiled by Russia during the Circassian genocide.[72]
Venetian people[citation needed]
Venetian language Romance languages Catholicism 5,000,000 (est.) Europe Italy Veneto Venetian nationalism Many groups seek for total independence from Italy, while some just want more autonomy and recognition of Venetian language and people. Historically occupied the independent Republic of Venice.
Sicilian people[73]
Sicilian, Italian, Gallo-Italic of Sicily, Arbëresh Romance languages Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 5,000,000 (only Sicily) Europe Italy Sicily Sicilian nationalism, Sicilian Action Movement Regional autonomy in Sicily.
Breton, Gallo, French, Celtic languages Roman Catholicism 4,800,000 Europe France Brittany Breton nationalism Seek self-determination, greater autonomy or total secession from France.
Hmong people [citation needed]
Hmong language Hmong-Mien Languages Animism 4,000,000 Asia Laos, China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand Hmong ChaoFa Federated State Insurgency in Laos
Kabyle people [citation needed]
Kabyle language, Algerian Arabic Berber languages Islam 4,000,000[74] Africa Algeria Kabylia Movement for the Autonomy of Kabylie, Provisional Government of Kabylia
Rohingya people [citation needed]
Rohingya language Islam 3,600,000 Asia Myanmar Rohang State Rohingya conflict The Rohingyas are not recognized as a native ethnic group by Burmese government.[75]
Afrikaners [citation needed]
Afrikaans Christianity (mainly Protestantism) 3,500,000 Africa South Africa and Namibia Western Cape,


Afrikaner Nationalism, Freedom Front, Cape independence, Cape Independence Party Afrikaners are historically an ethno-racial group (although some today deracialize the identity to include Afrikaans-speaking Coloured people). Demand autonomy or total secession from South Africa. Historically occupied the Dutch Cape colony but did expand elsewhere into the once independent Boer republics.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Turoyo, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Semitic languages Christianity (Chaldean Catholicism Syriac Christianity) 3,300,000[77] Asia Syria, Iraq, Iran and Turkey Assyria, Beth Nahrain (Mesopotamia) Assyrian nationalism, Assyrian independence movement Historically occupied the Assyrian empire.
Basque people[62]
Basque, French, Spanish Language isolate Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 3,000,000[78] Europe France and Spain Basque Country Basque nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
Iraqi Turkmen people [citation needed]
Turkish language, Azerbaijani language Islam 3,000,000 Asia Iraq Turkmeneli Iraqi Turkmen Front Not to be confused with Syrian Turkmen of Latakia or Central Asian Turkmens of Turkmenistan who share only their ethnonym.[79]
Welsh people[62]
Welsh, English Celtic languages Christianity (Protestantism, Catholic minority) 3,000,000 Europe United Kingdom Wales Welsh independence, Welsh nationalism, Meibion Glyndŵr, Plaid Cymru Regional autonomy in Wales. Historically occupied the independent kingdoms of Wales (Gwynedd, Powys, Dyfed, Seisyllwg, Morgannwg, and Gwent).
Galician people[62]
Galician language, Spanish Romance languages Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 2,800,000 Europe Spain Galicia Galician nationalism and Galician Regionalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain. Historically occupied the Kingdom of Galicia.
Kachin people [citation needed]
Jingpo, Zaiwa, Maru, Lashi, Azi Buddhism, Christianity, Animism 2,750,000 (2002)[80] Asia Myanmar Kachin State Kachin Independence Army, Kachin Independence Organisation, Kachin conflict The tribes of Kachin Hills form the Kachin Nation.
Aragonese people [citation needed]
Aragonese language, Spanish Romance languages Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 2,278,000 (Spain only)[81] Europe Spain Aragon Aragonese nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain. Historically occupied the Kingdom of Aragon.
Meitei people [citation needed]
Meitei language Sino-Tibetan languages Hinduism 2,500,000 Asia India Imphal Valley, Manipur UNLF, PLA, Insurgency in Manipur, Anglo-Manipur War Historically occupied the Kingdom of Manipur.
Chechen people [citation needed]
Chechen language, Russian Islam 2,000,000 Europe Russia Chechnya Chechen insurgency, Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Regional autonomy in Chechnya.
Naga people [citation needed]
Tibeto-Burman dialects / Nagamese creole Christianity 2,000,000 Asia India Nagaland Naga National Council, Insurgency in Northeast India Seeks greater regional autonomy or complete separatation from India.
Pastusos [es][82]
Andean Spanish Romance languages Roman Catholicism 1,700,000-1,900,000 America Colombia and Ecuador Estado Soberano del Sur [es] Decimistas Loyal to Spanish Monarchy during Colombian War of Independence; it annexed to Ecuador in 1830-1832 and 1840. It tried to establish a federal state in late 19th Century.
Sardinian people[83][84][48][85]
Sardinian, Corso-Sardinian, Italian, Catalan, Ligurian Romance languages Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 1,661,521 Europe Italy Sardinia Sardinian nationalism National devolution, further autonomy or total secession from Italy.

Sardinians are a recognised minority ethnic group in Italy.

Ryukyuan people [citation needed]
Ryukyuan, Japanese Buddhism 1,600,000[86] Asia Japan Ryukyu Islands Ryukyu independence movement Historically occupied the Ryukyu Kingdom.
Frisians [citation needed]
Frisian, Dutch, German, Danish Germanic Languages Christianity and Paganism (Protestantism and Asatru) 1,125,000 Europe Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany Frisia Frisian National Party, Groep fan Auwerk The creation of a new Frisian state. Historically occupied the Frisian Kingdom.
Ahwazi Arabs [citation needed]
Arabic, Persian (assimilation) Semitic languages Shia Islam 1,320,000[87] Asia Iran Al Ahwaz Arab separatism in Khuzestan Democratic Solidarity Party of Ahwaz Ahwazi includes 30 tribes which see themselves as a distinct Arab nation.[88] Seek self-determination, greater autonomy or total secession from Iran.
Friulian people[citation needed]
Friulian Romance languages Catholicism 2,000,000 (est.) Europe Italy Friuli Friuli Movement Friuli is an autonomous region of Italy, but there are also other views as to what status it should have.

Friulians are a recognised minority ethnic group in Italy.

Tuareg people [citation needed]
Tuareg language Islam 1,200,000 Africa Mali and Niger Azawad National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad, Tuareg rebellion (2012), Northern Mali conflict National devolution, further autonomy or total secession from Mali.
Mapuche [citation needed]
Mapudungun Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 1,000,000[89] America Argentina and Chile Wallmapu Mapuche conflict
Asturian people [citation needed]
Asturian language, Spanish Romance languages Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 1,925,000 (2020) Europe Spain and Portugal Asturias Asturian nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
Lezgins [citation needed]
Lezgian Islam 800,000+ Europe Russia, Azerbaijan Lezgistan Lezgin Nationalism Unification of the Lezgin people in Azerbaijan and Dagestan (Russia).
Fur people [citation needed]
Fur, Arabic Islam 800,000[90] Africa Sudan Dafur War in Darfur, SLM/A Historically occupied the Sultanate of Darfur.
Māori people [citation needed]
Māori, English Christianity with native 750,000 Oceania New Zealand New Zealand Māori protest movement
Macanese Cantonese, Macanese Portuguese Sino-Tibetan languages Chinese folk religion, Taoism, Buddhism, Christianity (Roman Catholicism and Protestantism) 678,800 Asia China Macau Macau independence movement Limited autonomy in the Macau Special Administrative Region.
Karakalpaks [citation needed]
Karakalpak language Islam 620,000 Asia Uzbekistan Karakalpakstan Karakalpak Nationalism Regional autonomy in Karakalpakstan.
Hawaiian people [citation needed]
Hawaiian language Christianity (Catholicism and Protestantism) with native 527,000 Oceania United States Hawaii Hawaiian sovereignty movement Historically occupied the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Moravians [citation needed]
Czech (Moravian), Slovak Traditionally Roman Catholicism presently Irreligion 525,000[92][93] Europe Czech Republic and Slovakia Moravia Moravians Historically occupied Great Moravia.
Ogoni people [citation needed]
Ogoni language Christianity with native 500,000 Africa Nigeria Ogoniland Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People
Crimean Tatars [citation needed]
Crimean Tatar, Russian, Ukrainian Islam 500,000 Europe Ukraine Crimea Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People

Tatars in Republic of Crimea Deportation of the Crimean Tatars

Previously an autonomous republic within Ukraine, after being invaded and annexed by Russia in 2014. The Crimean Tatars are currently seeking autonomy.[94]
Sahrawi people[95]
Hassaniya Arabic (native), Berber languages (native), Modern Standard Arabic (written only), and Spanish (lingua franca) Islam (Sunni Islam (Maliki), Sufism) 500,000[96] Africa Morocco, Algeria, Mauretania Western Sahara Western Sahara conflict, Polisario Front, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially occupied by Morocco.
Chams [citation needed]
Cham language Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism 400,000 Asia Vietnam South Central Coast United Front for the Liberation of Oppressed Races, Cham rights movement[97] Historically occupied the Kingdom of Champa. The Cham in Vietnam are only recognized as a minority, and not as an indigenous people by the Vietnamese government their indigeneity to the region.
Corsican people [citation needed]
Corsican, French, Ligurian, Italian Romance languages Christianity (Roman Catholicism 322,120 Europe France Corsica Corsica Libera Territorial collectivity in France.
Navajo [citation needed]
Navajo language, Navajo language, Navajo Sign Language Navajo Traditional, Christianity (principally Roman Catholicism) 300,460 America United States Navajo Nation Navajo Wars Regional autonomy on the Navajo Nation.
Lakota people [citation needed]
Lakota, English Christianity with native 170,000[98] America United States Lakotah Sioux Wars, Lakota Freedom Movement Live on several autonomous Native American reservations.
Sami people [citation needed]
Sami languages, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Christianity (principally Lutheran), Animism 80,000 (est.)[99] Europe Finland, Norway, Russia and Sweden Sapmi Sámi politics Have their own Parliaments in Norway, Sweden, and Finland but Sami groups usually seek more territorial autonomy.
Inuit [citation needed]
Inuit languages, Danish, English, Russian Christianity with native 135,991 America Inuit Nunangat Greenland Referendum Semi-autonomous rule in Greenland with autonomy within the Kingdom of Denmark.
Yupik peoples [citation needed]
Yupik languages, English, Russian Christianity with native 35,567 (est.) Asia and America Russia and the United States Siberia and Alaska Calista Corporation, Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Pamiris [citation needed]
Pamir languages Islam 135,000[100] Asia Tajikistan Badakhshan Pamiri nationalism, Lali Badakhshan party, Tajikistani Civil War Regional autonomy in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
Faroese people [citation needed]
Faroese language, Danish Christianity (principally Lutheran) 66,000 Europe Denmark Faroe Islands Faroese independence movement Regional autonomy in Faroe Islands.
Sorbs [citation needed]
Sorbian language, German Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 60,000–70,000 (est.) Europe Germany Lusatia Domowina Divided into Upper Sorbs and Lower Sorbs.
Skånska, Svenska, Danska Germanic languages Lutheran Christians 100,000 Europe Sweden Skåneland Skånepartiet Was an autonomous part of Danmark until 1658 when it became part of Sweden after the treaty of Roskilde.
San Andrés–Providencia Creole, English Germanic languages Christianity (Baptism) 30,000 America Colombia Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina Archipelago Movement for Ethnic Native Self-Determination [es]
Lombard people
Lombard language Romance languages Christianity (Roman Catholic, Ambrosian Rite) 3,500,000 (est.) Europe Italy, Switzerland Lombardy (historical region) Lombard nationalism, Pro Lombardy Independence, Lombard League
Ladin people
Ladin language Romance languages Christianity (Catholic Church) 35,000 Europe Italy Ladinia Recognised ethnic minority in Italy.

See also



  1. ^ Can also help with understanding the cultural/ethnic proximity with other people of that paternal language group, but not necessarily. The largest language family is not recommended, as a large number of cells would contain similar content.
  2. ^ Proposed or historical homeland desired.


  1. ^ Dictionary Of Public Administration, U.C. Mandal, Sarup & Sons 2007, 505 p.
  2. ^ Osborne, Louise; Russell, Ruby (27 December 2015). "Stateless in Europe: 'We are no people with no nation'". TheGuardian.com. Archived from the original on 5 October 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
  3. ^ a b c Chouinard, Stéphanie (2016), "Stateless nations", in Karl Cordell; Stefan Wolff (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict, Routledge, pp. 54–66, ISBN 9781317518921
  4. ^ David Newman, Boundaries, Territory and Postmodernity
  5. ^ Ethnic Minority Media: An International Perspective, Stephen Harold Riggins, 217p.
  6. ^ Language in Geographic Context, Colin H. Williams, 39p.
  7. ^ Verdugo, Richard R.; Milne, Andrew (1 June 2016). National Identity: Theory and Research. IAP. p. 85. ISBN 9781681235257. Archived from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 1 January 2022 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ Clark, Gregory, In fear of China, 1969, saying: "Tibet, although enjoying independence at certain periods of its history, had never been recognised by any single foreign power as an independent state. The closest it has ever come to such recognition was the British formula of 1943: suzerainty, combined with autonomy and the right to enter into diplomatic relations."
  9. ^ "The Legal Status of Tibet". Cultural Survival. 22 February 2010. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  10. ^ "Who are the Kurds?". TRT World. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  11. ^ Redie Bereketeab, Self-Determination and Secession in Africa: The Post-Colonial State
  12. ^ Richard Devetak, Christopher W. Hughes, Routledge, 2007-12-18, The Globalization of Political Violence: Globalization's Shadow
  13. ^ Cultural Analysis: Towards Cross-cultural Understanding (2006), Hans Gullestrup, 130p.
  14. ^ Ethnicity and Christian leadership in west African sub-region: proceedings of the conference of the fifteenth CIWA Theology Week held at the Catholic Institute of West Africa (2004), Port Harcourt, p.272
  15. ^ Mussolini Warlord: Failed Dreams of Empire, 1940–1943 (2013), H. James Burgwyn, Chapter V
  16. ^ Ethnic Groups in Conflict (2009), Karl Cordell, Stefan Wolff
  17. ^ Donald L. Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict
  18. ^ Bruce E. Johansen, Resource Exploitation in Native North America: A Plague upon the Peoples
  19. ^ George W. White, Nationalism and Territory: Constructing Group Identity in Southeastern Europe
  20. ^ Understanding National Identity by David McCrone, Frank Bechhofer, p.22
  21. ^ Unionist-Nationalism: Governing Urban Scotland, 1830–1860 by Graeme Morton, 1999
  22. ^ James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: A-C
  23. ^ Nationalism and Globalisation (2015), Stephen Tierney
  24. ^ The Tamil Genocide by Sri Lanka: The Global Failure to Protect Tamil Rights Under International Law, Francis Boyle, chapter self determination.
  25. ^ Turmoil in the Middle East: Imperialism, War, and Political Instability (1999), Berch Berberoglu, 69p.
  26. ^ "Europe's Stateless Nations in the Era of Globalization, The Case for Catalonia's Secession by Josep Desquens". saisjournal.org. Archived from the original on 25 August 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  27. ^ The delegates were linked with the Scottish group 'SNP Friends of Catalonia', which itself had members recently visit the Catalan parliament in Barcelona in a show of solidarity to the country's hopes of self-determination. "Catalan delegates in solidarity visit to Scotland's independence movement". commonspace.scot. Archived from the original on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  28. ^ The Catalan President and the Head of the Corsican government meet in Barcelona. The meeting lasted more than two hours and focused on enhancing the cooperation between the two nations in a regional and European level. "EFA brings stateless nations even closer". European Free Alliance. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
  29. ^ India, Sri Lanka and the Tamil crisis, 1976-1994: an international perspective (1995), Alan J. Bullion, p.32.
  30. ^ Governance and Multiculturalism: The White Elephant of Social Construction, Catherine Koerner, Soma Pillay, p.44.
  31. ^ David Brog (2017), Reclaiming Israel's History: Roots, Rights, and the Struggle for Peace, Regnery Publishing, ISBN 9781621576099
  32. ^ Jeffrey Haynes, Peter Hough, Shahin Malik, Lloyd Pettiford (2013), World Politics: International Relations and Globalisation in the 21st Century, Routledge, ISBN 9781317862963{{citation}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  33. ^ Religious Nationalism: A Reference Handbook: A Reference Handbook, Atalia Omer, Jason A. Springs (2013)
  34. ^ Xu, Song-shi (1939). "Cantonese is the old name of the pearl river". Chung Hwa Book Company.
  35. ^ Xu, Song-shi (1949). "A study of the Thais, Chuangs, and the Cantonese people". Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
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