Steatoda

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Steatoda
Steatoda bipunctata female (aka).jpg
S. bipunctata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Family: Theridiidae
Genus: Steatoda
Sundevall, 1833
Species

S. bipunctata
S. borealis
S. capensis
S. grossa
S. iheringi
S. hespera
S. nobilis
S. paykulliana
S. triangulosa
 many more

Diversity
122 species

The spider genus Steatoda, in the family Theridiidae, includes over 120 recognized species, distributed around the world (including many cosmopolitan species which are found among human populations worldwide). One common name is Cupboard Spider, for many species build their webs in dark, sheltered, undisturbed places around the house or garden, in sheds and garages, under garden furniture, compost bins, and the like. Signs of the Cupboard Spider include small white spots of spider droppings, like small splashes of paint, on the floor underneath the web.[1][2]

They have a small cephalothorax and a larger abdomen, which is somewhat egg-shaped. The colour can range from a brown or reddish plum to satiny black. The abdomen often has white or beige spots, a frontal crescent, and sometimes, small red spots or a thin red line (but never a stripe like a redback spider).

Many spiders of the genus Steatoda are often mistaken for widow spiders (Latrodectus), and are known as false black widows. They are closely related (in the family Theridiidae) but Steatoda are significantly less harmful to humans. Not all Steatoda species resemble widows – many have distinct coloring, and are significantly smaller than Latrodectus specimens. Some species of Steatoda will actually prey on widows, as well as other spiders which are considered hazardous to humans.

Some members of this genus do have bites which are medically significant in humans (such as S. grossa and S. nobilis); however, bites by Steatoda species generally do not have any long-lasting effects. There may be blistering at the site of the bite, and a general malaise lasting for several days. Symptoms can include moderate to severe pain increasing for the first hour (without severe sweating). Some people have reported mild to moderate nausea, headache, and lethargy. The duration of all symptoms and effects can range from 1 to 60 hours.[3][4]

The symptoms associated with the bite of several Steatoda species are known in the medical profession as steatodism; and have been described as a less-severe form of latrodectism (the symptoms associated with a widow spider bite). The redback spider antivenom has been thought to be effective at treating bites from S. grossa, after it was mistakenly administered to a S. grossa bite victim who was erroneously believed to have been bitten by the far more dangerous redback. (While the redback antivenom appears clinically active against arachnidism caused by Steatoda spiders;[68][100][101][102], as these cases are often mild and the evidence of its effectiveness is limited, this treatment is not recommended.)[90]

In common with other members of the Theridiidae family, the Steatoda spiders construct a tangled web, i.e., an irregular tangle of sticky silken fibers. As with other web-weavers, these spiders have very poor eyesight and depend mostly on vibrations reaching them through their webs to orient themselves to prey or to warn them of larger animals that could injure or kill them. They are not aggressive, and most injuries to humans are due to defensive bites delivered when a spider gets unintentionally squeezed or pinched somehow. It is possible that some bites result when a spider mistakes a finger thrust into its web for its normal prey, but ordinarily intrusion by any large creature will cause these spiders to flee.

Diet[edit]

Steatoda is known to prey on other spiders (including true black widows), crickets, cockroaches, and woodlice.[5]

Species[edit]

There are currently over 120 recognized species in Steatoda.

A Steatoda found in Australia.

Those commonly mistaken for widows include:

  • S. borealis. A common species in North America, often mistaken for the black widow (despite being smaller and having colored markings on the dorsal side of the abdomen, rather than the ventral side).
  • S. capensis, the black cobweb or false katipo spider. It originates in South Africa, and is found in Australia and New Zealand; in the latter location it is often confused with the katipo spider.
  • S. grossa, often known as the cupboard spider. A dark-colored spider which resembles specimens of Latrodectus, though without the characteristic bright marks found on most widow spiders. This spider is known to occasionally prey on true widows. Bites by S. grossa have been known to produce symptoms similar to (but far less severe than) the bites of true widows. Originally from Europe, but now found worldwide.
  • S. nobilis. This spider, a native of the Canary Islands, has since been introduced into the United Kingdom and across Europe. Sensationalist[according to whom?] news reports in the UK have focused on its reportedly-painful bite, including a case of a man needing treatment for symptoms of heart seizure.[6]
  • S. paykulliana, another spider which is often confused with Latrodectus. This one is generally found in the range of Latrodectus tredecimguttatus and is frequently confused with it. Has a medically significant (but not serious) bite.

Other notable and recognizable species[edit]

Other notable and recognizable species in the genus include:

  • S. bipunctata. A common house spider in Europe.
  • S. triangulosa, the triangulate cobweb spider, a common household spider noted for a pattern of triangles on the dorsal side of its abdomen. Not known to bite; found worldwide.
  • S. hespera, the western bud spider. This species is commonly found in the western United States and Canada, where it is an effective predator of the hobo spider. It is often confused with the black widow, despite being significantly smaller (7 to 8 mm) and having no bright-colored markings. Not known to bite humans, but has a venom which is similar to S. paykulliana (a medically significant spider of this genus).

References[edit]

  1. ^ World Spider Catalogue http://www.wsc.nmbe.ch/genus/3542
  2. ^ Cupboard Spiders, Steatoda sp. Australian Museum http://australianmuseum.net.au/cupboard-spider
  3. ^ Penn State » Ag Sciences » Entomology » Insect Advice from Extension » Fact Sheets » False Black Widow Spider http://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/false-black-widow
  4. ^ Warrell, D.A.; Shaheen, J.; Hillyard, P.D.; Jones, D. (1991). "Neurotoxic envenoming by an immigrant spider (Steatoda nobilis) in southern England". Toxicon. 29 (10): 1263–5. PMID 1801319. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(91)90198-Z. 
  5. ^ "Steatoda Spiders" (PDF). Washington State University. Retrieved 30 December 2013. 
  6. ^ David Sapsted, "Watch out, the black widow's sister is ready to bite you", Daily Telegraph, 2006-11-17
General
  • Levi, H.W. (1962). The Spider Genera Steatoda and Enoplognatha in America (Araneae, Theridiidae). Psyche 69:11-36. PDF (with key to American species)

External links[edit]