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States and union territories of India

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Indian States and Union territories
India - administrative map.png
Category Federated state
Location Republic of India
Number 29 States
7 Union territories
Populations States: 607,688 Sikkim – 199,581,477 Uttar Pradesh
Union Territories: 64,429 Lakshadweep – 11,007,835 National Capital Territory
Areas States: 3,700 km2 (1,429 sq mi) Goa – 342,269 km2 (132,151 sq mi) Rajasthan
Union territories: 31 km2 (12 sq mi) Lakshadweep – 8,070 km2 (3,117 sq mi) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Government State government, Union Government (Union territories)
Subdivisions District, Divisions

India is a federal union comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions.

Responsibilities and authorities[edit]

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State.[1]

History[edit]

Administrative division of India in 1951

Pre-independence[edit]

The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies) that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.

1947-50[edit]

Between 1947 and 1950, the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajputana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States".[12] The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states:

States reorganization (1951-56)[edit]

The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mahé.[13] Andhra State was created on October 1, 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State.[14]

The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states.[15] As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to from Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara (excluding Kasaragod taluk) and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar, Raichur and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg. The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep.

Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union respectively and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal.

Post-1956[edit]

Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act.[16] Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963.[17] The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh.[18] The act also designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana.[19][20]

Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.[21] Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished.[22] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories.[23]

In November 2000, three new states were created namely, Chhattisgarh from eastern Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal from northwest Uttar Pradesh (renamed Uttarakhand in 2007) and Jharkhand from southern districts of Bihar.[24][25][26][27] Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on June 2, 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh.[28][29]

Current proposals[edit]

List[edit]

States[edit]

State ISO Vehicle
code
Capital Largest city Statehood Population[30] Area
(km2)
Official
languages[31]
Additional official
languages[31]
Andhra Pradesh AP HyderabadNote 1 Visakhapatnam 1 October 1953 49,506,799 160,205 Telugu
Arunachal Pradesh AR Itanagar 20 February 1987 1,383,727 83,743 English
Assam AS Dispur Guwahati 26 January 1950 31,205,576 78,550 Assamese
Bihar BR Patna 26 January 1950 104,099,452 99,200 Hindi Urdu
Chhattisgarh CT CG Naya Raipur Raipur 1 November 2000 25,545,198 135,194 Hindi
Goa GA Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 1987 1,458,545 3,702 Konkani Marathi
Gujarat GJ Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1 May 1960 60,439,692 196,024 Gujarati
Haryana HR Chandigarh Faridabad 1 November 1966 25,351,462 44,212 Hindi Punjabi[32][33]
Himachal Pradesh HP Shimla 25 January 1971 6,864,602 55,673 Hindi English
Jammu and Kashmir JK Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
Srinagar 26 January 1950 12,541,302 222,236 Urdu
Jharkhand JH Ranchi Jamshedpur 15 November 2000 32,988,134 74,677 Hindi Urdu
Karnataka KA Bengaluru 1 November 1956 61,095,297 191,791 Kannada
Kerala KL Thiruvananthapuram Kochi 1 November 1956 33,406,061 38,863 Malayalam
Madhya Pradesh MP Bhopal Indore 1 November 1956 72,626,809 308,252 Hindi
Maharashtra MH Mumbai 1 May 1960 112,374,333 307,713 Marathi
Manipur MN Imphal 21 January 1972 2,855,794 22,347 Meitei (Manipuri) English
Meghalaya ML Shillong 21 January 1972 2,966,889 22,720 English Khasi[a]
Mizoram MZ Aizawl 20 February 1987 1,097,206 21,081 Mizo, English, Hindi
Nagaland NL Kohima Dimapur 1 December 1963 1,978,502 16,579 English
Odisha OR OD Bhubaneswar 26 January 1950 41,974,218 155,820 Odia
Punjab PB Chandigarh Ludhiana 1 November 1966 27,743,338 50,362 Punjabi
Rajasthan RJ Jaipur 1 November 1956 68,548,437 342,269 Hindi English
Sikkim SK Gangtok 16 May 1975 610,577 7,096 English Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limboo, Manger, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
Tamil Nadu TN Chennai 26 January 1950 72,147,030 130,058 Tamil English
Telangana TG TS HyderabadNote 1 2 June 2014 35,193,978[34] 114,840[34] Telugu, Urdu[35]
Tripura TR Agartala 21 January 1972 3,673,917 10,492 Bengali, Kokborok, English
Uttar Pradesh UP Lucknow Kanpur 26 January 1950 199,812,341 243,286 Hindi Urdu
Uttarakhand UT UK DehradunNote 2 9 November 2000 10,086,292 53,483 Hindi Sanskrit[36]
West Bengal WB Kolkata 26 January 1950 91,276,115 88,752 Bengali, Nepali[b] Hindi, Urdu, Santhali, Odia, Punjabi
  • ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014.[37][38][39] Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as joint capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.[40]
  • ^Note 2 Dehradun is the interim capital of Uttarakhand. The town of Gairsain is envisaged as the state's new capital.

Union territories[edit]

Union territory ISO Vehicle code Capital Largest city Population[30] Area
(km2)
Official
languages[31]
Additional official
languages[31]
Andaman and Nicobar Islands AN Port Blair 380,581 8,249 Hindi, English
Chandigarh CH Chandigarh [c] 1,055,450 114 English
Dadra and Nagar Haveli DN Silvassa 343,709 491 Hindi, Gujarati Marathi
Daman and Diu DD Daman 243,247 112 Konkani, Gujarati, Hindi, English[d]
Delhi DL New Delhi [e] 16,787,941 1,490 Hindi Punjabi, Urdu[41]
Lakshadweep LD Kavaratti 64,473 32 English Hindi
Puducherry PY Pondicherry 1,247,953 492 Tamil, English Malayalam, Telugu

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Khasi language has been declared as the Additional Official Language for all purposes in the District, Sub-Division and Block level offices of the State Government located in the Districts of Khasi-Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya.
  2. ^ Bengali and Nepali are the Official Languages in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district.
  3. ^ Chandigarh is both a city and a union territory.
  4. ^ It has also been informed that the communication with States/Centre has to be made in Hindi/English.
  5. ^ Delhi is both a city and a union territory.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998
  2. ^ Krishna Reddy (2003). Indian History. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-048369-8. 
  3. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0436-8. 
  4. ^ Romila Thapar. A History of India: Part 1. 
  5. ^ G. Bongard-Levin. A History of India: Volume 1. 
  6. ^ Gupta Dynasty - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. 
  7. ^ "India - Historical Setting - The Classical Age - Gupta and Harsha". Historymedren.about.com. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  8. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-19-560686-8. 
  9. ^ Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals. p. 202. 
  10. ^ "Regional states, c. 1700–1850". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 
  11. ^ Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. 
  12. ^ "Article 1". Constitution of India. 
  13. ^ "Reorganisation of states" (PDF). Economic Weekly. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  14. ^ "Map of Madras Presidency in 1909". Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  15. ^ "Article 1". Constitution of India. Law Ministry, GOI. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  16. ^ J.C. Aggarwal, S.P. Agrawal (1995). Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future. New DElhi: Concept Publishing. pp. 89–90. 
  17. ^ "Nagaland History & Geography-Source". india.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  18. ^ "Himachal Pradesh Tenth Five Year Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  19. ^ "The Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966" (PDF). india.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  20. ^ "State map of India". Travel India guide. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  21. ^ "Snapshot of North Eastern States" (PDF). thaibicindia.in. Retrieved 17 February 2016. 
  22. ^ "About Sikkim". Official website of the Government of Sikkim. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  23. ^ "Goa Chronology". goaonline.in. Retrieved 17 February 2016. 
  24. ^ "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Jharkhand.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  25. ^ "Chhattisgarh state - History". Cg.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  26. ^ Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". Times of India. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  27. ^ "About Us: Uttarakhand Government Portal, India". Uk.gov.in. 9 November 2000. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  28. ^ "The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of law and justice, Government of India. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  29. ^ "Telangana bill passed by upper house". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  30. ^ a b "List of states with Population, Sex Ratio and Literacy Census 2011". 
  31. ^ a b c d "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (pdf). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  32. ^ "Haryana grants second language status to Punjabi". Hindustan Times. 28 January 2010. 
  33. ^ "Punjabi gets second language status in Haryana". Zee news. 28 January 2010. 
  34. ^ a b "Telangana State Profile" (PDF). Telangana government portal. p. 34. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  35. ^ "Urdu Gets First Language Status". 
  36. ^ "Sanskrit: reviving the language in today’s India - Livemint". 
  37. ^ "Bifurcated into Telangana State and residual Andhra Pradesh State". The Times Of India. 2 June 2014. 
  38. ^ "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of Law and Justice. Government of India. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  39. ^ "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014 Sub-section" (PDF). 4 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  40. ^ Sanchari Bhattacharya (1 June 2014). "Andhra Pradesh Minus Telangana: 10 Facts". NDTV. 
  41. ^ "Official Language Act 2000" (PDF). Government of Delhi. 2 July 2003. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 

External links[edit]