Staaten Eylandt (Dutch)
Staten Island, New York
|Borough of New York City|
Location of Staten Island, shown in red, in New York City
|Country||United States of America|
|City||New York City|
|• Type||Borough (New York City)|
|• Borough president||James Oddo (R)
— (Borough of Staten Island)
|• District Attorney||Michael McMahon
— (Richmond County)
|• Total||102 sq mi (260 km2)|
|• Land||58 sq mi (150 km2)|
|• Water||44 sq mi (110 km2) 43%|
|• Density||8,160.0/sq mi (3,150.6/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern Standard Time (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern Daylight Time (UTC-4)|
|Area code(s)||347, 718, 917, 929|
Staten Island / / is one of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U.S. state of New York. In the southwest of the city, Staten Island is the southernmost part of both the city and state of New York, with Conference House Park at the southern tip of the island and the state. The borough is separated from New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull, and from the rest of New York by New York Bay. With a 2014 Census-estimated population of 473,279, Staten Island is the least populated of the boroughs but is the third-largest in area at 58 sq mi (150 km2). The borough is coextensive with Richmond County, and until 1975 was officially the Borough of Richmond. Its flag was later changed to reflect this, though the official seal remains unchanged. Staten Island has been sometimes called "the forgotten borough" by inhabitants who feel neglected by the city government.
The North Shore — especially the neighborhoods of St. George, Tompkinsville, Clifton, and Stapleton — is the most urban part of the island; it contains the officially designated St. George Historic District and the St. Paul’s Avenue-Stapleton Heights Historic District, which feature large Victorian houses. The East Shore is home to the 2.5-mile (4 km) F.D.R. Boardwalk, the fourth-longest in the world. The South Shore, site of the 17th-century Dutch and French Huguenot settlement of developed rapidly beginning in the 1960s and 1970s; it is mostly suburban in character. The West Shore is the least populated and most industrial part of the island.
Motor traffic can reach the borough from Brooklyn via the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and from New Jersey via the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge, and Bayonne Bridge. Staten Island has Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) bus lines and a MTA rapid transit line, the Staten Island Railway, which runs from the ferry terminal at St. George to Tottenville. Staten Island is the only borough that is not connected to the New York City Subway system. The free Staten Island Ferry connects the borough to Manhattan and is a popular tourist attraction, providing views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan.
Staten Island had the Fresh Kills Landfill, which was the world's largest landfill at one point before closing in 2001, although it was temporarily reopened that year to receive debris from the September 11 attacks. The landfill is being redeveloped as Freshkills Park, an area devoted to restoring habitat; the park will become New York City's second largest public park when completed.
New York City's five boroughs
Sources: see individual articles
- 1 History
- 2 Geology
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government and politics
- 6 Tourism
- 7 Culture
- 8 Sports
- 9 Education
- 10 Transportation
- 11 Infrastructure
- 12 Notable natives and residents
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes and references
- 15 External links
As in much of North America, human habitation appeared in the island fairly rapidly after the retreat of the ice sheet. Archaeologists have recovered tool evidence of Clovis culture activity dating from about 14,000 years ago. This evidence was first discovered in 1917 in the Charleston section of the island. Various Clovis artifacts have been discovered since then, on property owned by Mobil Oil.
The island was probably abandoned later, possibly because of the extirpation of large mammals on the island. Evidence of the first permanent American Indian settlements and agriculture are thought to date from about 5,000 years ago, although early archaic habitation evidence has been found in multiple locations on the island.
Rossville points are a distinct type of arrowhead that defines a Native American cultural period that runs from the Archaic period to the Early Woodland period, dating from about 1500 to 100 BC. They are named for the Rossville section of Staten Island, where they were first found near the old Rossville Post Office building.
At the time of European contact, the island was inhabited by the Raritan band of the Unami division of the Lenape. The Lenape, who spoke Lenape one of the Algonquian languages, called Staten Island Aquehonga Manacknong, meaning "as far as the place of the bad woods", or Eghquhous, meaning "the bad woods". The area was part of the Lenape homeland known as Lenapehoking. The Lenape were later called the "Delaware" by the English colonists because they inhabited both shores of what the English named the Delaware River.
The island was laced with Native American foot trails, one of which followed the south side of the ridge near the course of present-day Richmond Road and Amboy Road. The Lenape did not live in fixed encampments, but moved seasonally, using slash and burn agriculture. Shellfish was a staple of their diet, including the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) abundant in the waterways throughout the present-day New York City region. Evidence of their habitation can still be seen in shell middens along the shore in the Tottenville section, where oyster shells larger than 12 inches (305 mm) are not uncommon.
Burial Ridge, a Lenape burial ground on a bluff overlooking Raritan Bay in what is today the Tottenville section of Staten Island, is the largest pre-European burial ground in New York City. Bodies have been reported unearthed at Burial Ridge from 1858 onward. After conducting independent research, which included unearthing bodies interred at the site, ethnologist and archaeologist George H. Pepper, was contracted in 1895 to conduct paid archaeological research at Burial Ridge by the American Museum of Natural History. The burial ground today is unmarked and lies within Conference House Park.
The first recorded European contact with the island was in 1520 by Italian explorer Giovanni de Verrazzano, who in the employ of the French crown, sailed through The Narrows on the French ship La Dauphine and anchored for one night.
In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson, sailing for the Dutch, sailed into Upper New York Bay on his ship the Half Moon. The Dutch named this as Staaten Eylandt (literally "States Island"), in honor of the Dutch parliament known as the Staten-Generaal (see also Generality Lands for background).
The first permanent Dutch settlement of the New Netherland colony was made on Governor's Island in 1624, which they had used as a trading camp for more than a decade before. In 1626 the colony transferred to the island of Manhattan, which was newly designated as the capital of New Netherland.
The Dutch did not establish a permanent settlement on Staaten Eylandt for many decades. From 1639 to 1655, Cornelis Melyn and David de Vries made three separate attempts to establish a permanent settlement on the island, but each time the settlement was destroyed in the conflicts between the Dutch and the local tribe. In 1661, the first permanent Dutch settlement was established at Oude Dorp (Dutch for "Old Village"), just south of the Narrows near South Beach, by a small group of Dutch, Walloon, and French Huguenot families. Many French Huguenots, who were Protestant, had gone to the Netherlands as refugees from the religious wars in France; some joined the emigration to New Netherland. The last vestige of Oude Dorp is the name of the present-day neighborhood of Old Town, adjacent to Old Town Road.
At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War in 1667, the Dutch ceded New Netherlands colony to England in the Treaty of Breda, and the Dutch Staaten Eylandt, anglicized as "Staten Island", became part of the new English colony of New York.
In 1670, the Native Americans ceded all claims to Staten Island to the English in a deed to Gov. Francis Lovelace. In 1671, in order to encourage an expansion of the Dutch settlements, the English resurveyed Oude Dorp (which became known as Old Town) and expanded the lots along the shore to the south. These lots were settled primarily by Dutch families and became known as Nieuwe Dorp (meaning "New Village"), which later became anglicized as New Dorp.
Captain Christopher Billopp, after years of distinguished service in the Royal Navy, came to America in 1674 in charge of a company of infantry. The following year, he settled on Staten Island, where he was granted a patent for 932 acres (3.8 km2) of land. According to one version of an oft-repeated but inaccurate tale, Capt. Billopp's seamanship secured Staten Island to New York, rather than to New Jersey: the Island would belong to New York if the captain could circumnavigate it in one day, which he did. Mayor Michael Bloomberg perpetuated the myth by referring to it at a news conference in Brooklyn on February 20, 2007.
In 1683, the colony of New York was divided into ten counties. As part of this process, Staten Island, as well as several minor neighboring islands, were designated as Richmond County. The name derives from the title of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, an illegitimate son of King Charles II.
In 1687 and 1688, the English divided the island into four administrative divisions based on natural features: the 5,100-acre (21 km2) manorial estate of colonial governor Thomas Dongan in the northeastern hills known as the "Lordship or Manner of Cassiltown," along with the North, South, and West divisions. These divisions later evolved into the four towns of Castleton, Northfield, Southfield, and Westfield. In 1698, the population was 727.
The government granted land patents in rectangular blocks of eighty acres (320,000 m2), with the most desirable lands along the coastline and inland waterways. By 1708, the entire island had been divided up in this fashion, creating 166 small farms and two large manorial estates, the Dongan estate and a 1600-acre (6.5 km2) parcel on the southwestern tip of the island belonging to Christopher Billop (Jackson, 1995).
In 1729, a county seat was established at the village of Richmond Town, located at the headwaters of the Fresh Kills near the center of the island. By 1771, the island's population had grown to 2,847.
American Revolution, 18th century
The island played a significant role in the American Revolutionary War. On March 17, 1776, the British forces under Lord Howe evacuated Boston and sailed for Halifax, Nova Scotia. From Halifax, Howe prepared to attack New York City, which then consisted entirely of the southern end of Manhattan Island. General George Washington led the entire Continental Army to New York City in anticipation of the British attack. Howe used the strategic location of Staten Island as a staging ground for the invasion.
Over 140 British ships arrived over the summer of 1776 and anchored off the shores of Staten Island at the entrance to New York Harbor. This was the largest armada to set sail until World War II. The British soldiers and Hessian mercenaries numbered about 30,000. Howe established his headquarters in New Dorp at the Rose and Crown Tavern, near the junction of present New Dorp Lane and Amboy Road. There the representatives of the British government reportedly received their first notification of the Declaration of Independence.
In August 1776, the British forces crossed the Narrows to Brooklyn and outflanked the American forces at the Battle of Long Island, resulting in the British control of the harbor and the capture of New York City shortly afterwards. Three weeks later, on September 11, 1776, Lord Howe received a delegation of Americans consisting of Benjamin Franklin, Edward Rutledge, and John Adams at the Conference House on the southwestern tip of the island (known today as Tottenville) on the former estate of Christopher Billop. However, the Americans refused a peace offer from Howe in exchange for withdrawing the Declaration of Independence, and the conference ended without an agreement.
On August 22, 1777, the Battle of Staten Island occurred here between the British forces and several companies of the 2nd Canadian Regiment fighting alongside other American companies. The battle was inconclusive, though both sides surrendered over a hundred troops as prisoners. The Americans finally withdrew.
In early 1780, while the Kill Van Kull was frozen solid due to a brutal winter, Lord Stirling led an unsuccessful Patriot raid from New Jersey on the western shore of Staten Island. It was repulsed in part by troops led by British Commander Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings.
British forces remained on Staten Island for the remainder of the war. Most Patriots fled after the British occupation, and the sentiment of those who remained was predominantly Loyalist. Even so, the islanders found the demands of supporting the troops to be heavy. The British army kept headquarters in neighborhoods such as Bulls Head. Many buildings and churches were destroyed for their materials, and the military's demand for resources resulted in an extensive deforestation by the end of the war. The British army again used the island as a staging ground for its final evacuation of New York City on December 5, 1783. After their departure, the largest Loyalist landowners fled to Canada and their estates were subdivided and sold.
On July 4, 1827, the end of slavery in New York state was celebrated at Swan Hotel, West Brighton. Rooms at the hotel were reserved months in advance as local abolitionists and prominent free blacks prepared for the festivities. Speeches, pageants, picnics, and fireworks marked the celebration, which lasted for two days.
In 1860, parts of Castleton and Southfield were made into a new town, Middletown. The Village of New Brighton in the town of Castleton was incorporated in 1866, and in 1872 the Village of New Brighton annexed all the remainder of the Town of Castleton and became coterminous with the town.
The Conference House was built by Captain Christopher Billopp in 1680. This grand stone manor overlooks the Arthur Kill and Perth Amboy, New Jersey. His grandson, Colonel Christopher Billopp, owned the house when it was taken over by Admiral Lord Richard Howe, head of the British Forces in the Americas.
Consolidation with New York City
The towns of Staten Island were dissolved in 1898 with the consolidation of the City of Greater New York, as Richmond County became one of the five boroughs of the expanded city. Although consolidated into the City of Greater New York in 1898, the county sheriff of Staten Island maintained control of the jail system, unlike the other boroughs who had gradually transferred control of the jails to the NYC Department of Corrections. The jail system was not transferred until January 1, 1942. Years later Staten Island became (and currently still is) the only borough without a NYC Department of Corrections major detention center. The Department of corrections only maintains court holding jails at the three court buildings on Staten Island for inmates attending court. The various police agencies on Staten Island maintain inhouse holding jails for post arrest detention prior to transfer to a corrections jail in another borough.
The construction of the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, along with the other three major Staten Island bridges, created a new way for commuters and tourists to travel from New Jersey to Brooklyn, Manhattan, and areas farther east on Long Island. The network of highways running between the bridges has effectively carved up many of Staten Island's old neighborhoods.
The bridge opened many areas of the borough to residential and commercial development, especially in the central and southern parts of the borough, which had previously been largely undeveloped. Staten Island's population doubled from about 221,000 in 1960 to about 443,000 in 2000.
Throughout the 1980s, a movement to secede from the city steadily grew in popularity, reaching its peak during the mayoral term of David Dinkins. In a 1993 referendum, 65% voted to secede, but implementation was blocked in the State Assembly.
In the 1980s, the United States Navy had a base on Staten Island called Naval Station New York. It had two sections: a Strategic Homeport in Stapleton and a larger section near Fort Wadsworth, where the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge enters the island. The base was closed in 1994 through the Base Realignment and Closure process because of its small size and the expense of basing personnel there. It was announced that the property would be converted into a mixed-use waterfront neighborhood with a projected completion date of 2009.
Fresh Kills and its tributaries are part of the largest tidal wetland ecosystem in the region. Its creeks and wetlands have been designated a Significant Coastal Fish and Wildlife Habitat by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC). Opened along Fresh Kills as a "temporary landfill" in 1947, the Fresh Kills Landfill was a repository of trash for the city of New York. The landfill, once the world's largest man-made structure, was closed in 2001, but was briefly re-opened for the debris from Ground Zero following the September 11 attacks in 2001. It is to be converted into a park. NYC Parks completed and released the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) for the Fresh Kills Park project, on the former landfill, in May 2009. Plans for the park include a bird-nesting island, public roads, boardwalks, soccer and baseball fields, bridle paths, and a 5,000-seat stadium.
Today, freshwater and tidal wetlands, fields, birch thickets and a coastal oak maritime forest, as well as areas dominated by non-native plant species, are all within the boundaries of Fresh Kills. Already, many of the landscapes of Fresh Kills possess a stark beauty, with 360 degree, wide horizon views from the hills, over 300 acres (1.2 km2) of salt marsh and a winding network of creeks.
- 1609 - Henry Hudson names island "Staaten Eylandt."
- 1630 - Island granted by the Dutch West India Company to Michael Pauw.
- 1636 - Part of the island granted by the Dutch West India Company to David Pietersen de Vries.
- 1640 - Remaining part of the island granted by the Dutch West India Company to Cornelis Melyn.
- 1641 - Settlement established by David Pietersen de Vries at Oude Dorp, New Netherland.
- 1655-60 - Lenape attack and burn the last Cornelius Melyn/David de Vries attempt at settlement, capturing or killing the Dutch settlers
- 1664 - Island transferred from Dutch to British.
- 1668 - Island becomes part of British Province of New York.
- 1713 - St. Andrew's Church built.
- 1727 - Richmond village becomes seat of Richmond County, New York.
- 1740 - Moravian Cemetery established.
- 1763 - Moravian Church built.
- 1777 - August 22: Battle of Staten Island occurs.
- 1783 - November 25: British military occupation ends.
- 1788 - Towns of Castleton, Northfield, Southfield, and Westfield established.
- 1792 - Reformed Dutch Church incorporated.
- 1799 - Quarantine established.
- 1802 - Anglican Episcopal Church (Northfield) built.
- 1817 - Richmond Turnpike Company ferry begins operating to New York City.
- 1823 - Population: 6,135.
- 1825 - Old Staten Island Dyeing Establishment incorporated (approximate date).
- 1826 - Agricultural Society organized.
- 1828 - Fort Tompkins Light commissioned.
- 1829 - Richmond County Poor Farm established (approximate date).
- 1833 - Sailors' Snug Harbor opens for retired merchant seamen.
- 1840 - Bethel United Methodist Church (Tottenville) built.
- 1842 - Woodrow Methodist Church built.
- 1844 - Dutch Reformed Church on Staten Island built.
- 1845 - Moravian Church built.
- 1847 - Richmond County Law Library and Marine's Family Asylum founded.
- 1848 - St. Peter's Cemetery established.
- 1855 - St. Joseph's Church established.
- 1861 - Battery Weed fortification built.
- 1865 - Church of the Holy Comforter built.
- Brighton Heights Reformed Church and St. Paul's Memorial Church (Staten Island, New York) built.
- Staten Island Leader newspaper begins publication.
- Villages of Edgewater and Port Richmond incorporated.
- 1869 - Tottenville and S.R. Smith Infirmary incorporated.
- 1870 - Population: 33,029.
- 1878 - St. Philip's Baptist Church, the first Black church on Staten Island, opens.
- 1880 - Staten Island Water Supply Company established.
- 1881 - Natural Science Association founded.
- 1884 - Saint George Terminal and Staten Island Academy open.
- 1888 - Richmond Country Country Club opens.
- 1890 - Population: 51,693.
- 1894 - Calvary Presbyterian Church built.
- 1900 - Population: 67,021.
- 1901 - June 14: Northfield ferry accident.
- 1902 - Curtis High School begins construction.
- 1903 - Fort Wadsworth Light commissioned. Notre Dame Academy (Grymes Hill) established.
- 1904 - Christ Church New Brighton (Episcopal) built. Curtis High School is established.
- 1906 - Staten Island Borough Hall built. Happyland Amusement Park opens.
- 1907 - Public Museum of the Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences established.
- 1910 - Population: 85,969.
- 1919 - Richmond County Courthouse built.
- 1923 - Staten Island Tunnel construction begins.
- 1924 - Ritz Theater (Port Richmond) built.
- 1926 - Staten Island Armory built. Conference House Park established.
- 1927 - Port Richmond High School established.
- 1928 - Outerbridge Crossing (bridge) opens to Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Goethals Bridge opens to Elizabeth, New Jersey.
- 1929 - St. George Theater built.
- 1930 - Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church opens.
- 1931 - Bayonne Bridge opens to Bayonne, New Jersey.
- 1933 - Notre Dame College (Staten Island) opens.
- 1935 - South Beach-Franklin Delano Roosevelt Boardwalk constructed.
- 1936 - Staten Island Zoo opens. Robin Road Trestle (bridge) built.
- 1937 - Our Lady of Mount Carmel Grotto construction begins.
- 1938 - Lane Theater opens in New Dorp.
- 1941 - Beachland Amusements opens.
- 1942 - January 1: Staten Island jails transferred from the County Sheriff's Department to the NYC Department of Corrections
- 1947 - Fresh Kills Landfill, Willowbrook State School, and Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art established.
- 1949 - Great Kills Park opens.
- 1950 - Population: 191,555.
- 1956 - Staten Island Community College founded.
- 1958 - Historic Richmond Town (museum) established.
- 1959 - Arthur Kill Vertical Lift Bridge opens to Elizabethport, New Jersey.
- 1960 - December 16: 1960 New York mid-air collision.
- 1962 - Archaeology Society of Staten Island founded.
- 1963 - April 20: Rossville Fire.
- 1964 - Verrazano-Narrows Bridge opens to Brooklyn. Staten Island Expressway opens.
- 1965 - Willowbrook Parkway opens.
- 1966 - Staten Island Register newspaper begins publication. Robert T. Connor becomes Borough President. Hylan Plaza shopping centre in business.
- 1970 - Population: 295,443.
- 1971 - St. John's University Staten Island campus opens.
- 1973 - Staten Island Mall in business.
- 1975 - "Borough of Richmond" becomes "Borough of Staten Island."
- 1976 - Arthur Kill Correctional Facility and College of Staten Island established. Staten Island Children's Museum opens.
- 1977 - Preservation League of Staten Island and Newhouse Center for Contemporary Art founded. Anthony Gaeta becomes Borough President.
- 1978 - Northfield Community Local Development Corp. founded.
- 1979 - Fort Wadsworth transferred to US Navy from US Army.
- 1980 - Population: 352,029.
- 1981 - WSIA radio begins broadcasting.
- 1984 - Ralph J. Lamberti becomes Borough President.
- 1988 - Staten Island AIDS Task Force founded.
- 1993 - November 2: Voters approve secession of Staten Island from New York City.
- 1994 - Staten Island Conservatory of Music founded.
- 1999 - The New York Chinese Scholar's Garden and College of Staten Island Baseball Complex open. Staten Island Yankees baseball team established.
- 2001 - Richmond County Bank Ballpark opens. Fresh Kills Landfill closes.
- 2002 - James Molinaro becomes Borough President.
- 2004 - Eltingville Transit Center built.
- 2007 - Richmond University Medical Center established.
- 2008 - Staten Island LGBT Community Center opens.
- 2010 - Population: 468,730.
- 2011 - Mosque (Dongan Hills) opens. Arthur Kill Correctional Facility closes.
- 2012 - October: Hurricane Sandy.
- 2014 - July: Death of Eric Garner on Staten Island causes nationwide protests.
During the Paleozoic Era, the tectonic plate containing the continent of Laurentia and the plate containing the continent of Gondwanaland were converging, the Iapetus ocean that separated the two continents gradually closed and the resulting collision between the plates formed the Appalachian Mountains. During the early stages of this mountain building known as the Taconic orogeny, a piece of ocean crust from the Iapetus ocean broke off and became incorporated into the collision zone and now forms the oldest bedrock strata of Staten Island, the serpentinite.
This strata of the Lower Paleozoic (approximately 430 million years old) consists predominantly of the serpentine minerals, antigorite, chrysotile, and lizardite, it also contains asbestos and talc. At the end of the Paleozoic era (248 million years ago) all major continental masses were joined into the supercontinent of Pangaea.
- The Palisades Sill has been designated a National Natural Landmark, being "the best example of a thick diabase sill in the United States." It underlies a portion of northeast Staten Island, with a visible outcropping in the Travis section of Staten Island, off Travis Road in the William T. Davis Wildlife Refuge. This is the same formation which appears in New Jersey and upstate New York along the Hudson River in Palisades Interstate Park. The sill extends southward beyond the cliffs in Jersey City beneath the Upper New York Harbor and resurfaces on Staten Island. The Palisades sill date from the Early Jurassic period, 192 to 186 million years ago.
- Staten Island has been at the southern terminus of various periods of glaciation. The most recent, the Wisconsin Glacier, ended approximately 12,000 years ago. The accumulated rock and sediment deposited at the terminus of the glacier is known as the terminal moraine present along the central portion of the island. The evidence of these glacial periods is visible in the remaining wooded areas of Staten Island in the form of glacial erratics and kettle ponds.
At the retreat of the ice sheet, Staten Island was connected by land to Long Island as The Narrows had not yet formed. Geologists' reckonings of the course of the Hudson River have placed it alternatively through the present course of the Raritan River, south of the island, or through present-day Flushing Bay and Jamaica Bay.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the Richmond County has a total area of 102.5 square miles (265 km2), of which 58.5 square miles (152 km2) is land and 44.0 square miles (114 km2) (43%) is water. It is the third-smallest county in New York by land area and fourth-smallest by total area.
Staten Island is separated from Long Island by the Narrows and from mainland New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull. Staten Island is positioned at the center of New York Bight, a sharp bend in the shoreline between New Jersey and Long Island. The region is considered vulnerable to sea-level rise. On October 29, 2012, the island experienced severe damage and loss of life along with the destruction of many homes during Hurricane Sandy.
In addition to the main island, the borough and county also include several small uninhabited islands:
- The Isle of Meadows (at the mouth of Fresh Kills)
- Prall's Island (in the Arthur Kill)
- Shooters Island (in Newark Bay; part of it belongs to New Jersey)
- Swinburne Island (in Lower New York Bay)
- Hoffman Island (in Lower New York Bay)
The highest point on the island, the summit of Todt Hill, elevation 410 ft (125 m), is also the highest point in the five boroughs, as well as the highest point on the Atlantic Coastal Plain south of Great Blue Hill in Massachusetts and the highest point on the coast proper south of Maine's Camden Hills.
In the late 1960s the island was the site of important battles of open-space preservation, resulting in the largest area of parkland in New York City and an extensive Greenbelt that laces the island with woodland trails.
Staten Island is the only borough in New York City that does not share a land border with another borough (Marble Hill in Manhattan is contiguous with the Bronx). The borough has a land border with Elizabeth and Bayonne, New Jersey on uninhabited Shooters Island.
Staten Island is home to a large and diverse population of wildlife. Wildlife found on Staten Island include white tailed deer, hundreds of species of birds including turkey, hawks, egrets and ring-necked pheasants. Staten Island is also home to horseshoe crabs, cotton tailed rabbits, opossums, raccoons, garter snakes, red-eared slider turtles, newts, spring peeper frogs, leopard frogs, fox, box turtles, northern snapping turtles and common snapping turtles.
Staten Island includes thousands of acres of federal, state, and local park land including the "greenbelt" and "blue belt" park systems and the Gateway National Recreation Area in addition to hundreds of acres of private wooded areas.
The parks on Staten Island are managed by various state, federal and local agencies.
The National Park Service also maintains full-time Wildland Firefighters to patrol the Staten Island sites in wildfire brush trucks.
Two New York State parks are managed by the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation:
New York State Park Police officers patrol these parks and the surrounding streets.
359 acres (145 ha) of State Forests, state wildlife management areas and Wetlands are managed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation:
- Saint Francis Woodland
- Butler Manor Woods
- Arden Heights Woods
- Todt Hill Woods
- North Mount Loretto State Forest
- Lemon creek Tidal Wetland Wildlife Management Area
- Blosers Wetland Wildlife Management Area
- Goethal Pond Wetland
- Bridge Creek Tidal Wetland
- Old Place Creek Tidal Wetland
- Oakwood Beach Wetland
- Sharrots Shoreline Natural Resource Area
- Sawmill Creek Wetland
The 359 acres (145 ha) of NYS Department of Environmental Conservation land throughout the island are patrolled by New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Police officers and one NYS DEC Forest Ranger, who has the dual task of law enforcement and fire suppression.
The New York City Department of Parks and Recreation manages 156 parks, including:
|Union County, New Jersey||Hudson County, New Jersey||New York County (Manhattan)|
|Kings County (Brooklyn)
Queens County (Queens)
|Middlesex County, New Jersey||Monmouth County, New Jersey|
|U.S. Decennial Census
1990-2000 2010 and 2014
At the 2010 Census, there were 468,730 people living in Staten Island, which is an increase of 5.6% since the 2000 Census.
Staten Island is the only borough with a non-Hispanic White majority.
According to the 2010 Census, 64.0% of the population was non-Hispanic White, down from 79% in 1990, 10.6% Black or African American, 0.4% American Indian and Alaska Native, 7.5% Asian, 0.2% from some other race (non-Hispanic) and 2.6% of two or more races. 17.3% of Staten Island's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race).
In 2009, approximately 20.0% of the population was foreign born, and 1.8% of the populace was born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parents. Concordantly, 78.2% of the population was born in the United States. Approximately 28.6% of the population over five years of age spoke a language other than English at home, and 27.3% of the population over twenty-five years of age had a bachelor's degree or higher.
According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the borough's population was 75.7% White (65.8% non-Hispanic White alone), 10.2% Black or African American (9.6% non-Hispanic Black or African American alone), 0.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 7.4% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 4.6% from Some other race, and 1.9% from Two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 15.9% of the population.
According to the survey, the top ten European ancestries were the following:
- Italian: 34.7%
- Irish: 14.2%
- German: 5.7%
- Russian: 3.8%
- Polish: 3.4%
- English: 1.6%
- Ukrainian: 1.3%
- Norwegian: 1.0%
- Greek: 1.0%
- French: 0.9%
Since the 2000 census, a large Russian community has been growing on Staten Island, particularly in the Rossville, South Beach, and Great Kills area. There is also a significant Polish community mainly in the South Beach and Midland Beach area and there is also a large Sri Lankan community on Staten Island, concentrated mainly on Victory Boulevard on the northeastern tip of Staten Island towards St. George. The Little Sri Lanka in the Tompkinsville neighborhood of Staten Island is one of the largest Sri Lankan communities outside of the country of Sri Lanka itself. The borough is also home to a Chinanteco-speaking Mexican American community.
The vast majority of the borough's African American and Hispanic residents live north of the Staten Island Expressway, or Interstate 278. In terms of religion, the population is largely Roman Catholic. There is a growing presence of Egyptian Copts, the vast majority of whom are members of the Coptic Orthodox Church.
Per the 2009 American Community Survey, the median income for a household was $55,039, and the median income for a family was $64,333. Males had a median income of $50,081 versus $35,914 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $23,905. About 7.9% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over.
As of 2010, 70.39% (306,310) of Staten Island residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 10.02% (43,587) spoke Spanish, 3.14% (13,665) Russian, 3.11% (13,542) Italian, 2.39% (10,412) Chinese, 1.81% (7,867) other Indo-European languages, 1.38% (5,990) Arabic, 1.01% (4,390) Polish, 0.88% (3,812) Korean, 0.80% (3,500) Tagalog, 0.76% (3,308) other Asian languages, 0.62% (2,717) Urdu, 0.57% (2,479) other Indic languages, and African languages were spoken as a main language by 0.56% (2,458) of the population over the age of five. In total, 29.61% (128,827) of Staten Island's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.
Government and politics
|2012||48.2% 74,222||50.8% 78,178|
|2008||51.7% 86,062||47.6% 79,311|
|2004||56.4% 90,325||42.7% 68,448|
|2000||45.0% 63,903||51.9% 73,828|
|1996||40.8% 52,207||50.5% 64,684|
|1992||47.9% 70,707||38.5% 56,901|
|1988||61.5% 77,427||38.0% 47,812|
|1984||65.1% 83,187||34.7% 44,345|
|1980||58.6% 64,885||33.7% 37,306|
|1976||54.1% 56,995||45.4% 47,867|
|1972||74.2% 84,686||25.6% 29,241|
|1968||55.3% 54,631||35.2% 34,770|
|1964||45.5% 42,330||54.4% 50,524|
|1960||56.5% 50,356||43.4% 38,673|
Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Staten Island has been governed by the New York City Charter that provides for a "strong" mayor-council system. The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services on Staten Island.
The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. The Office of Borough President became one focal point for opinions over the Vietnam War when former intelligence agent and peace activist Ed Murphy, ran for office in 1973, sponsored by the Staten Island Democratic Association (SIDA) and was supported by those who exposed Willowbrook, promoted civil rights and health care activists.
Ed Murphy's combat veteran status deflected traditional right wing attacks on liberals and the campaign facilitated the emergence of more liberal politics on Staten Island. In 1989 the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional on the grounds that Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause pursuant to the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision.
Since 1990 the Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Staten Island's Borough President is James Oddo, a Republican elected in November 2013 with 69.1% of the vote. Oddo is the only Republican borough president in New York City.
Staten Island's politics differ considerably from those of New York City's other boroughs. Although in 2005 44.7% of the borough's registered voters were registered Democrats and 30.6% were registered Republicans, the Republican Party holds a small majority of local public offices. Staten Island is the base of New York City's Republican Party in citywide elections. In the 2001 mayoral election, borough voters chose Republican Michael Bloomberg, with 75.87% of the vote, over Democrat Mark Green, with 21.15% of the vote.
Since Green narrowly lost the election citywide, Staten Island provided the margin of Bloomberg's victory. The main political divide in the borough is demarcated by the Staten Island Expressway; areas north of the Expressway tend to be more liberal while the south tends to be more conservative. Local party platforms center on affordable housing, education and law and order. Two out of Staten Island's three New York City Council members are Republicans.
In national elections Staten Island is not the Republican stronghold it is in local elections, but it is also not the Democratic stronghold the rest of New York City is. The borough is a Republican-leaning swing county.
Each of the city's five counties (coterminous with each borough) has its own criminal court system and District Attorney, the chief public prosecutor who is directly elected by popular vote. Daniel Donovan, a Republican, has been the District Attorney of Richmond County since 2004, and was the Republican nominee for New York Attorney General in 2010. Staten Island has three City Council members, two Republicans and one Democrat, the smallest number among the five boroughs.
It also has three administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for local residents. In the 2009 election for city offices, Staten Island elected its first black official, Debi Rose, who defeated the incumbent Democrat in the North Shore city council seat in a primary, and then went on to win the general election.
Staten Island has voted for a Democratic presidential nominee only four times since 1952: in 1964, 1996, 2000, and 2012. In the 2004 presidential election Republican George W. Bush received 56% of the vote in Staten Island and Democrat John Kerry received 43%. By contrast, Kerry outpolled Bush in New York City's other four boroughs by a cumulative margin of 77% to 22%. In the 2008 presidential election, Republican John McCain won 52% of the vote in the borough to Democrat Barack Obama's 48%. In 2012, the borough flipped and was won by incumbent Democrat Barack Obama, who took 51% of the vote to Republican Mitt Romney's 48%. This made it the fourth time since 1952 that Democrats have carried Staten Island, and made the borough one of the few parts of the country where Barack Obama gained an advantage compared to 2008.
Staten Island lies entirely within New York's 11th congressional district, which also includes part of southwestern Brooklyn. It was formerly represented by Republican Michael Grimm, who was elected in 2010 but resigned in 2014.
Staten Island flag
The flag is on a white background in the center of which is the design of a seal in the shape of an oval. Within the seal appears the color blue to symbolize the skyline of the borough, in which two seagulls appear colored in black and white. The green outline represents the countryside of the borough with white outline denoting the residential areas of Staten Island. Below is inscribed the words "Staten Island" in gold. Below this are five wavy lines of blue to symbolize the water that surrounds the island borough on all sides. Gold fringe outlines the flag.
Staten Island politics differ considerably from the rest of the city, being far friendlier to the Republicans than other boroughs, although Democrats have a substantial majority in registration. According to the New York State Board of Elections, as of April 1, 2005, there were 119,601 registered Democrats in Staten Island versus only 82,193 registered Republicans.
|No affiliation (%)||19.00||19.10||18.46||18.54||18.67||18.84||18.67||18.25||18.43||18.48|
Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Staten Island has been governed by the New York City Charter that provides for a "strong" Mayor-council government. The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, police, fire, recreational facilities, sanitation, transportation, water supply, and welfare services in Staten Island. The Borough has three appointed Community Boards with advisory and limited administrative powers.
Staten Island representation in the state assembly has 2 Democrats and 2 Republicans. The 60th district is represented by Republican Nicole Malliotakis, and the 62nd, which encompasses most of the south shore of the island, by Joseph Borelli. But both the 61st and 63rd districts have elected Democrats, Matthew Titone and Michael J. Cusick. Staten Island is split between two State Senate Districts. Most of the island used to be represented by Republican John J. Marchi, the longest-serving legislator in state history; but is now represented by Republican Andrew Lanza; while the North Shore belongs to the Brooklyn-based district of Democrat Diane Savino.
In national elections, Staten Island is not the Republican stronghold it is in local elections. However, it is not a Democratic stronghold like the rest of the city. It can be considered as a swing county with a slight Republican lean, though it seemed to become increasingly Democratic in the 1990s, like Long Island and Westchester County.
The island has voted for the Democratic presidential nominee only four times since 1952 — in 1964, 1996, 2000 and 2012. In the 2004 presidential election, George W. Bush received 57% of the island's votes to 42% for John Kerry; by contrast, Kerry outpolled Bush in the city's other four boroughs cumulatively by a margin of 77% to 22%.
Staten Island is currently in the 11th Congressional District, formerly the 13th Congressional District, which also includes part of Brooklyn. It has been held by the GOP from 1981 until 2009 when Democrat Michael McMahon won the seat. It was previously held by Vito Fossella, an outspoken conservative. Michael Grimm, a Republican, won back the seat for the GOP in 2010. The seat has always been targeted by Democrats, but Fossella always won with little trouble until 2004, when he lost the Brooklyn portion of the district by seven points. However, he won Staten Island by 26 points, undoubtedly helped by Bush's win in the borough. Before Fossella, Staten Island was represented by Susan Molinari, a moderate Republican who made the keynote speech at the 1996 Republican National Convention. Her father, Guy, held the seat from 1981 to 1990, when he was elected borough president.
In 2009, Borough President James Molinaro started a program to increase tourism on Staten Island. At the top of that program was a new website, visitstatenisland.com.
The tourism program also includes a "Staten Island Attractions" video that is aired in both the Staten Island and the Manhattan Whitehall ferry terminals, as well as informational kiosks at the terminals, which supply printed information on Staten Island attractions, entertainment and restaurants.
The 625 ft (191 m) New York Wheel, which could become the world's tallest Ferris wheel, is to be constructed in the St. George neighborhood, alongside the planned Empire Outlets retail complex. First reported in June 2012 and officially announced by mayor Michael Bloomberg in September 2012, construction was originally expected to begin early in 2014. Completion was originally expected to be in 2015, but this has since been put back several times. In April 2013 it was reported to be July 4, 2016.
Staten Island is known as the bourough of parks because of its numerous parks, some well known parks are Clove Lakes, Silver Lake, Greenbelt and High Rock. A great sight to see gorgeous points of Staten Island is Moses mountain which was a mountain where Robert Moses wanted to build a highway through but protests retracted this arrangement and now is a key point of Staten Island for tourists.
Local support for the arts
Artists and musicians have been moving to Staten Island's North Shore so they can be in close proximity to Manhattan but also have enough affordable space to live and work. Filmmakers, most of whom work independently, also play an important part in Staten Island's art scene, which has been recognized by the local government. Staten Island Arts (formerly The Council on the Arts and Humanities for Staten Island) is Staten Island's local arts council and helps support local artists and cultural organizations with regrants, workshops, folklife and arts-in-education programs, and advocacy. Conceived by the Staten Island Economic Development Corporation to introduce independent and international films to a broad and diverse audience, the Staten Island Film Festival (SIFF) held its first four-day festival in 2006.
Historic Richmond Town (not to be confused with the town of Richmond, New York) is New York City's living history village and museum complex. Visitors can explore the diversity of the American experience, especially that of Staten Island and its neighboring communities, from the colonial period to the present. The village area occupies 25 acres (100,000 m2) of a 100-acre (0.40 km2) site with about 15 restored buildings, including homes, commercial and civic buildings, and a museum.
The island is home to the Staten Island Zoo, which recently opened a newly refurbished reptile exhibit and is in the process of designing a new carousel and leopard enclosure. Zoo construction commenced in 1933 as part of the Federal Government's works program on an eight-acre (three-hectare) estate willed to New York City. It was opened on June 10, 1936, the first zoo in the U.S. specifically devoted to an educational mandate. The Zoo was also the first to exhibit all the 32 varieties of rattlesnakes known to occur in the United States. In the late 1960s, the Zoo maintained the most complete rattlesnake collection in the world with 39 varieties.
Snug Harbor Cultural Center, the Alice Austen House Museum, the Conference House, the Garibaldi-Meucci Museum, Historic Richmond Town, Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art, the Noble Maritime Collection, Sandy Ground Historical Museum, Staten Island Children's Museum, the Staten Island Museum and the Staten Island Botanical Garden, home of The New York Chinese Scholar's Garden can all be found on the island.
The National Lighthouse Museum recently undertook a major fundraising project and opened in 2012, and the Staten Island Museum (art, science, and history) plans to open a new branch in Snug Harbor by 2014.
Staten Island's local paper is The Staten Island Advance. The paper also has an affiliated website called silive.com.
SI Parent Magazine, Staten Island's parenting magazine, has been publishing monthly under the parent company, Family Resource Publications, Inc. since 1989 as a local resource for families. The SIParent website siparent.com debuted in 2005 as an interactive tool for parents, followed by social media and email marketing initiatives: Staten Island Parent on Facebook; Staten Island Parent on Twitter; SI Parent digital issue;
Movies filmed partially or wholly on Staten Island include:
American Wildflower, a novel about life on Staten Island in the 1970s was written by Bobby Clark, who was born on the island and lived there for 40 years.
Lois Lowry, the author of The Gossamer and many other books, attended school on Staten Island.
Writer Paul Zindel lived in Staten Island during his youth and based most of his teenage novels in the island.
Staten Island also has a local music scene. Most shows are at The Full Cup or the old Dock Street in Stapleton. These venues in the North shore are part of the art movement mentioned above. Local bands include many punk, ska, hardcore punk, indie, metal, and pop punk bands.
Musicians who were born or reside on Staten Island and groups that formed on Staten Island are found at List of people from Staten Island.
- Jersey Shore was filmed in part of Staten Island in beginnings of seasons.
- Grounded for Life a sitcom about an Irish family while not filmed in Staten Island is where the family are supposed to live and work.
- Time Warner Cable's news channel NY1 airs a weekly show called This Week on Staten Island, currently hosted by Anthony Pascale. The magazine style show takes content from NY1's daily/hourly newscasts called "Your Staten Island News Now".
- The documentary, A Walk Around Staten Island with David Hartman and Barry Lewis, premiered on public television station WNET on December 3, 2007, profiling Staten Island culture and history, including major attractions such as the Staten Island Ferry, Historic Richmondtown, the Conference House, Snug Harbor Cultural Center, the Chinese Scholars Garden and many more sites.
- Additional television series shot partially or wholly on Staten Island include Big Ang, The Book of Daniel, The Education of Max Bickford, Staten Island Law, Staten Island Cakes, Mob Wives, and as well as parts of many episodes of Blue Bloods, Law & Order, Law & Order: Criminal Intent, and Law & Order: Special Victims Unit with the only Law & Order TV film, Exiled (starring Chris Noth). The sitcom Grounded for Life was set on Staten Island, while in the animated Godzilla: The Series, the Humanitarian Environmental Analysis Team (HEAT)—which monitors Godzilla—has their headquarters based on Staten Island in an old ferry terminal. Will & Grace episode 3 of series 8 The Old Man Of The Sea, was set in Staten Island.
- Sex and the City "Season 3" Episode 1 "Where There's Smoke..." was filmed on Staten Island and featured the Staten Island Ferry
- "Girls" "Season 2" Episode 6 "Boys" was filmed in Whitehall Terminal in Lower Manhattan, Staten Island Ferry, Nicolas Street in St. George, Hamilton and Westervelt Avenue, and the final scenes taking place on Carroll Place all on the North Shore of Staten Island.
The St. George Theatre serves as a cultural arts center, hosting educational programs, architectural tours, television and film shoots, concerts, comedy, Broadway touring companies, and small and large children's shows. Artists who have performed there include The B-52s, The Jonas Brothers, Tony Bennett, and Don McLean. In 2012, the NBC musical drama Smash filmed several scenes there.
- Tennis is said to have made its debut in the United States of America on Staten Island in New York State. The first American National championship was played there in September 1880. Tennis was introduced in Staten Island by Mary Ewing Outerbridge.
- Staten Island Yankees, New York-Penn League baseball, Class A Minor League affiliate to the New York Yankees
- The New York Cosmos u23, part of the USL Premier Development League (PDL), call Staten Island home. The team currently plays at Monsignor Farrell High School and is affiliated with the New York Cosmos.
- The New York Metropolitans of the American Association played baseball on Staten Island from April 1886 through 1887. Erastus Wiman, the developer of St. George, brought the team to Staten Island where they played in a stadium called the St. George Grounds, near the site of the current-day Staten Island Yankees' Richmond County Bank Ballpark and the Staten Island Ferry terminal.
- Wagner College participates in Division I athletics.
- NBA basketball coach P.J. Carlesimo coached the Wagner College Basketball team the "Seahawks".
- Former New York Giants head coach Jim Lee Howell previously was head coach of Staten Island's Wagner College Football
- Staten Island formerly had a National Football League team, the Stapletons. Based in Stapleton. Their stadium, Thompson's Stadium, was located on the site of Berta A. Dreyfus Intermediate School 49 and the Stapleton Houses. They played in the league from 1929 to 1932, defeating the New York Giants twice and the Chicago Cardinals once. During the 1932 NFL season the Stapletons, last in the NFL, played the eventual season champion Chicago Bears to a scoreless tie. Football Hall of Famer Ken Strong played for the Stapes.
- The New York Predators of the semi-pro Regional American Football League have called Staten Island home since their inception in 1998. Owned by Bill Simo, they play most home games at St. Peters H.S.
- There was a controversial plan by the International Speedway Corporation to build a speedway on the island that would host NASCAR races by 2010. ISC abandoned the plan in 2006, citing financial concerns.
- In 1964 Staten Island's Mid Island Little League won the Little League World Series in Williamsport, Pennsylvania.
- The Staten Island Cricket Club, incorporated in 1866, is the oldest continuously operating cricket club in the United States.
Education in Staten Island is provided by a number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are managed by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States.
Public middle schools include Intermediate Schools 2, 7, 14, 16, 21, 24, 27, 32, 34, 35, 42, 46, 49, 51, 61, 63, 72 and 75, and 861, a K to 8 school as well as part of the Petrides School (which runs from kindergarten to High School)
Public high schools include:
- College of Staten Island High School for International Studies
- Curtis High School
- Gaynor McCown Expeditionary Learning School
- New Dorp High School
- Petrides High School
- Port Richmond High School
- Staten Island Technical High School
- Susan E. Wagner High School
- Tottenville High School
- Ralph R. McKee CTE High School
- Staten Island Academy is the only independent private (non-public, non-religious) grade school on the island and is one of the oldest in the entire country.
- Gateway Academy (co-educational)
- St. John Villa Academy (all-girls)
- St. Peter's Boys High School (all-boys)
- St. Peter's High School for Girls (all-girls)
- Notre Dame Academy (New York) (all-girls)
- St. Joseph Hill Academy (all-girls)
- Monsignor Farrell High School (all-boys)
- Moore Catholic High School (co-educational)
- St. Joseph by the Sea High School (co-educational)
Moore Catholic and St. Joseph by the Sea are the only co-educational Catholic high schools on the island.
- Miraj Islamic School (co-educational)
Colleges and universities
- The College of Staten Island is one of the eleven senior colleges of the City University of New York (CUNY). The college offers both associate's and bachelor's degrees. The College of Staten Island also offers post-graduate level study from master's to doctoral level study.
- Wagner College is a coeducational private liberal arts college with an enrollment of 2,000 undergraduates and 500 graduate students.
- St. John's University has a campus on Staten Island. It is a private, coeducational Roman Catholic university.
Staten Island is connected to New Jersey via three vehicular bridges and one railroad bridge. The Outerbridge Crossing to Perth Amboy, New Jersey is at the southern end of Route 440 and the Bayonne Bridge to Bayonne, New Jersey is at the northern end of Route 440, which continues into Jersey City, New Jersey. From the New Jersey Turnpike, the Goethals Bridge using I-278 connects from Elizabeth, New Jersey to the Staten Island Expressway. The Arthur Kill Vertical Lift Railroad Bridge carries freight between the northwest part of the island and Elizabeth, New Jersey.
Unlike the other four boroughs of New York, but like many suburbs, Staten Island has no large, numbered grid system. New Dorp's grid has a few numbered streets but they do not intersect with any numbered avenues. Some neighborhoods, however, organize their street names alphabetically.
Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn via the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge using I-278, the Staten Island Expressway. Once in Brooklyn, I-278 becomes the Gowanus Expressway and then the Brooklyn Queens Expressway, providing access to Manhattan through various tunnels and bridges.
Staten Island was, at one point, concurrently home to the longest vertical lift bridge, steel arch bridge, and suspension bridge in the world; the Arthur Kill Vertical Lift Bridge, Bayonne Bridge, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, respectively. The Arthur Kill Bridge still holds the title for longest vertical lift bridge, while the Bayonne and Verrazano bridges are now the 4th and 8th longest, in their respective categories.
The only pedestrian link to Staten Island is via a footpath on the Bayonne Bridge.
Staten Island is the most auto-centric borough in New York City, with only 18.4% of all households being autoless. Citywide, the rate is 55%.
Public transportation on the island is limited to:
- NYC Department of Transportation (Staten Island Ferry)
- NYC Transit buses (local service on Staten Island and express service to Manhattan)
- Staten Island Railway service from St. George to Tottenville
The Staten Island Ferry is the only direct transportation network from Staten Island to Manhattan, roughly a 25-minute trip. The St. George ferry terminal built in 1950 recently underwent a $130-million renovation and now features floor-to-ceiling glass for panoramic views of the harbor and incoming ferries. The ferry had its fare eliminated in 1997. The Staten Island Ferry had undergone ramp renovations which were completed in 2014. The Staten Island Ferry transports over 60,000 passengers per day. The ferry makes the 25 minute trip across New York Harbor 109 times every weekday, 24 hours every day, while utilizing five boats, and 75 times on Saturdays and 68 times every Sunday, using a three boat fleet. NYS Department of Transportation Peace Officers in conjunction with the New York City Police Department and U.S Coast Guard patrol the ferry terminal.
The Staten Island Railway traverses the island 24/7 from its northeastern tip to its southwestern tip. The Staten Island Railway opened on April 23, 1860 and was owned and operated by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) until July 1, 1971 when the line was bought by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Staten Island Railway continued to have its own railway police, the Staten Island Rapid Transit Police until 2005 when the 25 officer police force was consolidated into the Metropolitan Transportation Authority Police. MTA Police officers patrol the Island's only passenger railway. Staten Island is the only borough not serviced by the New York City Subway, as the Staten Island Tunnel was abandoned in the middle of construction in the 1920s. It lies dormant beneath Owl's Head Park in Brooklyn. As such, express bus service is provided by NYC Transit throughout Staten Island to Lower and Midtown Manhattan.
CSX operates a class I short line freight rail service via the Travis Branch with a 38 acres (15 ha) intermodel on-dock rail facility on the southern end of Staten Island which connects to the National Rail System via the Arthur Kill Rail Bridge to New Jersey. In addition to the intermodel on-dock rail yard, the CSX Staten Island Rail line also connects to the Sanitation departments waste transfer station. CSX railroad police officers patrol and respond emergencies along the freight line.
A five-mile right of way exists along the north shore of Staten Island. The rail line was built, owned, and operated by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which utilized the line for passenger service until March 31, 1953. It then became a Baltimore and Ohio Railroad freight line until the 1980s, when freight service was stopped. There have been proposals to revive the abandoned North Shore Branch of the Staten Island Railway for passenger service as a rail line or for use as Bus Rapid Transit. There is also a proposal to build a West Shore Light Rail in the center of the Dr. Martin Luther King Expressway, Staten Island Expressway, and West Shore Expressway, continuing to Richmond Valley, Staten Island to connect with the main line of the Staten Island Railway. The South Beach Branch, which transported summer vacationers to South Beach, Staten Island, also ceased service on March 31, 1953.
NYC Transit provides local and limited bus service with over 30 lines throughout Staten Island. Most lines feed into the St. George Ferry Terminal in the northeastern corner of the borough. Three lines (the S53, S93, S79 SBS) provide service over the Verrazano Bridge to Bay Ridge, Brooklyn. The S79 SBS is the first Select Bus Service route in the borough, although it does not feature off-board fare payment characteristic of other Select Bus Service lines. Beginning September 4, 2007, the MTA began offering bus service from Staten Island to Bayonne, New Jersey, over the Bayonne Bridge via the S89 limited-stop bus, allowing passengers to connect to the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail's 34th Street Station, giving Staten Island residents a new route into Manhattan. It is notably, despite Staten Island's proximity to New Jersey, the only route directly into New Jersey from Staten Island via public transportation.
Express bus service to Manhattan via the Verrazano Bridge and the Gowanus Expressway is also available for a $7.00 fare each way. The X1, X10, and X17 are the only ones to run outside of rush hour. The X17 received Sunday service on September 30, 2012, and also makes a stop in Bay Ridge to compensate for the loss of the X28 in that area. In January 2013, the X1 became the first express bus route to receive 24/7 service.
Staten Island is the only borough without a hospital operated by New York City.
Staten Island is the only borough without a New York City Department of Corrections major detention center. The Department of Corrections only maintains court holding jails at the three court buildings on Staten Island for inmates attending court. The various police agencies on Staten Island maintain in-house holding jails for post arrest detention prior to transfer to a corrections jail in another borough.
The Staten Island county sheriff operated a jail system on Staten Island until January 1, 1942, when the Staten Island jail system was transferred from the county sheriffs department to the New York City Department of Corrections and eventually closed. In 1976, the New York State Department of Correctional Services opened the Arthur Kill Correctional Facility of Staten Island, but the facility was closed in 2011.
Notable natives and residents
- List of counties in New York
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Richmond County, New York
- Staten Island Legal Services
- Staten Island Economic Development Corporation
Notes and references
- "State & County QuickFacts - Richmond County (Staten Island Borough), New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- "Conference House Park". http://www.nycgovparks.org/parks/conferencehousepark. New York City Parks. External link in
- "Timeline of Staten Island - 1900s - Present". New York Public Library. Archived from the original on January 13, 2006. Retrieved January 16, 2006.
- Brown, Chip (January 30, 1994). "Escape From New York - The New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
Given their status as residents of "the forgotten borough" – the sorry Cinderella sister in New York's dysfunctional family – maybe the giddiest aspect of all was the attention.
- Buckley, Cara (October 7, 2007). "Bohemia by the Bay". The New York Times. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
Even as New York’s hip young things invade and colonize neighborhoods near, far and out of state, Staten Island has stayed stubbornly uncool. It remains the forgotten borough.
- "South Beach & FDR Boardwalk of Staten Island, NYC". Si-web.com. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "Fresh Kills Landfill". Freshkills Park Blog. wordpress.com. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- History: Staten Island, US Army Corps of Engineers Archived September 14, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "Fresh Kills Park". Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- Jackson, 1995
- Ritchie, 1963
- Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volumes 3-4 By American Museum of Natural History
- History of Richmond County (Staten Island), New York.
- Russell Shorto, The Island at the Center of the World: The Epic Story of Dutch Manhattan and the Forgotten Colony that Shaped America. First Edition. New York City: Vintage Books (a Division of Random House, 2004), ISBN 1-4000-7867-9
- Ellis, Edward Robb (1966). The Epic of New York City. Old Town Books. p. 55.
- Scheltema, Gajus and Westerhuijs, Heleen (eds.), Exploring Historic Dutch New York. Museum of the City of New York/Dover Publications, New York (2011) ISBN 978-0-486-48637-6
- Chan, Sewell (February 21, 2007). "That Old Tale About S.I.? Hold On Now". New York Times.
- Greene and Harrington (1932). American Population Before the Federal Census of 1790. New York., as cited in: Rosenwaike, Ira (1972). Population History of New York City. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-8156-2155-8.
- McFadden, Robert D. (March 5, 1994). "'Home Rule' Factor May Block S.I. Secession". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
- John, Lloyd; Mitchinson, John (2006-10-05). QI: The Book of General Ignorance. Faber and Faber. pp. 114–115. ISBN 0-571-23368-6.
- "Fresh Kills:Landfill to Landscape". archive.org. Archived from the original on June 3, 2007.
- Generic Impact Statement and Supplemental Impact Statement, NYC Parks. Accessed November 30, 2009.
- "Fresh Kills". New York City Department of City Planning. 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
- Arthur Fremont Rider (1916), "Staten Island", Rider's New York City and Vicinity, New York: H. Holt and Company
- "Staten Island", Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica Co., 1910, OCLC 14782424
- Franklin B. Hough (1872), "Richmond County", Gazetteer of the State of New York, Albany, N.Y: Andrew Boyd, OCLC 18450990
- "Staten Island Church Records", Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society (NY) 4, 1909
- Hartman, Barry. "An Island Within a Cty". A Walk Around Staten Island. WNET 13. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- A.Y. Hubbell (1898), History of Methodism and the Methodist Churches of Staten Island, New York: Richmond Pub. Co.
- Jedidiah Morse; Richard C. Morse (1823), "Richmond County", A New Universal Gazetteer (4th ed.), New Haven: S. Converse
- Richard Mather Bayles (1887), History of Richmond County (Staten Island), New York from its discovery to the present time, New York: L.E. Preston
- Ira K. Morris (1898), Morris's Memorial History of Staten Island, New York, New York: Memorial Pub. Co. v.1, v.2 (1900)
- "Pavilion, New Brighton", The Plaindealer (NY), July 15, 1837, OCLC 11777382
- "Staten Island Rich in Little Known Historical Landmarks", New York Times, July 13, 1913
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- Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences ... History, Act of Incorporation, Constitution and By-laws. 1906.
- Proceedings of the Bi-Centennial Celebration of Richmond County, Staten Island, New York, New York, 1883
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- "Richmond Country Country Club Story". Staten Island: Richmond Country Country Club. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- American Art Annual 17, NY: American Federation of Arts, 1920
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- Kenneth M Gold; Lori Robin Weintrob (2011). Discovering Staten Island: a 350th anniversary commemorative history. Charleston, SC: History Press. ISBN 9781609491703.
- Bayonne Bridge over the Kill van Kull between Port Richmond, Staten Island, New York and Bayonne, New Jersey. Dedication November 14th, 1931
- "Movie Theaters in New York". CinemaTreasures.org. Los Angeles: Cinema Treasures LLC. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- "New York City: Staten Island On The Web". NYPL Recommendations: Best of the Web. New York Public Library. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- Jeffrey A. Kroessler (2002), New York year by year: a chronology of the great metropolis, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0814747515
- "Preservation League of Staten Island". Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- "New S.I. Borough President is Sworn In", New York Times, November 11, 1984
- "Staten Island Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, & Transgender History". Staten Island LGBT Community Center. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
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- "Staten Island: Secession Is Approved; Next Move Is Albany's". New York Times. November 3, 1993.
- "About Us". Staten Island Conservatory of Music. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- "Mosque Opens Quietly on Staten Island", New York Times, August 18, 2011
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- "U.S. Geological Survey Studies in the New York Bight". Woods Hole Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- "Why Hurricane Sandy Hit Staten Island So Hard". AccuWeather, Inc. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
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- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
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- Harrison Peck. "NYC The Official Guide - Must-See Little Sri Lanka: 7 Great Things to See and Do". © 2006–2011 NYC & Company, Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
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- "World's tallest observation wheel to tower over New York". Traveller.
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- "Artists Hope To Revitalize St. George, Stapleton Areas". April 28, 2007. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
- "Council on the Arts and Humanities for Staten Island". COAHSI. August 19, 2011. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
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The Staten Island Cricket and Base Ball Club, had its grounds for many years at Camp Washington, or what may now be the ferry terminal. It was incorporated in 1866.
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- John H. Betts The Minerals of New York City originally published in Rocks & Minerals magazine, Volume 84, No. 3 pages 204-252 (2009).
Published in the 19th century
- William Darby (1834), "Richmond County", A new gazetteer of the United States of America (2nd ed.), Hartford: E. Hopkins
- Charles H. Sweetser (1868), "Seaside Resorts: Staten Island", Book of Summer Resorts, New York: Evening Mail Office, OCLC 6043819
- John Jacob Clute (1877), Annals of Staten Island, from its discovery to the present time, New York: C. Vogt
- John Disturnell, ed. (1877), "Staten Island", Summer Resorts and Watering Places ... within fifty miles of the city of New York, New York: J. Wiley & Sons
- Selden C. Judson (1886), Illustrated Sketch Book of Staten island, New York, its industries and commerce, New York: S.C. Judson
- Reau Campbell (1889), Rides and Rambles on Staten Island, New York: C.G. Crawford
- Gustav Kobbé (1890), Staten Island: a Guide, New York: G. Kobbé
- Daniel Van Pelt (1898), Leslie's History of the Greater New York 2, New York, U.S.A: Arkell Pub. Co., OCLC 1850560
- Trow's Business and Residential Directory of the Borough of Richmond, City of New York. NY: Trow Directory, Printing & Bookbinding Co. 1899.
Published in the 20th century
- John Louis Sublett (2009), "Richmond County", Staten Island: A Walk Down Memory Lane (1st ed.), NY: CreateSpace
- "Borough of Richmond", Appleton's Dictionary of New York and Vicinity (27th ed.), Appleton, 1905
- Ernest Ingersoll (1906), "Greater New York: Staten Island", Rand, McNally & Co.'s Handy Guide to New York City, Brooklyn, Staten Island, and other districts included in the enlarged city (20th ed.), Chicago: Rand, McNally, OCLC 29277709
- Richmond Borough Association of Women Teachers. (1909), Staten Island and Staten Islanders, New York: Grafton Press
- Frank Bergen Kelley (1913), "Borough of Richmond", Historical Guide to the City of New York (2nd ed.), New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, City History Club of New York, OCLC 4723529
- Calvin D. Van Name (1921), Staten Island: a report by the President of the Borough of Richmond to the Mayor
- Federal Writers' Project (1939). "Richmond". New York City Guide. American Guide Series. NY: Random House.
- Richard Briffault (1992). "Voting Rights, Home Rule, and Metropolitan Governance: The Secession of Staten Island as a Case Study in the Dilemmas of Local Self-Determination". Columbia Law Review 92. JSTOR 1122970.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Staten Island, New York City.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Staten Island.|
- Staten Island – Office of the Borough President
- VisitStatenIsland.com – Official Tourism Website of Staten Island
- Staten Island Economic Development Corp. (SIEDC)
- New York Public Library. Images related to Staten Island, various dates
- Staten Island Film Festival
- Staten Island Attractions Video – Staten Island Attractions Video
- Online Collections Database, Staten Island Historical Society
- StatenIsland.com – A Staten Island web site for information on Staten Island
- Old Staten Island. A comprehensive website about Staten Island's Past