The Steam interface with the Steam Store selected
|Initial release||Windows: September 12, 2003
Mac OS X: May 12, 2010
Linux: February 14, 2013
Mobile: January 26, 2012
|Stable release||API: v017
Package: 1424305157 (February 18, 2015 ) [±]
|Preview release||API: v017
Package: 1420861509 (January 9, 2015 ) [±]
Steam Machine Client:
|Available in||25 languages|
Digital rights management
|License||Steam Subscriber Agreement (Proprietary software)|
Steam is an internet-based digital distribution, digital rights management (DRM), multiplayer, and social networking platform developed by Valve Corporation. Steam provides the user with installation and automatic updating of games on multiple computers, and community features such as friends lists and groups, cloud saving, and in-game voice and chat functionality. The software provides a freely available application programming interface (API) called Steamworks, which developers can use to integrate many of Steam's functions, including networking and matchmaking, in-game achievements, micro-transactions, and support for user-created content through Steam Workshop, into their products.
Though initially developed for use on Microsoft Windows, versions for OS X and Linux operating systems, and a limited-function version for the PlayStation 3 console, have also been developed. Chatting and shopping applications for iOS and Android mobile devices have also been written. The Steam website also replicates much of the storefront and social network features of the stand-alone application. The success has led to the development of a line of Steam Machine microconsoles and personal computers meeting minimum specifications, and SteamOS, a Linux-based operating system built around the Steam client.
As of February 2015[update], over 4,500 games are available through Steam, which has 125 million active users. Steam has had as many as 8 million concurrent users as of June 2014. In October 2013, it was estimated by Screen Digest that 75% of games bought online for the PC are downloaded through Steam. In November 2009, Stardock estimated it at 70%.
- 1 History
- 2 Client functionality
- 3 Supported platforms
- 4 Market share and impact
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Before implementing Steam, Valve had problems updating its online games, such as Counter-Strike; providing patches would result in most of the online user base disconnecting for several days. Valve decided to create a platform that would update games automatically and implement stronger anti-piracy and anti-cheat measures. Valve approached several companies, including Microsoft, Yahoo!, and RealNetworks to build a client with these features, but were refused.
Steam's development began before 2002. Working titles for the product included "Grid" and "Gazelle". It was first revealed to the public on March 22, 2002, at the Game Developers Conference, where it was presented purely as a distribution network. To demonstrate the ease of integrating Steam with a game, Relic Entertainment created a special version of Impossible Creatures. However, the game was never released on Steam. Valve partnered with several companies, including AT&T, Acer, and GameSpy Industries. The first mod released on the system was Day of Defeat.
The Steam client was first made available for public beta testing in January 2003 during the beta period for Counter-Strike 1.6, for which it was mandatory to install and use. At the time, Steam's primary function was streamlining the patch process common in online computer games. Steam was an optional component for all other games. 80,000–300,000 gamers tested the system when it was in its beta period. The system and website choked under the strain of thousands of users simultaneously attempting to play the latest version of Counter-Strike. In 2004, the World Opponent Network was shut down and replaced by Steam. The online features of games which required World Opponent Network ceased to work unless they were converted to Steam.
Around this time, Valve began negotiating contracts with several publishers and independent developers to release their products, including Rag Doll Kung Fu and Darwinia, on Steam. Canadian publisher Strategy First announced in December 2005 that it would partner with Valve for digital distribution of current and future titles. In 2002, the head of Valve Gabe Newell said he was offering mod teams a game engine license and distribution over Steam for US$995. Valve's Half-Life 2 was the first game to require installation of the Steam client to play, even for retail copies. This decision was met with concerns about software ownership, software requirements, and issues with overloaded servers demonstrated previously by the Counter-Strike rollout. During this time users faced multiple issues attempting to play the game.
In 2005, third-party games began to appear on Steam and Valve announced that Steam had become profitable due to some highly successful Valve games. Although digital distribution could not yet match retail volume, profit margins for Valve and developers were far larger on Steam. Large developer-publishers, including id Software, Eidos Interactive and Capcom began distributing their games on Steam in 2007. By May that year, 13 million accounts had been created on the service and 150 games were for sale on the platform.
Software delivery and maintenance
Steam's primary service is to allow its users to download games and other software that they have in their virtual software libraries to their local computers as game cache files (GCFs). Steam provides digital rights management (DRM) for software titles by providing "custom executable generation" for executable files that are unique for each user; this allows the user to install the software on multiple computing devices via Steam or through software backups without limitations. The user is required to be running Steam while connected to the Internet for authentication prior to playing a game or have previously set up Steam in an "offline" mode while connected to the internet, storing their credentials locally to allow play without an Internet connection. Steam's DRM is available to software developers through Steamworks; the service allows developers and publishers to include other forms of DRM and other authentication services than Steam; for example, some games on Steam require the use of Games for Windows – Live and some titles from publisher Ubisoft require the use of their UPlay gaming service.
In September 2008, Valve added support for Steam Cloud, a service that can automatically store saved game and related custom files on Valve's servers; users can access this data from any machine running the Steam client. Games must use the appropriate features of Steamworks for Steam Cloud to work. Users can disable this feature on a per-game and per-account basis. In May 2012, the service added the ability for users to manage their game libraries from remote clients, including computers and mobile devices; users can instruct Steam to download and install games they own through this service if their Steam client is currently active and running. Some games sold through retail channels can be redeemed as titles for users' libraries within Steam by entering a product code within the software. For games that incorporate Steamworks, users can buy redemption codes from other vendors and redeem these in the Steam client to add the title to their libraries. Steam also offers a framework for selling and distributing downloadable content (DLC) for games.
In September 2013, Steam introduced the ability to share most games with family members and close friends by authorizing machines to access one's library. Authorized players can install the game locally and play it separately from the owning account. Users can access their saved games and achievements providing the main owner is not playing. When the main player initiates a game while a shared account is using it, the shared account user is allowed a few minutes to either save their progress and close the game or purchase the game for his or her own account.
In accordance with its Acceptable Use Policy, Valve retains the right to block and unblock customers' access to their games and Steam services when Valve's Anti-Cheat (VAC) software determines that the user is cheating in multiplayer games, selling accounts to others or trading games to exploit regional price differences. Blocking such users initially removed access to his or her other games, leading to some users with high-value accounts losing access because of minor infractions of the AUP. Valve later changed its policy to be similar to that of Electronic Arts' Origin platform, in which blocked users can still access their games but are heavily restricted, limited to playing in offline mode and unable to participate in Steam Community features. Customers also lose access to their games and Steam account if they refuse to accept changes to Steam's end user license agreements; this occurred in August 2012.
During mid-2011, Valve began to offer free-to-play games, such as Global Agenda, Spiral Knights and Champions Online; this offer was linked to the company's move to make Team Fortress 2 a free-to-play title. Valve included support via Steamworks for microtransactions for in-game items in these titles through Steam's purchasing channels, in a similar manner to the in-game store for Team Fortress 2. Later that year, Valve added the ability to trade in-game items and "unopened" game gifts between users. Steam Coupons, which was introduced in December 2011, provides single-use coupons that provide a discount to the cost of items. Steam Coupons can be provided to users by developers and publishers; users can trade these coupons between friends in a similar fashion to gifts and in-game items. Steam Market, a feature introduced in beta in December 2012 that would allow users to sell virtual items to others via Steam Wallet funds, further extended the idea. Valve levies a transaction fee of 15% on such sales and game publishers that use Steam Market pay a transaction fee. For example, Team Fortress 2—the first game supported at the beta phase—incurred both fees. Full support for other games was expected to be available in early 2013. In April 2013, Valve added subscription-based game support to Steam; the first game to use this service was Darkfall Unholy Wars.
The popularity of Steam has led to the service being attacked by hackers in the past. A notable attempt occurred on November 6, 2011, when Valve temporarily closed the community forums, citing potential hacking threats to the service. On November 10, Valve reported that the hack had compromised one of its customer databases, potentially allowing the perpetrators to access customer information—including encrypted password and credit card details. At that time, Valve was not aware whether the intruders actually accessed this information or discovered the encryption method, but nevertheless warned users to be alert for fraudulent activity.
Valve added Steam Guard functionality to the Steam client in March 2011 to protect against the hijacking of accounts via phishing schemes, one of the largest support issues Valve had at the time. Steam Guard was advertised to take advantage of the identity protection provided by Intel's second-generation Core processors and compatible motherboard hardware, which allows users to lock their account to a specific computer. Once locked, activity by that account on other computers must first be approved by the user on the locked computer. Support APIs for Steam Guard are available to third-party developers through Steamworks. An alternative option available to users who want to use Steam Guard is two-factor, risk-based authentication that uses a one-time verification code sent to a verified email address associated with the Steam account. If Steam Guard is enabled, the verification code is sent each time the account is used from an unknown machine. It is necessary to authenticate every Steamworks game online the first time it is played, whether purchased via Steam itself or installed via a retail disc. After the initial authentication, an offline mode allows games to be run without being connected to the Internet.
ReVuln, a commercial vulnerability research firm, published a paper in October 2012 that said the Steam browser protocol was posing a security risk by enabling malicious exploits through a simple user click on a maliciously crafted
steam:// URL in a browser. The report was taken up by various online publications. This was the second serious vulnerability of gaming-related software following a recent problem with Ubisoft's copy protection system "Uplay", the German IT platform "Heise online" recommended strict separation of gaming and sensitive data, for example using a PC dedicated to gaming, gaming from a second Windows installation, or using a computer account with limited rights dedicated to gaming.
The Steam client includes a digital storefront called the Steam Store through which users can purchase computer games. Once the game is bought, a software license is permanently attached to the user's Steam account, allowing him or her to download the software on any compatible device. Game licenses can be given to other accounts under certain conditions. Content is delivered from an international network of servers using a proprietary file transfer protocol. Steam sells its products in US and Canadian dollars, euros, pounds sterling, Brazilian reais, and Russian rubles depending on the user's location. From December 2010, the client supports the Webmoney payment system, which is popular in many European, Middle Eastern, and Asian countries. The Steam storefront validates the user's region; the purchase of titles may be restricted to specific regions because of release dates, game classification, or agreements with publishers. The client also offers the Steam Translation Server, which assists Steam users assistance with the translation of Steam and a selected library of Steam games in twenty-five languages. Steam also allows users to purchase downloadable content for games, and for some specific game titles such as Team Fortress 2, the ability to purchase in-game inventory items. In February 2015, Steam began to open similar options for in-game item purchases for third-party games.
Players can add non-Steam games to their libraries, allowing the game to be easily accessed from the Steam client and providing support where possible for Steam Overlay features. The Steam interface allows for user-defined shortcuts to be added. In this way, third-party modifications and games not purchased through the Steam Store can use Steam features. Valve sponsors and distributes some modifications free-of-charge; and modifications that use Steamworks can also use VAC, Friends, the server browser, and any Steam features supported by their parent game. For most games launched from Steam, the client provides an in-game overlay that can be accessed by a keystroke. From the overlay, the user can access his or her Steam Community lists and participate in chat, manage selected Steam settings, and access a built-in web browser without having to exit the game. The overlay also allows players to take screenshots of the games in process; it automatically stores these and allows the player to review, delete, or share them during or after his or her game session.
Steam's "Big Picture" mode was announced in 2011; public betas started in September 2012 and were integrated into the software in December 2012. Big Picture mode is a 10-foot user interface, which optimizes the Steam display to work on high-definition televisions, allowing the user to control Steam with a gamepad or with a keyboard and mouse. Newell has stated that Big Picture mode is a step towards a dedicated Steam entertainment hardware unit. In January 2014, Valve introduced beta support for a virtual reality Big Picture interface with support for Oculus Rift. In-Home Streaming was introduced in May 2014; this allows users to stream games installed on one computer to another—regardless of platform—on the same home network.
In October 2012, Steam introduced non-gaming applications, which will be sold through the service. Creativity and productivity applications can access the core functions of the Steamworks API, allowing them to use Steam's simplified installation and updating process, and incorporate features including cloud saving and Steam Workshop. Developers of non-gaming software may submit their applications to the Steam Greenlight service to judge interest for later inclusion on the Steam storefront.
Valve has a no-refunds policy but in some circumstances it has offered refunds if third-party content fails to work or improperly reports on certain features. For example, the Steam version of From Dust was originally stated to have a single, post-installation online DRM check with its publisher Ubisoft, but the released version of the game required a DRM check with Ubisoft's servers each time it was used. At the request of Ubisoft, Valve offered refunds to customers who bought the game while Ubisoft worked to release a patch that would remove the DRM check altogether. On The War Z 's release, players found that the game was still in an alpha-build state and lacked many of the features advertised on its Steam store page. Though the developers Hammerpoint Interactive altered the description after launch to reflect the current state of the game software, Valve removed the title from sale and offered refunds to those who had bought it. Valve also removed Earth: Year 2066 from the Early Access program and offered refunds after discovering that the game's developers had reused assets from other games and used developer tools to erase negative complaints about the title. Valve will remove games if they no longer meet Valve's business terms for developers. Grand Theft Auto: Vice City was removed from Steam because of a claim from the Recording Industry Association of America over an expired license for one of the songs on the soundtrack. Near the launch of Electronic Arts' (EA) own digital storefront Origin, Valve removed Crysis 2 and Dragon Age 2 from Steam because the terms of service prevented games from having their own in-game storefront for downloadable content. In the case of Crysis 2, a "Maximum Edition" that contained all the available downloadable content for the game and removed the in-game storefront was re-added to Steam. Games that are removed can still be downloaded and played by those that have already purchased these titles.
The Steam client, as part of a social network service, allows users to identify friends and join groups using the Steam Community feature. Users can use text chat and peer-to-peer VoIP with other users, identify which games their friends and other group members are playing, and join and invite friends to Steamworks-based multiplayer games that support this feature. Users can participate in forums hosted by Valve to discuss Steam games. Each user has a unique page that shows his or her groups and friends, game library including earned achievements, game wishlists, and other social features; users can choose to keep this information private. In January 2010, Valve reported that 10 million of the 25 million active Steam accounts had signed up to Steam Community. In conjunction with the 2012 Steam Summer Sale, user profiles were updated with Badges reflecting the user's participation in the Steam community and past events. Steam Trading Cards were introduced in beta in May 2013 and were fully supported by June 2013. By playing specific games, players would earn virtual trading cards, which they could trade with friends and use towards gaining rewards on the service such as game discounts, downloadable content, or in-game items, and customize their user profile page. The Steam client has become an OpenID provider, allowing third-party websites to use a Steam user's identity without requiring the user to expose his or her Steam credentials.
Through Steamworks, Steam provides a means of server browsing for multiplayer games that use the Steam Community features, allowing users to create lobbies with friends or members of common groups. Steamworks also provides Valve Anti-Cheat (VAC), Valve's proprietary anti-cheat system; game servers automatically detect and report users who are using cheats in online, multiplayer games. In August 2012, Valve added new features—including dedicated hub pages for games that highlight the best user-created content, top forum posts, and screenshots—to the Community area. In December 2012, a feature called Game Guides, where users can upload text and images detailing games and game strategies in the same manner as GameFAQs was added. Starting in beta in December 2014 and publically released in January 2015, the Steam client allows players to broadcast video streams to the public or Steam friends while playing video games.
Valve offers Steamworks, an application programming interface (API) that provides development and publishing tools to take advantage of Steam client's features, free-of-charge to game and software developers. Steamworks provides networking and player authentication tools for both server and peer-to-peer multiplayer games, matchmaking services, support for Steam community friends and groups, Steam statistics and achievements, integrated voice communications, and Steam Cloud support, allowing games to integrate with the Steam client. The API also provides anti-cheating devices and digital copy management. Developers of software available on Steam are able to track sales of their titles through the Steam store. In February 2014, Valve announced that it will allow developers to set up their own sales for their titles independent of any sales that Valve may set for titles.
Steam Greenlight, announced in July 2012 and released the following month, is a way for Steam users to help choose which games are added to the service. Developers are able to submit information about their games, as well as early builds or beta versions, for consideration by users. Users can pledge support for these games, and Valve will help to make top-pledged games available on the Steam service. In response to complaints during its first week that finding games to support was made difficult by a flood of inappropriate or false submissions, Valve required developers to pay US$100 to list a game on the service to reduce illegitimate submissions. The fee will be donated to the charity Child's Play. A later modification allowed developers to put conceptual ideas on the Greenlight service to garner interest in potential projects free-of-charge; votes from such projects are only visible to the developer. Valve also allowed non-gaming software to be voted onto the service through Greenlight.
The first game to be released via Steam Greenlight was McPixel. The initial process offered by Steam Greenlight was panned because while developers favored the concept, the rate of games that are eventually approved by Valve is very small. Valve has acknowledged that this is a problem and believes it can improve upon it; Valve's Tom Bui said, "we aren't where we want to be yet". In January 2013, Newell stated that Valve recognized that its role in Greenlight has been perceived as a bottleneck, something it plans to eliminate in the future through an open marketplace infrastructure. On the eve of Greenlight's first anniversary, Valve simultaneously approved 100 titles through the Greenlight process to demonstrate this change of direction. Valve stated in January 2014 that it plans to phase out the Greenlight process in favor of providing developers with easier means to put their games onto the Steam service. The September 2014 "Discovery Update" added tools that would allow existing Steam users to be curators for game recommendations, and sorting functions that presented more popular titles and recommended titles specific to the user, as to allow more games to be introduced on Steam without the need of Steam Greenlight, while providing some means to highlight user-recommended games.
Steam's Early Access program was launched in March 2013. This program allows developers to release functional but yet-incomplete products such as beta versions to the service to allow users to buy the titles and help provide testing and feedback towards the final production. Early access also helps to provide funding to the developers to help complete their titles.
The Steam Workshop allows players of Valve and Steamworks-enabled games to source user-created content. Users can use in-game or discrete tools to construct and publish new levels, game modifications, or other content for games that support the Workshop. Users can then subscribe to such content through the Steam client or the website and automatically download it to their computers and integrate it with the game. The Workshop was originally used for distribution of new items for Team Fortress 2; it was redesigned to extend support for any game, including modifications for The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim, in early 2012. A May 2012 patch for Portal 2, enabled by a new map-making tool through the Steam Workshop, introduced the ability to share user-created levels. Independently-developed games, including Dungeons of Dredmor, are able to provide Steam Workshop support for user-generated content. Dota 2 became Valve's third published title available for the Steam Workshop in June 2012; its features include customizable accessories, skins, and voice packs. Valve has provided some user-developed Workshop content as paid-for features in its games, including Team Fortress 2 and DOTA 2. Valve began allowing developers to use these advanced features in January 2015; the developer and content generator will share the profits of the sale of these items. As of January 2015, over $57 million has been paid to content creators using the Workshop.
In September 2014, Steam Music, a built-in music player, was added to the Steam client, allowing users to play through music stored on their computer or to stream from a locally-networked computer, .
Steam for Schools is a function-limited version of the Steam client that is available free-of-charge to educational institutions for use in classrooms. It is part of Valve's initiative to support gamification of learning for classroom instruction; it was released alongside free versions of Portal 2 and a standalone program called Puzzle Maker that allows teachers and students to create and manipulate levels. It features additional authentication security that allows teachers to share and distribute content through a Steam Workshop-type interface but blocks access from students.
Steam was released in 2003 exclusively for the Microsoft Windows operating system, but has since been expanded to other platforms.
On March 8, 2010, Valve announced that Steam was developing a client for OS X. The announcement was preceded by a change in the Steam beta client to support the cross-platform WebKit web browser rendering engine instead of the Trident engine of Internet Explorer. Before this announcement, Valve teased the release by e-mailing several images to Mac community and gaming websites; the images featured characters from Valve games with Apple logos and parodies of vintage Macintosh advertisements. Valve developed a full video homage to Apple's 1984 Macintosh commercial to announce the availability of Half-Life 2 and its episodes on the service; some concept images for the video had previously been used to tease the Mac Steam client.
Steam for OS X was originally planned for release in April 2010; it was launched worldwide on May 12, 2010, following a successful beta period. In addition to the Steam client, several features were made available to developers, allowing them to take advantage of the cross-platform Source engine, and platform and network capabilities using Steamworks. Through SteamPlay, the OS X client allows players who have purchased compatible products in the Windows version to download the Mac versions at no cost, allowing them to continue playing the game on the other platform. Some third-party titles may require the user to re-purchase them to gain access to the cross-platform functionality. The Steam Cloud is cross-platform compatible. Multiplayer games can also be cross-compatible, allowing Windows and Mac players to play with each other.
Valve announced in July 2012 that it was developing a Steam client for Linux and modifying the Source engine to work natively on Linux, based on the Ubuntu distribution. This announcement followed months of speculation, primarily from the website Phoronix that had discovered evidence of Linux developing in recent builds of Steam and other Valve software. Newell stated that getting Steam and games to work on Linux is a key strategy for Valve; Newell called the closed nature of Microsoft Windows 8, "a catastrophe for everyone in the PC space", and that Linux would maintain "the openness of the platform". Valve is extending support to any developers that want to bring their games to Linux, by "making it as easy as possible for anybody who's engaged with us—putting their games on Steam and getting those running on Linux", according to Newell.
The team developing the Linux client had been working for a year before the announcement to validate that such a port would be possible. As of the official announcement, a near-feature-complete Steam client for Linux had been developed and successfully run on Ubuntu. Internal beta testing of the Linux client started in October 2012; external beta testing occurred in early November the same year. Open beta clients for Linux were made available in late December 2012, and the client was officially released in mid-February 2013. Valve's Linux group will focus on improving the Steam client and will assure that its selected first Source game, Left 4 Dead 2, will run at an acceptable frame rate and degree of connectivity with the Windows and OS X versions. From there, it will work on porting other games to Ubuntu and expanding to other Linux distributions. In early August 2012, Valve said it had successfully completed the Left 4 Dead 2 port. Following Valve's announcement, Devolver Digital announced that it will port Serious Sam 3: BFE with Steamworks support to the Ubuntu Linux distribution. Linux games will also be eligible for SteamPlay availability; The Cave was announced as one of the first titles to take advantage of this. Versions of Steam working under Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux were released by October 2013. On June 5, 2014, the number of Linux-compatible games on Steam reached 500.
At E3 2010, Newell announced that Steamworks would arrive on the PlayStation 3 with Portal 2. It will provide automatic updates, community support, downloadable content and other unannounced features. Steamworks made its debut on consoles with Portal 2 's PlayStation 3 release. Several features—including cross-platform play and instant messaging, Steam Cloud for saved games, and the ability for PS3 owners to download Portal 2 from Steam (Windows and Mac) at no extra cost—were offered. Valve's Counter-Strike: Global Offensive also supports Steamworks and cross-platform features on the PlayStation 3, including using keyboard and mouse controls as an alternative to the gamepad. Valve said it "hope[s] to expand upon this foundation with more Steam features and functionality in DLC and future content releases".
The Xbox 360 does not have support for Steamworks. Newell said that they would have liked to bring the service to the console through the game Counter-Strike: Global Offensive, which would have allowed Valve to provide the same feature set that it did for the PlayStation 3, but later said that cross-platform play would not be present in the final version of the game. Valve attributes the inability to use Steamworks on the Xbox 360 to limitations in the Xbox Live regulations of the ability to deliver patches and new content. Valve's Erik Johnson stated that Microsoft requires that new content must be certified and validated before distribution, which would limit the usefulness of Steamworks' delivery approach.
Valve released an official Steam client for iOS and Android devices in late January 2012, following a short beta period. The application allows players to log into their accounts to browse the storefront, manage their games, and communicate with friends in the Steam community. Newell stated that the application was a strong request from Steam users and sees it as a means "to make [Steam] richer and more accessible for everyone".
Pre-emptively dubbed the "Steam Box" by the gaming community, the technology was expected to be a dedicated machine focused upon Steam functionality and maintaining the core functionality of a traditional video game console. During the week beginning on September 23, 2013, Valve unveiled a console operating system called SteamOS built atop the Linux operating system, a console input device called the Steam Controller, and the final concept of the Steam Machine hardware, which were tentatively scheduled to be released in 2014. Unlike other consoles, the Steam Machine has no set hardware; its technology is implemented at the discretion of the manufacturer and is fully customizable in the same lieu as a personal computer.
Valve does not release any sales figures for its Steam service; it only provides the data to companies with games on Steam, which they cannot release without permission because of a non-disclosure agreement with Valve. However, Stardock, the previous owner of competing platform Impulse, estimated that as of 2009, Steam had a 70% share of the digital distribution market for video games. In early 2011, Forbes reported that Steam sales constituted 50–70% of the US$4 billion market for downloaded PC games and that Steam offered game producers gross margins of 70% of purchase price, compared with 30% at retail. Steam's success has led some criticism because of its support of DRM and for being an effective monopoly. Free Software Foundation founder Richard Stallman commented on the issue following the announcement that Steam would come to Linux; he said that while he believes that its release may increase the adoption of free software operating systems, its use also sends a bad message to those who value what he perceives as true software freedom.
In November 2011, the developer of The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings revealed that Steam was responsible for 200,000 (80%) of the 250,000 online sales of the game. Steam was responsible for 58.6% of gross revenue for Defender's Quest during its first three months of release across six digital distribution platforms—comprising four major digital game distributors and two methods of purchasing and downloading the game directly from the developer.
- "Steam Client Released". Valve Corporation. September 12, 2003. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- "Welcome To Steamworks". Valve. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "Valve to Deliver Steam & Source on the Mac". Valve Corporation. March 8, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "News – Steam for Linux Now Available".
- "Portal 2 PS3, Steam cross-platform play". Eurogamer. January 18, 2011.
- Schreier, Jason (September 23, 2013). "Valve Announces Steam OS". Kotaku. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
- Smith, Ryan (February 23, 2015). "Valve to Showcase SteamVR Hardware, Steam Machines, & More at GDC 2015". Anandtech. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
- Scullion, Chris (June 30, 2014). "Steam reaches 8 million concurrent users". Computer and Video Games. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- Edwards, Cliff (2013-11-04). "Valve Lines Up Console Partners in Challenge to Microsoft, Sony". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- Graft, Kris (November 19, 2009). "Stardock Reveals Impulse, Steam Market Share Estimates". Gamasutra. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
- Lee, James. "The Last of the Independents?". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
- "Steam Registers 13 million Active Accounts". Retrieved December 8, 2007.
- "GDC 2002: Valve unveils Steam". GameSpot.com. March 22, 2002. Retrieved September 7, 2006.
- Walker, Trey. "GDC: Steam pushes software over Net". ZDNet. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
- James, Wagner (April 16, 2002). "Triumph of the mod". Salon. Retrieved November 16, 2009.
- "Steam Powered – Broadband distribution system to go live – dslreports.com". Broadbandreports.com. Retrieved November 16, 2009.
- "Losing Steam – Broadband distribution's rocky road – dslreports.com". Broadbandreports.com. Retrieved November 16, 2009.
- Golze, Benjamin (15 July 2004). "Valve to shut down WON servers". Gamespot. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Strategy First to Deliver Multiple Titles On-Line via Steam" (Press release). Strategy First. December 8, 2005. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
- Kohler, Chris (November 4, 2013). "Full Steam Ahead: Inside Valve’s Grand Plan to Replace Game Consoles With PCs". Wired. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- "Digital distribution: Keep the money and run?". The Hollywood Reporter. June 13, 2005. Archived from the original on June 14, 2005. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
Valve won't talk about how many units it's sold through Steam, but Lombardi describes the venture as being "extremely successful. Even though the lion's share of our sales is still at retail, the digital units are wildly more profitable for us."
- "Steam Surpasses 13 Million Accounts". Valve Corporation. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- "Steam GCF File Format". Wunderboy.org. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
- Caolili, Eric (September 8, 2011). "Steam Update 'Makes DRM Obsolete'". Wired. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
- Peckham, Matt (September 8, 2011). "Steam PC Gaming Client Gets Surprise Facelift". PC World. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
- "Will I need Uplay in order to play Far Cry 3?". uplay forums. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- Breckon, Nick (May 29, 2008). "Valve Announces Steam Cloud; Online Network to Store Saved Games Indefinitely". Shacknews. Retrieved September 3, 2008.
- "Steam client update released". Valve Corporation. July 1, 2010. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- Rose, Mike (May 2, 2012). "Steam Beta client adds remote management functionality". Gamasutra. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
- "Steamworks – Retail Support". Valve. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- "Steam offers gamers in-game downloadable content". Valve Corporation. March 16, 2009. Retrieved March 20, 2009.
- "Steam Announces Family Sharing". Valve Corporation. September 13, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Walker, John (2012-02-01). "Thought: Do We Own Our Steam Games?". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
- Webster, Andrew (March 14, 2011). "Steam user violates subscriber agreement, loses $1,800 in games". Ars Technica. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- Usher, William (April 21, 2012). "Valve Updates Steam's Account Policy, You Can Now Access Your Games While Banned". Cinema Blend. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- Goldfarb, Andrew (2012-09-24). "Valve Facing Legal Trouble over Steam Agreement — German consumer advocacy group objects to Steam’s policy.". ign.com. Retrieved 2014-03-22.
- Brown, Mark (June 15, 2011). "Valve Introduces Free-to-Play Games to Steam". Wired. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Cifaldi, Frank (September 6, 2011). "Valve's Steam Trading Leaves Beta, Adds Portal 2 Support". Gamasutra. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Curtis, Tom (December 7, 2011). "Valve Ups Monetization Options With Steam Coupons". Gamasutra. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Makuch, Eddie (December 12, 2012). "Valve launches Steam Market". Gamespot. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Matulef, Jeffrey (April 25, 2013). "Steam introduces subscription plans". Eurogamer. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- Johnson, Casey (October 11, 2011). "Valve confirms Steam hack: credit cards, personal info may be stolen". Ars Technica. Retrieved October 11, 2011.
- Leyden, John (September 11, 2011). "Steam games forum down amid hack fears". The Register. Retrieved October 11, 2011.
- Yoon, Andrew (March 3, 2011). "Valve introduces Steam Guard to fight account phishing and hijacking". Joystiq. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
- Caoili, Eric (March 3, 2011). "Valve Unveils Steam Guard For Account Security". Gamasutra. Retrieved March 3, 2011.
- "Steam Support – What is Steam Guard? How do I enable it and receive the email with the access code?". Valve. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- Reimer, Jeremy (September 26, 2005). "Microsoft previews online software purchasing with the Digital Locker". Ars Technica. Retrieved November 16, 2009.
- "STEAM BROWSER PROTOCOL INSECURITY – revuln.com".
- "The Steam URL protocol can be abused to exploit vulnerabilities in games, researchers say".
- Senior, Tom (October 16, 2012). "Steam browser security loophole spotted". PC Gamer. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- Orland, Kyle. "Steam vulnerability can lead to remote insertion of malicious code". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- "Report: Steam poses security risk – The H Security: News and Features". H-online.com. 2012-10-17. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- "Ubisoft DRM opens backdoor – The H Security: News and Features". H-online.com. 2012-07-30. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- "Content Server Stats". Valve Corporation. Retrieved November 15, 2008. (click "View individual server statistics")
- "Steam News – European Local Currency Available". Valve Corporation. December 17, 2008. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
- "News – WebMoney Now Available on Steam".
- "Steam Translation Server – Welcome".
- Futter, Mike (February 6, 2015). "Valve Gives Developers Power To Create In-Game Steam Inventory Drops Like Team Fortress 2". Game Informer. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- "Steam mod hosting announcement". Valve Corporation. Retrieved October 1, 2008.
- Yam, Marcus (February 24, 2010). "Valve's Steam Ditches Internet Explorer for WebKit". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- Mlot, Stephanie (December 3, 2012). "Valve Takes Steam's Big Picture Gaming Mode Public". PC Magazine. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
- Benedetti, Winda (August 17, 2012). "Valve will put PC games on your TV this fall". MSNBC. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- Scullion, Chris (January 14, 2014). "SteamVR beta released for Oculus Rift". Computer and Video Games. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- Lein, Tracey (May 21, 2014). "Steam In-Home Streaming now available for everyone". Polygon. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- Petitte, Omri (October 2, 2012). "Steam opens non-game software store". PC Gamer. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
- McWhartor, Michael (August 8, 2012). "Valve to sell non-gaming software on Steam starting September 5th". The Verge. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
- Nunneley, Stephany (August 24, 2011). "Steam officially offering refunds for From Dust over DRM troubles". VG247. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Rose, Mike (December 20, 2012). "How not to launch a video game, starring The War Z". Gamasutra. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Good, Owen (May 6, 2014). "Steam yanks $19.99 game from Early Access, offers full refunds". Polygon. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- Usher, William (November 15, 2012). "GTA: Vice City No Longer On Steam Due To RIAA Copyright Claim". Cinema Blend. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Yin-Poole, Wesley (July 11, 2011). "Why you can't buy Crysis 2 from Steam". Eurogamer. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Conditt, Jessica (May 30, 2012). "Crysis 2 back on Steam with a clever new name, extra goodies". Joystiq. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Miller, Ross (September 13, 2007). "Steam Community officially launched". Joystiq. Retrieved January 18, 2010.
- Greenwald, Will (December 14, 2012). "Steam Review & Rating". PC Magazine. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
- "Steam Realizes Extraordinary Growth in 2009". Valve Corporation. January 29, 2010. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
- Nunneley, Stepheny (July 12, 2012). "Valve launches Steam Badges on the service". VG247. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- Nunneley, Stephany (May 15, 2013). "Steam Trading Cards now in beta". VG247. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- McElroy, Griffon (June 24, 2013). "Steam Trading Cards leaving beta June 26, Summer Sale teased". Polygon. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
- TF2 Team (July 1, 2010). "Steam Web APIs". Team Fortress 2 blog. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- "Steam Web API Documentation". Steam Community. Valve Corporation. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- Valve Corporation. "Steam Support – Valve Anti-Cheat System (VAC)". Retrieved January 18, 2010.
- Matulef, Jeffrey (August 13, 2012). "Steam to highlight the best user-created content". Eurogamer. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- Yin-Poole, Wesley (December 14, 2012). "Valve takes on GameFAQs with Steam Game Guides". Eurogamer. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- McWhertor, Michael (2014-12-02). "Valve brings livestreaming to Steam with Steam Broadcasting". Polygon. Retrieved 2014-12-02.
- Prescott, Shaun (2015-01-19). "Steam Broadcasting and FPS overlay is now available to all". PC Gamer. Retrieved 2015-01-20.
- "Steamworks Integration Now Available to Unreal Engine 3 Licensees". Epic Games. March 11, 2010.
- "Steamworks API Overview". Steamworks partner site. Valve Corporation. May 1, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
- Orland, Kyle (2014-02-27). "Steam teases plan to allow developers to create their own sales". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2014-02-28.
- Caoili, Eric (August 30, 2012). "Steam Greenlight open for business and accepting submissions". Gamasutra. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- Curtis, Tom (July 9, 2012). "Steam Greenlight lets users rally behind the games they want to play". Gamasutra. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- Rose, Mike (August 31, 2012). "Discoverability on Steam Greenlight? It's nonexistent". Gamasutra. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- Cifaldi, Frank (September 5, 2012). "Valve's solution for Steam Greenlight's noise: A $100 fee". Gamasutra. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- Akerman, Nick (October 18, 2012). "Valve adds concept section to Greenlight". VG247. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- McWhertor, Michael (October 17, 2012). "Steam Greenlight now allows non-gaming software and early concept submissions". The Verge. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- Matulef, Jeffrey (September 26, 2012). "McPixel is the first Steam Greenlight game available for purchase". Eurogamer. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
- Rose, Mike (September 5, 2012). "Steam Greenlight: Developers Speak Out". Gamasutra. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- Rose, Mike (September 22, 2013). "Valve: Greenlight isn't perfect, but we're working on it". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- Cook, Dave (February 1, 2013). "Newell on Steam ‘bottleneck’, wants to open up publishing to everyone". vg247. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
Newell discusses his vision for a Steam marketplace free from the bottleneck of publisher requests
- Rossignol, Jim (2013-02-01). "Gabe Newell On Removing Valve From Steam". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
But what is perhaps most remarkable is that around 44 minutes, he talks about the problem of Steam being a curated store, and goes on to suggest that Valve are a bottleneck for publishing on the platform, and then even more radically, that they should remove themselves from the equation entirely
- Graft, Kris (August 29, 2013). "For Gabe Newell, Greenlight is just a stepping stone to a bigger endgame". Gamasutra. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- Grubb, Jeffrey (January 15, 2014). "Steam Dev Days: Greenlight gets death sentence, third-party Steam controllers, and 75 million users". Venture Beat. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- Wilde, Tyler (September 23, 2014). "Big changes to Steam: 'Discovery Update' adds curators, recommendations, and hides unpopular new releases". PC Gamer. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- Nunneley, Stephany (March 20, 2013). "Steam page now offers paid-Alphas, Introversion says such sales are "way forward" for indies". VG247. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Team Fortress 2: the best of the Steam Workshop". PC Gamer. October 19, 2011. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- Rosenberg, Adam (January 20, 2012). "Skyrim Patch v1.4 Coming For All Platforms, PC Mod Tools Not Far Behind". G4TV. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- Molina, Brett (April 28, 2012). "'Portal 2' puzzle creator launches May 8". Gamasutra. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
- Hillier, Brenna (May 3, 2012). "Free Dungeons of Dredmor DLC adds Steam Workshop support". VG247. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
- Williams, Katie (June 17, 2012). "Dota Workshop Opens". GameSpy. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
- Futter, Mike (2014-04-15). "Valve To Allow Other Developers To Split Profits With User-Generated Content Creators". Game Informer. Retrieved 2014-04-15.
- Wawro, Alex (January 28, 2015). "Steam Workshop creators can now sell content for non-Valve games". Gamasutra. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- Honorof, Marshall (September 25, 2014). "Valve Debuts Steam Music, Announces Big Game Sales". Tom's Guide US. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
- Sarkar, Samit (February 3, 2014). "Steam Music will let you listen to your music library while gaming". Polygon. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- Narcisse, Evan (June 20, 2012). "Valve Gives Away Portal 2 for Free to Teachers with 'Steam for Schools'". Kotaku. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
- Gilbert, Ben (June 20, 2012). "'Steam for Schools' is a free version of Steam for students, facilitates Portal 2-based lessons". Joystiq. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
- Faylor, Chris (March 8, 2010). "Steam Coming to Mac in April, Portal 2 This Fall". Shacknews. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "A Brand New Steam". Valve Corporation. February 23, 2010. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- Leahy, Brian (February 23, 2010). "Valve Launches Public Beta For New Steam UI". Shacknews. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- "New Steam Client Officially Released!". Valve Corporation. April 26, 2010. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- Nelson, J.R. (March 7, 2010). "Valve All But Confirms Steam and Portal 2 Coming to Mac OS X". Desktop Preview. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Slivka, Eric (March 3, 2010). "Valve Leaks Teaser Images for Announcement of Steam (and Games) for Mac". Mac Rumors. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Leahy, Brian (May 25, 2010). "Half-Life 2 Hits Mac Steam Tomorrow; Teased via Epic Homage Trailer". Shacknews. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- Remo, Chris (April 29, 2010). "Valve Dates Steam Mac For May 12, Updates Steam PC". Gamasutra. Retrieved May 19, 2010.
- Faylor, Chris (May 13, 2010). "Steam's Cross-Platform PC/Mac Game Availability Explained: Some Must Be Bought Again". Shacknews. Retrieved May 13, 2010.
- "Steam'd Penguins". Valve Corporation. July 16, 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2013.
- Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. (May 6, 2010). "Running Windows Games on Linux Gets Easier". PC World. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Jackson, Mike (July 25, 2012). "Newell: 'Windows 8 is a catastrophe for everyone in the PC space'". Computer and Video Games. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- Caoili, Eric (July 17, 2012). "Valve throws support behind Linux with Steam, ports". Gamasutra. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- Hussain, Tamoor (September 27, 2012). "Valve to test Linux Steam next week". Computer and Video Games. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
- Miot, Stephanie (November 6, 2012). "Valve Launches Closed Steam for Linux Beta". PC Magazine. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- Purchase, Robert (December 20, 2012). "Steam for Linux beta opened to all". Eurogamer. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Cifaldi, Frank (February 14, 2013). "Steam Box phase one complete: Steam's Linux client is out now". Gamasutra. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
- Lein, Tracey (July 16, 2012). "'Left 4 Dead 2' to be first Valve game on Linux". The Verve. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Linux team, Valve (August 1, 2012). "Faster Zombies!". Valve Corporation. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
- Hillier, Brenna (July 24, 2012). "Serious Sam 3: BFE headed to Steam Ubuntu". VG247. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Fletcher, JC (January 15, 2013). "The Cave welcomes visitors beginning Jan. 22 [update: prices]". Joystiq. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- "[Phoronix] Steam Lands In Fedora / RHEL RPM Fusion Repository". Phoronix.com. 2013-10-31. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- Larabel, Michael (5 June 2014). "There's Now 500 Games On Steam For Linux". Phoronix. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- Thorsen, Tor (15 June 2010). "Portal 2, Steamworks PS3-bound in 2011". GameSpot. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- Orland, Kyle (August 26, 2011). "PS3 Counter-Strike: GO Gets Added Control Options, Cross-Platform Play". Gamasutra. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- Savage, Phil (January 29, 2013). "Steam concurrent users growing 300% faster than start of 2012, Dota 2 players rising steadily". PC Gamer. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
- Yin-Poole, Wesley (August 25, 2011). "Valve's Gabe Newell – Interview". Eurogamer. Retrieved September 12, 2011.
- Hinkle, David (March 5, 2012). "Counter-Strike: Global Offensive loses cross-play". Joystiq. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Robinson, Andy (August 25, 2010). "Valve would 'love' Xbox Steamworks". Computer and Video Games. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
- Garrett, Patrick (January 31, 2012). "Steam mobile app goes live for all". VG247. Retrieved January 31, 2012.
- Crossley, Rob (January 26, 2012). "Valve launches Steam app for iOS and Android". Develop. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- Scheirer, Jason (December 8, 2012). "Gabe Newell: Living Room PCs Will Compete With Next-Gen Consoles". Retrieved November 6, 2013.
- Goldfarb, Andrew (November 4, 2013). "Valve Will Announce Steam Machine Partners at CES 2014". IGN. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
- "Garry’s Mod has sold 1.4 million copies, Garry releases sales history to prove it".
- "Twitter / garrynewman: @arstechnica @KyleOrl Not bad, ...". Garry Newman. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
Garry's Mod Units 4,802,144
- "Valve: no Steam data for digital sales charts | GamesIndustry International". Gamesindustry.biz. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- Parfitt, Ben (2011-04-21). "Digital charts won’t pick up Steam | MCV". Mcvuk.com. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- Kuchera, Ben (2012-07-02). "The PA Report – Why it’s time to grow up and start ignoring the monthly NPD reports". Penny-arcade.com. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- "Garry's Mod Breaks 1 Million Sold, First Peek At Sales Chart – Voodoo Extreme". Ve3d.ign.com. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- Chiang, Oliver. "The Master of Online Mayhem". Forbes. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
- Matt, Smith (August 16, 2012). "Why I’m No Longer Buying Games On Steam [Opinion]". makeuseof. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- M.S., Smith (March 16, 2010). "Steam: A Monopoly In the Making". The Escapist. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- Richard, Stallman (December 17, 2013). "Nonfree DRM'd Games on GNU/Linux: Good or Bad?". GNU Project. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- "Steam Sells 4 Times More Witcher 2 Copies Than All Competitors Combined". GamePro. Archived from the original on December 1, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Doucet, Lars (February 20, 2013). "Defender's Quest: By the Numbers, Part 2". Gamasutra.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Steam.|
- Official website
- Steamworks – Steamworks information
- The Steam Community – web access to Steam's social network
- Valve Developer Community/Steam – Steam category on the official VDC wiki