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States and union territories of India

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Indian States and Union territories
India - administrative map.png
Category Federated state
Location Republic of India
Number 29 States
7 Union territories
Populations States: 607,688 Sikkim – 199,581,477 Uttar Pradesh
Union Territories: 64,429 Lakshadweep – 11,007,835 National Capital Territory
Areas States: 3,700 km2 (1,429 sq mi) Goa – 342,269 km2 (132,151 sq mi) Rajasthan
Union territories: 31 km2 (12 sq mi) Lakshadweep – 8,070 km2 (3,117 sq mi) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Government State government, Union Government (Union territories)
Subdivisions District, Divisions

India is a federal union comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions.

Responsibilities and authorities[edit]

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State.[1]

History[edit]

Administrative division of India in 1951

Pre-Independence[edit]

The Indian Subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies) that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.

1947-50[edit]

Between 1947 and 1950, the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajputana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States".[12] The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states:

States Reorganization (1951-56)[edit]

The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mahé.[13] Andhra State was created on October 1, 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State.[14]

The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states.[15] As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to from Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara (excluding Kasaragod taluk) and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar, Raichur and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg. The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep.

Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union respectively and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal.

Post 1956[edit]

Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act.[16] Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963.[17] The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh.[18] The act also designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana.[19][20]

Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.[21] Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished.[22] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories.[23]

In November 2000, three new states were created namely, Chhattisgarh from eastern Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal from northwest Uttar Pradesh (renamed Uttarakhand in 2007) and Jharkhand from southern districts of Bihar.[24][25][26][27] Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on June 2, 2014 by bifurcating Andhra Pradesh and comprises ten districts in northwestern Andhra Pradesh.[28][29]

Current proposals[edit]

List[edit]

States[edit]

Map Name ISO 3166-2 code[30][31] Date of formation Population Area
(km2)
Official
language(s)[32]
Administrative
capital
Largest city
(if not the capital)
Population density
(per km2)
Literacy Rate (%) % of total population that is urban
1 Andhra Pradesh AP 1953 Oct 1
(as Andhra State)
49,506,799 160,205 Telugu HyderabadNote 1 Visakhapatnam 308 67.41%[33] 29.6
2 Arunachal Pradesh AR 1987 Feb 20 1,382,611 83,743 English Itanagar 17 66.95 20.8
3 Assam AS 1912 Apr 1
(as Assam Province)
31,169,272 78,550 Assamese, Bengali, Bodo Dispur Guwahati 397 73.18 12.9
4 Bihar BR 1936 Apr 1 103,804,637 99,200 Hindi, Urdu Patna 1,102 63.82 10.5
5 Chhattisgarh CT 2000 Nov 1 25,540,196 135,194 Hindi RaipurNote 2 189 71.04 20.1
6 Goa GA 1987 May 30 1,457,723 3,702 Konkani Panaji Vasco 394 87.40 62.2
7 Gujarat GJ 1960 May 1 60,383,628 196,024 Gujarati Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 308 79.31 37.4
8 Haryana HR 1966 Nov 1 25,353,081 44,212 Hindi, Punjabi Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
Faridabad 573 76.64 28.9
9 Himachal Pradesh HP 1971 Jan 25 6,856,509 55,673 Hindi Shimla 123 83.78 9.8
10 Jammu and Kashmir JK 1947 Oct 26 12,548,926 222,236 Urdu[34] Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
124 68.74 24.8
11 Jharkhand JH 2000 Nov 15 32,966,238 74,677 Hindi Ranchi Jamshedpur 414 67.63 22.2
12 Karnataka KA 1956 Nov 1 (as Mysore State) 61,130,704 191,791 Kannada Bengaluru 319 75.60 34.0
13 Kerala KL 1956 Nov 1 33,387,677 38,863 Malayalam Thiruvananthapuram 859 93.91 26.0
14 Madhya Pradesh MP 1947 Aug 15 72,597,565 308,252 Hindi Bhopal Indore 236 70.63 26.5
15 Maharashtra MH 1960 May 1 112,372,972 307,713 Marathi Mumbai 365 82.91 42.4
16 Manipur MN 1972 Jan 21 2,721,756 22,347 Manipuri Imphal 122 79.85 25.1
17 Meghalaya ML 1972 Jan 21 2,964,007 22,720 English, Garo, Hindi, Khasi, Pnar Shillong 132 75.48 19.6
18 Mizoram MZ 1987 Feb 20 1,091,014 21,081 Mizo, English Aizawl 52 91.58 49.6
19 Nagaland NL 1963 Dec 1 1,980,602 16,579 English Kohima Dimapur 119 80.11 17.2
20 Odisha OR 1936 Apr 1[35]
(as Orissa Province)
41,947,358 155,820 Odia Bhubaneswar 269 73.45 15.0
21 Punjab PB 1947 Aug 15
(as Patiala and East Punjab States Union)
27,704,236 50,362 Punjabi Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
Ludhiana 550 76.68 33.9
22 Rajasthan RJ 1950 Jan 26 68,621,012 342,269 Hindi Jaipur 201 67.06 23.4
23 Sikkim SK 1975 May 16 607,688 7,096 Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Nepali, Newari, Sherpa, Sunwar, Tamang Gangtok 86 82.20 11.1
24 Tamil Nadu TN 1950 Jan 26
(as Madras State)
72,138,958 130,058 Tamil Chennai 480 80.33 44.0
25 Telangana TG 2014 Jun 2 35,193,978[36] 114,840[36] Telugu, Urdu HyderabadNote 1 307 [37] 66.50% [37] N/A
26 Tripura TR 1972 Jan 21 3,671,032 10,492 Bengali, Tripuri Agartala 350 87.75 17.1
27 Uttar Pradesh UP 1902 Mar 22
(as United Provinces of Agra and Oudh)
199,581,477 243,286 Hindi, Urdu[38] Lucknow Kanpur 828 69.72 20.8
28 Uttarakhand UT 2000 Nov 9 (as Uttaranchal) 10,116,752 53,483 Hindi, Sanskrit DehradunNote 3 189 79.63 25.7
29 West Bengal WB 1947 Aug 15 91,347,736 88,752 Bengali, Nepali[a] Kolkata 1,029 77.08 28.0
  • ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014.[39][40][41] Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as joint capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.[42]
  • ^Note 2 Raipur is the interim capital of Chhattisgarh. The town of Naya Raipur 17 km from Raipur is envisaged as the state's new capital.
  • ^Note 3 Dehradun is the interim capital of Uttarakhand. The town of Gairsain is envisaged as the state's new capital.

Union territories[edit]

Map Name ISO 3166-2 code[30][31] Population Official
language[32]
Capital Population density
(per km2)
Literacy Rate(%) % Urban Population
A Andaman and Nicobar Islands AN 379,944 English, Hindi Port Blair 46 86.27 32.6
B Chandigarh CH 1,054,686 English, Hindi, Punjabi Chandigarh 9,252 86.43 89.8
C Dadra and Nagar Haveli DN 342,853 English, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi Silvassa 698 77.65 22.9
D Daman and Diu DD 242,911 English, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi Daman 2,169 87.07 36.2
E Lakshadweep LD 64,429 English, Malayalam Kavaratti 2,013 92.28 44.5
F National Capital Territory of Delhi DL 11,007,835 English, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu New Delhi 11,297 86.34 93.2
G Puducherry PY 1,244,464 English, Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu[43][b] Pondicherry 2,598 86.55 66.6

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bengali and Nepali are the Official Languages in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district.
  2. ^ See Official languages of Puducherry

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998
  2. ^ Krishna Reddy (2003). Indian History. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-048369-8. 
  3. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0436-8. 
  4. ^ Romila Thapar. A History of India: Part 1. 
  5. ^ G. Bongard-Levin. A History of India: Volume 1. 
  6. ^ Gupta Dynasty - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. 
  7. ^ "India - Historical Setting - The Classical Age - Gupta and Harsha". Historymedren.about.com. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  8. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-19-560686-8. 
  9. ^ Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals. p. 202. 
  10. ^ "Regional states, c. 1700–1850". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 
  11. ^ Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. 
  12. ^ "Article 1". Constitution of India. 
  13. ^ "Reorganisation of states" (PDF). Economic Weekly. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  14. ^ "Map of Madras Presidency in 1909". Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  15. ^ "Article 1". Constitution of India. Law Ministry, GOI. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  16. ^ J.C. Aggarwal, S.P. Agrawal (1995). Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future. New DElhi: Concept Publishing. pp. 89–90. 
  17. ^ "Nagaland History & Geography-Source". india.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  18. ^ "Himachal Pradesh Tenth Five Year Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  19. ^ "The Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966" (PDF). india.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  20. ^ "State map of India". Travel India guide. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  21. ^ "Snapshot of North Eastern States" (PDF). thaibicindia.in. Retrieved 17 February 2016. 
  22. ^ "About Sikkim". Official website of the Government of Sikkim. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  23. ^ "Goa Chronology". goaonline.in. Retrieved 17 February 2016. 
  24. ^ "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Jharkhand.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  25. ^ "Chhattisgarh state - History". Cg.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  26. ^ Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". Times of India. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  27. ^ "About Us: Uttarakhand Government Portal, India". Uk.gov.in. 9 November 2000. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  28. ^ "The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of law and justice, Government of India. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  29. ^ "Telangana bill passed by upper house". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  30. ^ a b "ISO Online Browsing Platform". ISO. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  31. ^ a b "Code List: 3229". UN/EDIFACT. GEFEG. Retrieved 25 December 2012. 
  32. ^ a b "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (pdf). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  33. ^ "Literacy of AP (Census 2011)" (pdf). AP govt. portal. p. 43. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  34. ^ "Official Website of Jammu and Kashmir Tourism". Department of Tourism Jammu and Kashmir. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  35. ^ "Provinces of British India". Retrieved 24 December 2015. 
  36. ^ a b "Telangana State Profile" (PDF). Telangana government portal. p. 34. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  37. ^ a b "Population of Telangana" (pdf). Telangana government portal. p. 34. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  38. ^ "Uttar Pradesh Legislature". Uplegassembly.nic.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  39. ^ "Bifurcated into Telangana State and residual Andhra Pradesh State". The Times Of India. 2 June 2014. 
  40. ^ "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of Law and Justice. Government of India. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  41. ^ "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014 Sub-section" (PDF). 4 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  42. ^ Sanchari Bhattacharya (1 June 2014). "Andhra Pradesh Minus Telangana: 10 Facts". NDTV. 
  43. ^ http://sabt.org.in/npmb-india/downloads/travel-info.pdf

External links[edit]