Steatoda paykulliana

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Steatoda paykulliana
Steatoda paykulliana1.png
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Family: Theridiidae
Genus: Steatoda
Species:
S. paykulliana
Binomial name
Steatoda paykulliana
Synonyms
  • Steatoda latrodectoides (Franganillo, 1913)

Steatoda paykulliana is a species of false black widow spider in the tangle-web spiders family,[1] native to the Mediterranean countries, Southern Europe and Western Asia. The species is named in honor of the Swedish naturalist Gustaf von Paykull (1757–1826).

Description[edit]

(It has no common name only a Scientific name)As is evident from the common name of its kind, S. paykulliana resembles black widow spiders in shape and color markings. The female S. paykulliana body length is from 8 mm, to 12 mm when pregnant. The abdomen is globular, colored a shiny black, with two non-overlapping stripes, one dorsal and one lateral. This differentiates it from true black widow spiders that have dorsal and ventral markings. The stripes are ivory-yellow on young females and orange-red on mature ones.[2] The male is only about half the size of the female, with less prominent markings.[3]

S. paykulliana's venom is much less potent than the true black widows', and its effect on humans is minor, similar to a wasp sting.[4]

Behavior[edit]

Female Steatoda paykulliana guarding its egg sac
Female S. paykulliana taking care of its egg sac.

S. paykulliana spins typical tangled three-dimensional webs, usually on sloping ground covered with vegetation. A cocoon is spun around the eggs. In Yugoslavia, the spiderlings hatch at the end of summer, hibernate in the winter, and reach adulthood at the beginning of the next summer.[2]

Distribution[edit]

S. paykulliana is widespread throughout Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. It has been reported in Portugal[5], Spain[6], France[7][8] including Corsica[9], Belgium[10], Italy[11], Switzerland[12], Austria[13], Slovenia[14], Croatia[15], Serbia[16], Bosnia and Herzegovina[15], North Macedonia[17], Albania[18], Romania[19], Ukraine[20], Bulgaria[21], Greece[22][23], Malta[24], Turkey[25][26][23], Georgia[23], Lebanon[27], Syria[23], Israel[28][23], Palestine[23], Azerbaijan[29][30][23], Dagestan[31], Russia[23], Northwest China[23], Kazakhstan[23], Southern Kyrgyzstan[23], Tajikistan[23], Uzbekistan[23], Turkmenistan[23], Iran[23][32], Saudi Arabia[23], Yemen[23], Egypt[23], Ethiopia[23], Eritrea[23], Libya[23], Tunisia[23], Algeria[23], Morocco[23] and Great Britain[33][34]. Cyprus

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Steatoda paykulliana". Catalogue of Life. ITIS. Species 2000.CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. ^ a b Bettini, S., ed. (1978). "9". Arthropod Venoms. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. pp. 213–214. ISBN 978-3-642-45501-8.
  3. ^ Zamani, A. (2016). "Predation on Cyrtopodion scabrum (Squamata: Gekkonidae) by Steatoda paykulliana (Araneae: Theridiidae)". Rivista Arachnologica Italiana. 8: 12–15.
  4. ^ Maretić, Z.; Levi, H. W.; Levi, L. R. (1964). "The theridiid spider Steatoda paykulliana, poisonous to mammals". Toxicon. 2 (3): 149–154. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(64)90016-9. PMID 14298221.
  5. ^ Cardoso, 2000 : Portuguese spiders (Araneae): a preliminary cheklist. Ekologia (Bratislava), vol. 19, sup. 3, p. 19-29 (texte intégral).
  6. ^ Blasco-Zumeta, 2000 : Contribution à l'étude de la faune associée a Juniperus thurifera L. dans Los Monegros (Aragon, Espagne). Les Dossiers forestiers, vol. 6, p. 94-103.
  7. ^ Canard, 1987 : Données sur la distribution spatio-temporelle des Theridiidae des landes armoricaines. Revue Arachnologique, vol. 5, No. 4, p. 169-183.
  8. ^ Thirion, Beau & Guillon, 2007 : Première mention de Steatoda paykulliana (Walckenaer, 1806) (Arachnida : Araneae : Theridiidae) pour les Charentes. Catalogue des Annales de la Société des Sciences Naturelles de la Charente-Maritime, vol. 9, No. 7, p. 743-744.
  9. ^ Tiberghien, Canard, Rollard & Ysnel, 1993 : Invertébrés du Parc Régional de Corse. Des richesses à inventorier (seconde partie) les réserves de Scandola, Lavezzi et Cerbicale. Insectes, vol. 91, p. 23-27.
  10. ^ Bosmans, 2009 : Een herziene soortenlijst van de Belgische spinnen (Araneae). Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging, vol. 24, No. 1/3, p. 33-58 (texte intégral).
  11. ^ Trotta, 2005 : Introduzione ai Ragni italiani (Arachnida Araneae). Memorie della Societa Entomologica Italiana, vol. 83, p. 3-178.
  12. ^ Blick, Bosmans, Buchar, Gajdoš, Hänggi, Van Helsdingen, Ružicka, Starega & Thaler, 2004 : Checkliste der Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Checklist of the spiders of Central Europe. (Arachnida: Araneae). Version 1. Dezember 2004. (texte intégral).
  13. ^ Noflatscher, 1991 : Beiträge zur Spinnenfauna Südtirols - III: Epigäische Spinnen an Xerotherm-Standorten am Mitterberg, bei Neustift und Sterzing (Arachnida: Aranei). Berichte des naturwissenschaftlichen-medizinischen Verein Innsbruck, vol. 78, p. 79-92 (texte intégral).
  14. ^ Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015 : Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys, No. 474, p. 1-91.
  15. ^ a b Maretic, 1978 :Venoms of Theridiidae, Genus Steatoda. Arthropod Venoms, Springer Science & Business Media, p. 213-216.
  16. ^ Grbic & Savic, 2010 : Contribution to the knowledge of the spider fauna (Arachnida, Araneae) on the Fruska Gora Mt. Acta entomologica serbica, vol. 15, No. 1, p. 243-260 (texte intégral).
  17. ^ Blagoev, 2002 : Check List of Macedonian Spiders (Araneae). Acta zoologica bulgarica, vol. 54, No. 3, p. 9-34.
  18. ^ Deltshev, Vrenosi, Blagoev & Lazarov, 2011 : Spiders of Albania - Faunistic and Zoogeographical Review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta zoologica bulgarica, vol. 63, No. 2, p. 125-144 (texte intégral).
  19. ^ Weiss & Petrisor, 1999 : List of the spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) from Romania. Travaux du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa", vol. 41, p. 79-107.
  20. ^ Polchaninova & Prokopenko, 2013 : Catalogue of the spiders (Arachnida, Aranei) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Artropoda Selecta, suppl. 2, KMK Scientific Press, Moscow, p. 1-268 (texte intégral).
  21. ^ Deltshev, Lazarov, Blagoev & Naumova, 2011 : Spiders (Araneae) from the Western Rhodopes Mts (Bulgaria). Biodiversity of Bulgaria 4. Biodiversity of Western Rhodopes (Bulgaria and Greece) II. Pensoft & Musée national d'histoire naturelle de Bulgarie, Sofia, p. 1-43.
  22. ^ Bosmans, van Keer, Russell-Smith, A., Kronestedt, Alderweireldt, Bosselaers & de Koninck, 2013 : Spiders of Crete (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from the Greek Island of Crete. Arachnological Contributions. Newsletter of the Belgian arachnological Society, vol. 28, supl. 1, p. 1-147 (texte intégral).
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Komnenov, Pitta, Zografou & Chatzaki, 2016 : Discovering the still unexplored arachnofauna of the National Park of Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli, NE Greece: a taxonomic review with description of new species. Zootaxa, No. 4096(1), p. 1-66.
  24. ^ Sciberras, Sciberras, Freudenschuss & Pfliegler, 2014 : "Araneus angulatus Clerck,1757 (Araneae: Araneidae), new for the fauna of the Sicilian and Maltese archipelagos". Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, vol. 24, p. 109-110 (texte intégral).
  25. ^ Kaya & Ugurtas, 2007 : A Study on Araneo-Fauna (Arachnida: Araneae) of Görükle Campus Area (Bursa). Journal of Biological and Environmental Sciences, vol. 1, No. 2, p. 81-86.
  26. ^ Çavusoglu, K., Bayram, A., Maras, M., Kirindi, 2006 : Steatoda paykulliana (Araneae, Theridiidae) (Walckenaer, 1806)’nin Zehir Aygitinin Morfolojisi Hakkinda. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, vol. 10, No. 1, p. 25-29.
  27. ^ Assi, 2013 : Nouvelle liste des espèces d'araignées du Liban. Lebanese Science Journal, vol. 14, No. 2, p. 15-24.
  28. ^ Pluess, Opatovsky, Gavish-Regev, Lubin & Schmidt, 2008 : Spiders in wheat fields and semi-desert in the Negev (Israel). The Journal of Arachnology, vol. 36, p. 368-373.
  29. ^ Topchiyeva, Mehrabova & Hasanov, 2010 : Radiation effect onto biodiversity of spiders. Advances in Biology, Bioengineering and Environment, p. 82-84 (texte intégral).
  30. ^ Maruik, Guseinov & Aliev, 2004 : Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaidjan 4. Fauna of Naxivan. Athropoda Selecta, vol. 13, No. 3, p. 135-149 (texte intégral).
  31. ^ Abdurakhmanov & Alieva, 2009 : Composition and Geographical Distribution of the Spiders (Aranei) in the Republic Dagestan. The South of Russia, vol. 3, p. 38-50 (texte intégral).
  32. ^ Zamani, 2016 : Predation of Cyrtopodion scabrum (Squamata: Gekkonidae) by Steatoda paykulliana (Araneae: Theridiidae). Arachnida - Rivista Aracnologica Italiana, vol. 8, p. 12-15.
  33. ^ False Widow Spiders
  34. ^ Merrett, Russell-Smith & Harvey, 2014 : A Revised Check List of British Spiders. Arachnology, vol. 16, No. 4, p. 134-144.

External links[edit]