States and union territories of India
|Indian States and Union territories|
|Location||Republic of India|
7 Union territories
|Populations||States: 607,688 Sikkim – 199,581,477 Uttar Pradesh
Union Territories: 64,429 Lakshadweep – 11,007,835 National Capital Territory
|Areas||States: 3,700 km2 (1,429 sq mi) Goa – 342,269 km2 (132,151 sq mi) Rajasthan
Union territories: 31 km2 (12 sq mi) Lakshadweep – 8,070 km2 (3,117 sq mi) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
|Government||State government, Union Government (Union territories)|
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions.
The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." (italics in original)
The Indian Subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies) that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, who held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.
Between 1947 and 1950, the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajputana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The Government of India Act 1935 remained the constitutional law of India pending adoption of a new Constitution.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States". The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states:
- Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bihar, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh (formerly Central Provinces and Berar), Madras, Orissa, Punjab (formerly East Punjab), Uttar Pradesh (formerly the United Provinces), and West Bengal.
- The eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, who was usually the ruler of a constituent state, and an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India. The Part B states were Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore, Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), Rajasthan, Saurashtra, and Travancore-Cochin.
- The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, and each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India. The Part C states were Ajmer, Bhopal, Bilaspur, Coorg, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Cutch, Manipur, Tripura, and Vindhya Pradesh.
The sole Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government.
Several new states and union territories have been created out of existing states since 1956. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was made a state on 1 December 1963. The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 divided the Punjab along linguistic lines, creating a new Hindi-speaking state of Haryana on 1 November, transferring the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh, and designating Chandigarh, the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana, a union territory.
Statehood was conferred upon Himachal Pradesh on 25 January 1971, Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura on 21 January 1972. The Kingdom of Sikkim joined the Indian Union as a state on 26 April 1975. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu became a separate union territory.
In 2000 three new states were created; Chhattisgarh (1 November 2000) was created out of eastern Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal (9 November 2000), which was renamed Uttarakhand in 2007, was created out of the Hilly regions of northwest Uttar Pradesh, and Jharkhand (15 November 2000) was created out of the southern districts of Bihar.
In 2014, the new state of Telangana was carved out from the North-Western regions of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad became the joint capital of the two states for the period not exceeding 10 years.
List of states and union territories
|Map||Name||ISO 3166-2 code||Date of formation||Population||Area
(if not the capital)
|Literacy Rate (%)||% of total population that is urban|
|1||Andhra Pradesh||AP||1953 Oct 1
(as Andhra State)
|2||Arunachal Pradesh||AR||1987 Feb 20||1,382,611||83,743||English||Itanagar||17||66.95||20.8|
|3||Assam||AS||1912 Apr 1
(as Assam Province)
|31,169,272||78,550||Assamese, Bengali, Bodo||Dispur||Guwahati||397||73.18||12.9|
|4||Bihar||BR||1936 Apr 1||103,804,637||99,200||Hindi, Urdu||Patna||1,102||63.82||10.5|
|5||Chhattisgarh||CT||2000 Nov 1||25,540,196||135,194||Chattisgarhi, Hindi||Naya Raipur||Raipur||189||71.04||20.1|
|6||Goa||GA||1987 May 30||1,457,723||3,702||Konkani||Panaji||394||87.40||62.2|
|7||Gujarat||GJ||1960 May 1||60,383,628||196,024||Gujarati||Gandhinagar||Ahmedabad||308||79.31||37.4|
|8||Haryana||HR||1966 Nov 1||25,353,081||44,212||Hindi, Punjabi||Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
|9||Himachal Pradesh||HP||1971 Jan 25||6,856,509||55,673||Hindi||Shimla||123||83.78||9.8|
|10||Jammu and Kashmir||JK||1947 Oct 26||12,548,926||222,236||Dogri, Kashmiri, Ladakhi, Urdu||Srinagar (summer)
|11||Jharkhand||JH||2000 Nov 15||32,966,238||74,677||Hindi||Ranchi||Jamshedpur||414||67.63||22.2|
|12||Karnataka||KA||1956 Nov 1||61,130,704||191,791||Kannada||Bengaluru||319||75.60||34.0|
|13||Kerala||KL||1956 Nov 1||33,387,677||38,863||Malayalam||Thiruvananthapuram||859||93.91||26.0|
|14||Madhya Pradesh||MP||1947 Aug 15||72,597,565||308,252||Hindi||Bhopal||Indore||236||70.63||26.5|
|15||Maharashtra||MH||1960 May 1||112,372,972||307,713||Marathi||Mumbai||365||82.91||42.4|
|16||Manipur||MN||1972 Jan 21||2,721,756||22,347||Manipuri||Imphal||122||79.85||25.1|
|17||Meghalaya||ML||1972 Jan 21||2,964,007||22,720||English, Garo, Hindi, Khasi, Pnar||Shillong||132||75.48||19.6|
|18||Mizoram||MZ||1987 Feb 20||1,091,014||21,081||Mizo||Aizawl||52||91.58||49.6|
|19||Nagaland||NL||1963 Dec 1||1,980,602||16,579||English||Kohima||Dimapur||119||80.11||17.2|
|20||Odisha||OR||1936 Apr 1
(as Orissa Province)
|21||Punjab||PB||1947 Aug 15
(as East Punjab)
(shared, Union Territory)
|22||Rajasthan||RJ||1950 Jan 26||68,621,012||342,269||Rajasthani, Hindi||Jaipur||201||67.06||23.4|
|23||Sikkim||SK||1975 May 16||607,688||7,096||Nepali, Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Newari, Sherpa, Sunwar, Tamang||Gangtok||86||82.20||11.1|
|24||Tamil Nadu||TN||1950 Jan 26
(as Madras State)
|25||Telangana||TG||2014 Jun 2||35,193,978||114,840||Telugu, Urdu||HyderabadNote 1||307 ||66.50% ||N/A|
|26||Tripura||TR||1972 Jan 21||3,671,032||10,492||Bengali, Tripuri||Agartala||350||87.75||17.1|
|27||Uttar Pradesh||UP||1902 Mar 22
(as United Provinces of Agra and Oudh)
|28||Uttarakhand||UT||2000 Nov 9 (as Uttaranchal)||10,116,752||53,483||Hindi, Sanskrit||Dehradun (interim)||189||79.63||25.7|
|29||West Bengal||WB||1947 Aug 15||91,347,736||88,752||Bengali, English||Kolkata||1,029||77.08||28.0|
- ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as joint capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.
|Map||Name||ISO 3166-2 code||Population||Official
|Literacy Rate(%)||% of Total Population that is Urban|
|A||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||AN||379,944||English, Hindi||Port Blair||46||86.27||32.6|
|B||Chandigarh||CH||1,054,686||English, Hindi, Punjabi||Chandigarh||9,252||86.43||89.8|
|C||Dadra and Nagar Haveli||DN||342,853||English, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi||Silvassa||698||77.65||22.9|
|D||Daman and Diu||DD||242,911||English, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi||Daman||2,169||87.07||36.2|
|F||National Capital Territory of Delhi||DL||11,007,835||Hindi, English, Punjabi, Urdu||New Delhi||11,297||86.34||93.2|
|G||Puducherry||PY||1,244,464||Malayalam, Tamil, English, Telugu[a]||Pondicherry||2,598||86.55||66.6|
- Adjectivals and demonyms for states and territories of India
- Autonomous regions of India
- Emblems of Indian States
- ISO 3166-2:IN
- List of states and union territories of India by population
- List of states in India by past population
- List of Indian state and union territory name etymologies
- Subdivisions of India
- Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998
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- Maps of the Historical Territorial Evolution of the States of India
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