|Steels and other iron–carbon alloy phases|
|Other iron-based materials|
Steels are alloys of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, widely used in construction and other applications because of their high tensile strengths and low costs. Carbon, other elements, and inclusions within iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that otherwise occur in the crystal lattices of iron atoms.
The carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.1% of its weight. Varying the amount of alloying elements, their formation in the steel either as solute elements, or as precipitated phases, retards the movement of those dislocations that make iron comparatively ductile and weak, and thus controls qualities such as the hardness, ductility, and tensile strength of the resulting steel. Steel's strength compared to pure iron is only possible at the expense of ductility, of which iron has an excess.
Although steel had been produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, steel's use expanded extensively after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century for blister steel and then crucible steel. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began. This was followed by Siemens-Martin process and then Gilchrist-Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS), largely replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the metal. Today, steel is one of the most common materials in the world, with more than 1.3 billion tons produced annually. It is a major component in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons. Modern steel is generally identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations.
- 1 Definitions and related materials
- 2 Material properties
- 3 Steel production
- 4 History of steelmaking
- 5 Steel industry
- 6 Recycling
- 7 Contemporary steel
- 8 Uses
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
The noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stakhlijan (made of steel), which is related to stakhla (standing firm). Steel is used as an adjective from c. 1200. Steel wool is known since 1896, and steel drum from 1952.
The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.1% by weight for plain iron-carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, chromium, nickel, iron, tungsten, carbon and so on. Basically, steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction, suddenly solidifying into solid phases at exactly the same temperature. Too little carbon content leaves (pure) iron quite soft, ductile, and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make an alloy, commonly called pig iron, that is brittle (not malleable). While iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel. Common alloying elements include: manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, boron, titanium, vanadium, tungsten, cobalt, and niobium. Additional elements are also important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, and traces of oxygen, nitrogen, and copper.
Alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content, depending on other element content and possibly on processing, are known as cast iron. Cast iron is not malleable even when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects. Steel is also distinguishable from wrought iron (now largely obsolete), which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag.
Iron is commonly found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore, usually an iron oxide, such as magnetite, hematite etc. Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon that is lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at approximately 250 °C (482 °F) and copper, which melts at approximately 1,100 °C (2,010 °F). In comparison, cast iron melts at approximately 1,375 °C (2,507 °F). Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore buried in a charcoal fire and welding the metal together with a hammer, squeezing out the impurities. With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire.
All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods that have been used since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate of iron increases rapidly beyond 800 °C (1,470 °F), it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Unlike copper and tin, liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily. Smelting, using carbon to reduce iron oxides, results in an alloy (pig iron) that retains too much carbon to be called steel. The excess carbon and other impurities are removed in a subsequent step.
Other materials are often added to the iron/carbon mixture to produce steel with desired properties. Nickel and manganese in steel add to its tensile strength and make the austenite form of the iron-carbon solution more stable, chromium increases hardness and melting temperature, and vanadium also increases hardness while making it less prone to metal fatigue.
To inhibit corrosion, at least 11% chromium is added to steel so that a hard oxide forms on the metal surface; this is known as stainless steel. Tungsten interferes with the formation of cementite, allowing martensite to preferentially form at slower quench rates, resulting in high speed steel. On the other hand, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus make steel more brittle, so these commonly found elements must be removed from the steel melt during processing.
Even in a narrow range of concentrations of mixtures of carbon and iron that make a steel, a number of different metallurgical structures, with very different properties can form. Understanding such properties is essential to making quality steel. At room temperature, the most stable form of pure iron is the body-centered cubic (BCC) structure called ferrite or α-iron. It is a fairly soft metal that can dissolve only a small concentration of carbon, no more than 0.005% at 0 °C (32 °F) and 0.021 wt% at 723 °C (1,333 °F). At 910 °C pure iron transforms into a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure, called austenite or γ-iron. The FCC structure of austenite can dissolve considerably more carbon, as much as 2.1% (38 times that of ferrite) carbon at 1,148 °C (2,098 °F), which reflects the upper carbon content of steel, beyond which is cast iron.
When steels with less than 0.8% carbon (known as a hypoeutectoid steel), are cooled, the austenitic phase (FCC) of the mixture attempts to revert to the ferrite phase (BCC). The carbon no longer fits within the FCC structure, resulting in an excess of carbon. One way for carbon to leave the austenite is for it to precipitate out of solution as cementite, leaving behind a surrounding phase of BCC iron that is low enough in carbon to take the form of ferrite, resulting in a ferrite matrix with cementite inclusions. Cementite is a hard and brittle intermetallic compound with the chemical formula of Fe3C. At the eutectoid, 0.8% carbon, the cooled structure takes the form of pearlite, named for its resemblance to mother of pearl. On a larger scale, it appears as a lamellar structure of ferrite and cementite. For steels that have more than 0.8% carbon, the cooled structure takes the form of pearlite and cementite.
Perhaps the most important polymorphic form of steel is martensite, a metastable phase that is significantly stronger than other steel phases. When the steel is in an austenitic phase and then quenched rapidly, it forms into martensite, as the atoms "freeze" in place when the cell structure changes from FCC to a distorted form of BCC as the atoms do not have time enough to migrate and form the cementite compound. Depending on the carbon content, the martensitic phase takes different forms. Below approximately 0.2% carbon, it takes on a ferrite BCC crystal form, but at higher carbon content it takes a body-centered tetragonal (BCT) structure. There is no thermal activation energy for the transformation from austenite to martensite. Moreover, there is no compositional change so the atoms generally retain their same neighbors.
Martensite has a lower density than does austenite, so that the transformation between them results in a change of volume. In this case, expansion occurs. Internal stresses from this expansion generally take the form of compression on the crystals of martensite and tension on the remaining ferrite, with a fair amount of shear on both constituents. If quenching is done improperly, the internal stresses can cause a part to shatter as it cools. At the very least, they cause internal work hardening and other microscopic imperfections. It is common for quench cracks to form when steel is water quenched, although they may not always be visible.
There are many types of heat treating processes available to steel. The most common are annealing, quenching, and tempering. Annealing is the process of heating the steel to a sufficiently high temperature to soften it. This process goes through three phases: recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. The temperature required to anneal steel depends on the type of annealing to be achieved and the constituents of the alloy.
Quenching and tempering first involves heating the steel to the austenite phase then quenching it in water or oil. This rapid cooling results in a hard but brittle martensitic structure. The steel is then tempered, which is just a specialized type of annealing, to reduce brittleness. In this application the annealing (tempering) process transforms some of the martensite into cementite, or spheroidite and hence reduces the internal stresses and defects. The result is a more ductile and fracture-resistant steel.
When iron is smelted from its ore, it contains more carbon than is desirable. To become steel, it must be reprocessed to reduce the carbon to the correct amount, at which point other elements can be added. In the past, steel facilities would cast the raw cast iron product into ingots which would be stored until use in further refinement processes that resulted in the finished product. In modern facilities, the initial product is close to the final composition and is continuously cast into long slabs, cut and shaped into bars and extrusions and heat treated to produce a final product. Today only a small fraction is cast into ingots. Approximately 96% of steel is continuously cast, while only 4% is produced as ingots.
The ingots are then heated in a soaking pit and hot rolled into slabs, billets, or blooms. Slabs are hot or cold rolled into sheet metal or plates. Billets are hot or cold rolled into bars, rods, and wire. Blooms are hot or cold rolled into structural steel, such as I-beams and rails. In modern steel mills these processes often occur in one assembly line, with ore coming in and finished steel products coming out. Sometimes after a steel's final rolling it is heat treated for strength, however this is relatively rare.
History of steelmaking
The earliest known production of steel are pieces of ironware excavated from an archaeological site in Anatolia (Kaman-Kalehoyuk) and are nearly 4,000 years old, dating from 1800 BC. Horace identifies steel weapons like the falcata in the Iberian Peninsula, while Noric steel was used by the Roman military.
The reputation of Seric iron of South India (wootz steel) amongst the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, East Africans, Chinese and the Middle East grew considerably. South Indian and Mediterranean sources including Alexander the Great (3rd c. BC) recount the presentation and export to the Greeks of 100 talents of such steel. Metal production sites in Sri Lanka employed wind furnaces driven by the monsoon winds, capable of producing high-carbon steel. Large-scale Wootz steel production in Tamilakam using crucibles and carbon sources such as the plant Avāram occurred by the sixth century BC, the pioneering precursor to modern steel production and metallurgy.
The Chinese of the Warring States period (403–221 BC) had quench-hardened steel, while Chinese of the Han dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) created steel by melting together wrought iron with cast iron, gaining an ultimate product of a carbon-intermediate steel by the 1st century AD. The Haya people of East Africa invented a type of furnace they used to make carbon steel at 1,802 °C (3,276 °F) nearly 2,000 years ago. East African steel has been suggested by Richard Hooker to date back to 1400 BC.
Wootz steel and Damascus steel
Evidence of the earliest production of high carbon steel in the Indian Subcontinent are found in Kodumanal in Tamil Nadu area, Golconda in Andhra Pradesh area and Karnataka, and in Samanalawewa areas of Sri Lanka. This came to be known as Wootz steel, produced in South India by about sixth century BC and exported globally. The steel technology existed prior to 326 BC in the region as they are mentioned in literature of Sangam Tamil, Arabic and Latin as the finest steel in the world exported to the Romans, Egyptian, Chinese and Arabs worlds at that time – what they called Seric Iron. A 200 BC Tamil trade guild in Tissamaharama, in the South East of Sri Lanka, brought with them some of the oldest iron and steel artefacts and production processes to the island from the classical period. The Chinese and locals in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka had also adopted the production methods of creating Wootz steel from the Chera Dynasty Tamils of South India by the 5th century AD. In Sri Lanka, this early steel-making method employed a unique wind furnace, driven by the monsoon winds, capable of producing high-carbon steel. Since the technology was acquired from the Tamilians from South India, the origin of steel technology in India can be conservatively estimated at 400–500 BC.
Wootz, also known as Damascus steel, is famous for its durability and ability to hold an edge. It was originally created from a number of different materials including various trace elements, apparently ultimately from the writings of Zosimos of Panopolis. However, the steel was an old technology in India when King Porus presented a steel sword to the Emperor Alexander in 326 BC. It was essentially a complicated alloy with iron as its main component. Recent studies have suggested that carbon nanotubes were included in its structure, which might explain some of its legendary qualities, though given the technology of that time, such qualities were produced by chance rather than by design. Natural wind was used where the soil containing iron was heated by the use of wood. The ancient Sinhalese managed to extract a ton of steel for every 2 tons of soil, a remarkable feat at the time. One such furnace was found in Samanalawewa and archaeologists were able to produce steel as the ancients did.
Crucible steel, formed by slowly heating and cooling pure iron and carbon (typically in the form of charcoal) in a crucible, was produced in Merv by the 9th to 10th century AD. In the 11th century, there is evidence of the production of steel in Song China using two techniques: a "berganesque" method that produced inferior, inhomogeneous, steel, and a precursor to the modern Bessemer process that used partial decarbonization via repeated forging under a cold blast.
Since the 17th century the first step in European steel production has been the smelting of iron ore into pig iron in a blast furnace. Originally employing charcoal, modern methods use coke, which has proven more economical.
Processes starting from bar iron
The production of steel by the cementation process was described in a treatise published in Prague in 1574 and was in use in Nuremberg from 1601. A similar process for case hardening armour and files was described in a book published in Naples in 1589. The process was introduced to England in about 1614 and used to produce such steel by Sir Basil Brooke at Coalbrookdale during the 1610s.
The raw material for this process were bars of iron. During the 17th century it was realized that the best steel came from oregrounds iron of a region north of Stockholm, Sweden. This was still the usual raw material source in the 19th century, almost as long as the process was used.
Crucible steel is steel that has been melted in a crucible rather than having been forged, with the result that it is more homogeneous. Most previous furnaces could not reach high enough temperatures to melt the steel. The early modern crucible steel industry resulted from the invention of Benjamin Huntsman in the 1740s. Blister steel (made as above) was melted in a crucible or in a furnace, and cast (usually) into ingots.
Processes starting from pig iron
The modern era in steelmaking began with the introduction of Henry Bessemer's Bessemer process in 1855, the raw material for which was pig iron. His method let him produce steel in large quantities cheaply, thus mild steel came to be used for most purposes for which wrought iron was formerly used. The Gilchrist-Thomas process (or basic Bessemer process) was an improvement to the Bessemer process, made by lining the converter with a basic material to remove phosphorus.
These methods of steel production were rendered obsolete by the Linz-Donawitz process of basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS), developed in the 1950s, and other oxygen steel making methods. Basic oxygen steelmaking is superior to previous steelmaking methods because the oxygen pumped into the furnace limits impurities that previously had entered from the air used. Today, electric arc furnaces (EAF) are a common method of reprocessing scrap metal to create new steel. They can also be used for converting pig iron to steel, but they use a lot of electrical energy (about 440 kWh per metric ton), and are thus generally only economical when there is a plentiful supply of cheap electricity.
|This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. (December 2014)|
It is common today to talk about "the iron and steel industry" as if it were a single entity, but historically they were separate products. The steel industry is often considered an indicator of economic progress, because of the critical role played by steel in infrastructural and overall economic development.
In 1980, there were more than 500,000 U.S. steelworkers. By 2000, the number of steelworkers fell to 224,000.
The economic boom in China and India has caused a massive increase in the demand for steel in recent years. Between 2000 and 2005, world steel demand increased by 6%. Since 2000, several Indian and Chinese steel firms have risen to prominence like Tata Steel (which bought Corus Group in 2007), Shanghai Baosteel Group Corporation and Shagang Group. ArcelorMittal is however the world's largest steel producer.
The world steel industry peaked in 2007. That year, ThyssenKrupp spent $12 billion to build the two most modern mills in the world, in Calvert, Alabama and Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The worldwide Great Recession starting in 2008, however, sharply lowered demand and new construction, and so prices fell. ThyssenKrupp lost $11 billion on its two new plants, which sold steel below the cost of production.
Steel is one of the world's most-recycled materials, with a recycling rate of over 60% globally; in the United States alone, over 82,000,000 metric tons (81,000,000 long tons) was recycled in the year 2008, for an overall recycling rate of 83%.
Modern steels are made with varying combinations of alloy metals to fulfill many purposes. Carbon steel, composed simply of iron and carbon, accounts for 90% of steel production. Low alloy steel is alloyed with other elements, usually molybdenum, manganese, chromium, or nickel, in amounts of up to 10% by weight to improve the hardenability of thick sections. High strength low alloy steel has small additions (usually < 2% by weight) of other elements, typically 1.5% manganese, to provide additional strength for a modest price increase.
Recent Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations have given rise to a new variety of steel known as Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS). This material is both strong and ductile so that vehicle structures can maintain their current safety levels while using less material. There are several commercially available grades of AHSS, such as dual-phase steel, which is heat treated to contain both a ferritic and martensitic microstructure to produce a formable, high strength steel. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel involves special alloying and heat treatments to stabilize amounts of austenite at room temperature in normally austenite-free low-alloy ferritic steels. By applying strain, the austenite undergoes a phase transition to martensite without the addition of heat. Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel uses a specific type of strain to increase the effectiveness of work hardening on the alloy.
Stainless steels contain a minimum of 11% chromium, often combined with nickel, to resist corrosion. Some stainless steels, such as the ferritic stainless steels are magnetic, while others, such as the austenitic, are nonmagnetic. Corrosion-resistant steels are abbreviated as CRES.
Some more modern steels include tool steels, which are alloyed with large amounts of tungsten and cobalt or other elements to maximize solution hardening. This also allows the use of precipitation hardening and improves the alloy's temperature resistance. Tool steel is generally used in axes, drills, and other devices that need a sharp, long-lasting cutting edge. Other special-purpose alloys include weathering steels such as Cor-ten, which weather by acquiring a stable, rusted surface, and so can be used un-painted. Maraging steel is alloyed with nickel and other elements, but unlike most steel contains little carbon (0.01%). This creates a very strong but still malleable steel.
Eglin steel uses a combination of over a dozen different elements in varying amounts to create a relatively low-cost steel for use in bunker buster weapons. Hadfield steel (after Sir Robert Hadfield) or manganese steel contains 12–14% manganese which when abraded strain hardens to form an incredibly hard skin which resists wearing. Examples include tank tracks, bulldozer blade edges and cutting blades on the jaws of life.
In 2016 a breakthrough in creating a strong light aluminium steel alloy which might be suitable in applications such as aircraft was announced by researchers at Pohang University of Science and Technology. Adding small amounts of nickel was found to result in precipitation as nano particles of brittle B2 intermetallic compounds which had previously resulted in weakness. The result was a cheap strong light steel alloy—nearly as strong as titanium at ten percent the cost— which is slated for trial production[when?] at industrial scale by POSCO, a Korean steelmaker.
Most of the more commonly used steel alloys are categorized into various grades by standards organizations. For example, the Society of Automotive Engineers has a series of grades defining many types of steel. The American Society for Testing and Materials has a separate set of standards, which define alloys such as A36 steel, the most commonly used structural steel in the United States.
Iron and steel are used widely in the construction of roads, railways, other infrastructure, appliances, and buildings. Most large modern structures, such as stadiums and skyscrapers, bridges, and airports, are supported by a steel skeleton. Even those with a concrete structure employ steel for reinforcing. In addition, it sees widespread use in major appliances and cars. Despite growth in usage of aluminium, it is still the main material for car bodies. Steel is used in a variety of other construction materials, such as bolts, nails, and screws and other household products and cooking utensils.
Other common applications include shipbuilding, pipelines, mining, offshore construction, aerospace, white goods (e.g. washing machines), heavy equipment such as bulldozers, office furniture, steel wool, tools, and armour in the form of personal vests or vehicle armour (better known as rolled homogeneous armour in this role).
Before the introduction of the Bessemer process and other modern production techniques, steel was expensive and was only used where no cheaper alternative existed, particularly for the cutting edge of knives, razors, swords, and other items where a hard, sharp edge was needed. It was also used for springs, including those used in clocks and watches.
With the advent of speedier and thriftier production methods, steel has become easier to obtain and much cheaper. It has replaced wrought iron for a multitude of purposes. However, the availability of plastics in the latter part of the 20th century allowed these materials to replace steel in some applications due to their lower fabrication cost and weight. Carbon fiber is replacing steel in some cost insensitive applications such as aircraft, sports equipment and high end automobiles.
- As reinforcing bars and mesh in reinforced concrete
- Railroad tracks
- Structural steel in modern buildings and bridges
- Input to reforging applications
Flat carbon steel
Steel manufactured after World War II became contaminated with radionuclides due to nuclear weapons testing. Low-background steel, steel manufactured prior to 1945, is used for certain radiation-sensitive applications such as Geiger counters and radiation shielding.
- Harper, Douglas. "steel". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- Ashby, Michael F. and Jones, David R. H. (1992) . Engineering Materials 2 (with corrections ed.). Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-032532-7.
- Smelting. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007.
- "Alloying of Steels". Metallurgical Consultants. 2006-06-28. Retrieved 2007-02-28.
- Elert, Glenn. "Density of Steel". Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- Sources differ on this value so it has been rounded to 2.1%, however the exact value is rather academic because plain-carbon steel is very rarely made with this level of carbon. See:
- Smith & Hashemi 2006, p. 363.
- Smith & Hashemi 2006, pp. 365–372.
- Smith & Hashemi 2006, pp. 373–378.
- "Quench hardening of steel". Retrieved 2009-07-19.
- Smith & Hashemi 2006, p. 249.
- Smith & Hashemi 2006, p. 388.
- Smith & Hashemi 2006, p. 361
- Smith & Hashemi 2006, pp. 361–362.
- Bugayev et al. Savin, p. 225
- Hilda Ellis Davidson. The Sword in Anglo-Saxon England: Its Archaeology and Literature. pp.20
- S. Srinivasan; S. Ranganathan. "Wootz Steel: an advanced material of the ancient world". Bangalore: Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science.
- Akanuma, H. (2005). "The significance of the composition of excavated iron fragments taken from Stratum III at the site of Kaman-Kalehöyük, Turkey". Anatolian Archaeological Studies 14: 147–158.
- "Ironware piece unearthed from Turkey found to be oldest steel". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2009-03-26. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- "Noricus ensis," Horace, Odes, i. 16.9
- "Steel Secret of Spartans Well Kept".
- "Lyle Borst, 89, Nuclear Physicist Who Worked on A-Bomb Project".
- Wagner, Donald B. (1993). Iron and Steel in Ancient China: Second Impression, With Corrections. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 243. ISBN 90-04-09632-9.
- Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. p. 563.
- Gernet, 69.
- "Civilizations in Africa: The Iron Age South of the Sahara". Washington State University. Archived from the original on 2007-06-19. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
- Africa's Ancient Steelmakers. Time Magazine, Sept. 25, 1978.
- Wilford, John Noble (1996-02-06). "Ancient Smelter Used Wind To Make High-Grade Steel". The New York Times.
- Sharada Srinivasan; Srinivasa Ranganathan (2004). India's Legendary Wootz Steel: An Advanced Material of the Ancient World. National Institute of Advanced Studies. OCLC 82439861.
- Ann Feuerbach, 'An investigation of the varied technology found in swords, sabres and blades from the Russian Northern Caucasus' IAMS 25 for 2005, pp. 27–43 (p. 29)
- Sharada Srinivasan (1994). "Wootz crucible steel: a newly discovered production site in South India". Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 5: 49–59. doi:10.5334/pia.60.
- Hobbies – Volume 68, Issue 5 – Page 45. Lghtner Publishing Company (1963)
- Mahathevan, Iravatham (24 June 2010). "An epigraphic perspective on the antiquity of Tamil". The Hindu (The Hindu Group). Retrieved 31 October 2010.
- Ragupathy, P (28 June 2010). "Tissamaharama potsherd evidences ordinary early Tamils among population". Tamilnet (Tamilnet). Retrieved 31 October 2010.
- Needham, Volume 4, Part 1, p. 282.
- Manning, Charlotte Speir. "Ancient and Mediæval India. Volume 2". ISBN 9780543929433.
- Juleff, G. (1996). "An ancient wind powered iron smelting technology in Sri Lanka". Nature 379 (3): 60–63. Bibcode:1996Natur.379...60J. doi:10.1038/379060a0.
- Herbert Henery Coghlan. (1977). Notes on prehistoric and early iron in the Old World. pp 99–100
- Sanderson, Katharine (2006-11-15). "Sharpest cut from nanotube sword". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news061113-11.
- Wayman, M L and Juleff, G (1999). "Crucible Steelmaking in Sri Lanka". Historical Metallurgy 33 (1): 26.
- Hartwell, Robert (966). "Markets, Technology and the Structure of Enterprise in the Development of the Eleventh Century Chinese Iron and Steel Industry". Journal of Economic History 26: 53–54.
- Tylecote, R. F. A history of metallurgy 2 edn, Institute of Materials, London 1992, pp. 95–99 and 102–105.
- Raistrick, A. A Dynasty of Ironfounders (1953; York 1989)
- Hyde, C. K. Technological Change and the British iron industry (Princeton 1977)
- Trinder, B. The Industrial Revolution in Shropshire (Chichester 2000)
- Barraclough, K. C. Steel before Bessemer: I Blister Steel: the birth of an industry (The Metals Society, London, 1984), pp. 48–52.
- King, P. W. (2003). "The Cartel in Oregrounds Iron: trading in the raw material for steel during the eighteenth century". Journal of Industrial History 6 (1): 25–49.
- "Iron and steel industry". Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007.
- K. C. Barraclough, Steel before Bessemer: II Crucible Steel: the growth of technology (The Metals Society, London, 1984).
- Swank, James Moore (1892). History of the Manufacture of Iron in All Ages. ISBN 0-8337-3463-6.
- Bessemer process 2. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005. p. 168.
- Basic oxygen process. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007.
- Jones, J.A.T. ; Bowman, B. and Lefrank, P.A. Electric Furnace Steelmaking, in The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel, pp. 525–660. R.J. Fruehan, Editor. 1998, The AISE Steel Foundation: Pittsburgh.
- "Steel Industry". Retrieved 2009-07-12.
- "Congressional Record V. 148, Pt. 4, April 11, 2002 to April 24, 2002". United States Government Printing Office.
- "India's steel industry steps onto world stage". Retrieved 2009-07-12.
- "Long-term planning needed to meet steel demand". The News. 2008-03-01. Archived from the original on 2010-11-02. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- Uchitelle, Louis (2009-01-01). "Steel Industry, in Slump, Looks to Federal Stimulus". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
- Hartman, Roy A. (2009). Recycling. Encarta. Archived from the original on 2008-04-14.
- Fenton, Michael D (2008). "Iron and Steel Scrap". In United States Geological Survey. Minerals Yearbook 2008, Volume 1: Metals and Minerals. Government Printing Office. ISBN 1411330153.
- "High strength low alloy steels". Schoolscience.co.uk. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
- "Dual-phase steel". Intota Expert Knowledge Services. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
- Werner, Ewald. "Transformation Induced Plasticity in low alloyed TRIP-steels and microstructure response to a complex stress history". Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
- Mirko, Centi; Saliceti Stefano. "Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP), Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) and Dual-Phase (DP) Steels". Tampere University of Technology. Archived from the original on 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
- Galvanic protection. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007.
- "Steel Glossary". American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Retrieved 2006-07-30.
- "Steel Interchange". American Institute of Steel Construction Inc. (AISC). Archived from the original on 2007-12-22. Retrieved 2007-02-28.
- "Properties of Maraging Steels". Retrieved 2009-07-19.
- Hadfield manganese steel. Answers.com. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
- Herkewitz, William (2015-02-04). "Scientists Invent a New Steel as Strong as Titanium ; South Korean researchers have solved a longstanding problem that stopped them from creating ultra-strong, lightweight aluminum-steel alloys". Popular Mechanics.
- "Wings of steel: An alloy of iron and aluminium is as good as titanium, at a tenth of the cost". The Economist. February 7, 2015. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Sang-Heon Kim, Hansoo Kim & Nack J. Kim (February 5, 2015). "Brittle intermetallic compound makes ultrastrong low-density steel with large ductility". Nature (Nature Publishing Group) 518: 77–79. doi:10.1038/nature14144. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
we show that an FeAl-type brittle but hard intermetallic compound (B2) can be effectively used as a strengthening second phase in high-aluminium low-density steel, while alleviating its harmful effect on ductility by controlling its morphology and dispersion.
- Bringas, John E. (2004). Handbook of Comparative World Steel Standards: Third Edition (PDF) (3rd. ed.). ASTM International. p. 14. ISBN 0-8031-3362-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-01-27.
- Steel Construction Manual, 8th Edition, second revised edition, American Institute of Steel Construction, 1986, ch. 1 page 1-5
- Ochshorn, Jonathan (2002-06-11). "Steel in 20th Century Architecture". Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Architecture. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- Materials science. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007.
- Ashby, Michael F.; Jones, David Rayner Hunkin (1992). An introduction to microstructures, processing and design. Butterworth-Heinemann.
- Bugayev, K.; Konovalov, Y.; Bychkov, Y.; Tretyakov, E.; Savin, Ivan V. (2001). Iron and Steel Production. The Minerva Group, Inc. ISBN 978-0-89499-109-7. Retrieved 2009-07-19..
- Degarmo, E. Paul; Black, J T.; Kohser, Ronald A. (2003). Materials and Processes in Manufacturing (9th ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0-471-65653-4.
- Gernet, Jacques (1982). A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Verein Deutscher Eisenhüttenleute (Ed.). Steel – A Handbook for Materials Research and Engineering, Volume 1: Fundamentals. Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg and Verlag Stahleisen, Düsseldorf 1992, 737 p. ISBN 3-540-52968-3, ISBN 3-514-00377-7.
- Verein Deutscher Eisenhüttenleute (Ed.). Steel – A Handbook for Materials Research and Engineering, Volume 2: Applications. Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg and Verlag Stahleisen, Düsseldorf 1993, 839 pages, ISBN 3-540-54075-X, ISBN 3-514-00378-5.
- Smith, William F.; Hashemi, Javad (2006). Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-295358-6.
- Mark Reutter, Making Steel: Sparrows Point and the Rise and Ruin of American Industrial Might (2005). Discussion with Mark Reutter, part 1 of 3 (February 2015), part 2 of 3 (February 2015), part 3 of 3 (March 2015), The Real News
- Duncan Burn, The Economic History of Steelmaking, 1867–1939: A Study in Competition. Cambridge University Press, 1961.
- Harukiyu Hasegawa, The Steel Industry in Japan: A Comparison with Britain. 1996.
- J. C. Carr and W. Taplin, History of the British Steel Industry. Harvard University Press, 1962.
- H. Lee Scamehorn, Mill & Mine: The Cf&I in the Twentieth Century. University of Nebraska Press, 1992.
- Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 1 & Part 3. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
- Warren, Kenneth, Big Steel: The First Century of the United States Steel Corporation, 1901–2001. University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Steel.|
|Look up steel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- World Steel Association (worldsteel)
- steeluniversity.org: Online steel education resources from worldsteel and the University of Liverpool
- Huge archive on steels, Cambridge University
- Cooking with Steels
- Metallurgy for the Non-Metallurgist from the American Society for Metals
- MATDAT Database of Properties of Unalloyed, Low-Alloy and High-Alloy Steels – obtained from published results of material testing
- News feature on "open hearth" steel workers at the U.S. Steel Fairless Mills near Philadelphia