Stefan George

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Stefan George
Stefan George, 1910.
Stefan George, 1910.
BornStefan Anton George
(1868-07-12)12 July 1868
Büdesheim, Grand Duchy of Hesse, German Empire
Died4 December 1933(1933-12-04) (aged 65)
Minusio, Ticino, Switzerland
Notable awardsGoethe Prize (1927)
From 1921 George spent his summers in the hills on the south-western edge of Frankfurt at this house in Königstein, where he was attended by his sister, Anna.

Stefan Anton George (German: [ˈʃtɛfan ˈʔantoːn ɡeˈ(ʔ)ɔʁɡə]; 12 July 1868 – 4 December 1933) was a German symbolist poet and a translator of Dante Alighieri, William Shakespeare, and Charles Baudelaire.


Early life[edit]

George was born in 1868 in Büdesheim (now part of Bingen am Rhein) in the Grand Duchy of Hesse (now part of Rhineland-Palatinate). His father, also Stefan George, was an inn keeper and wine merchant and his mother Eva (née Schmitt) was a homemaker. When Stefan was five years old, the family moved to Bingen am Rhein.[1]

According to Michael and Erika Metzger, both sides of the George family had lived in the area for generations and had risen from peasants, to millers, and finally to small town merchants.[2]

At the time, the Roman Catholic Church was very important to the daily life of Bingen and to the George family. Life revolved around the feast days of the Church Calendar. Furthermore, when Stefan's mother died, the oleander trees she had planted when she had married her husband were donated to the nuns of the nearby Rochusberg, which symbolized a returning of God's gifts to Him.[3]

After attending primary school in Bingen, Stefan was sent, at the age of thirteen, to one of the best secondary schools in the Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Ludwig-Georgs-Gymnasium in the Ducal Capitol of Darmstadt. There, from 1882 to 1888, Stefan, "received a vigorous humanistic education in which Greek, Latin, and French were stressed."[4]

Stefan "excelled in French" and gained "a thorough knowledge of modern European literature, as well as of the Greek and Roman authors."[5]

Although later described as a loner, Stefan assembled his first circle of friends in Darmstadt, where he had access to libraries and to the theater, which fascinated him. He also taught himself to read Norwegian in order to read the works of Henrik Ibsen in the original.[6]

At the age of nineteen, Stefan and a few other students of the Gymnasium started a literary journal called Rosen und Disteln ("Roses and Thistles"). In this magazine, George published his first poems under the pseudonym Edmund Delorme. Even though the Gymnasium emphasised the poetry of the German Romantics, George's first poems consisted of literary translations and imitations of Italian poets, such as Petrarch and Torquato Tasso. George taught himself Italian, in order to read and translate the Renaissance poets whom he revered.[7]


When his schooling was concluded in 1888, it was clear to Stefan and to his family that it would not work for him to follow the usual course into the university, business, or the German civil service. Instead, Stefan began to travel.[8]

He later told a friend, "Germany was intolerable then; just think of Nietzsche! I would have thrown a bomb if they had kept me here; or I would have perished like Nietzsche. My father was glad to get rid of me, for he sensed the danger."[9]

He spent time in London and in Paris, where he was among the writers and artists who attended the Tuesday soirées held by the poet Stéphane Mallarmé. His early travels also included Vienna, where during 1891 he met, for the first time, Hugo von Hofmannsthal.

George began to publish poetry during the 1890s, while in his twenties. He initiated and edited a literary magazine named Blätter für die Kunst [de], and was the main person of the literary and academic group known as the George-Kreis ("George-Circle"), which included some of the major, young writers of the time such as Friedrich Gundolf and Ludwig Klages. In addition to sharing cultural interests, the group promoted mystical and political themes. George knew and befriended the "Bohemian Countess" of Schwabing, Fanny zu Reventlow, who sometimes satirised the group for its melodramatic actions and opinions. George and his writings were identified with the Conservative Revolutionary philosophy. He was homosexual, yet exhorted his young friends to have a celibate life like his own.[10][11]

During 1914, at the start of the World War, George foretold a sad end for Germany, and between then and 1916 wrote the pessimistic poem "Der Krieg" ("The War"). The outcome of the war was the realization of his worst fears. In the 1920s, George despised the culture of Germany, particularly its bourgeois mentality and archaic church rites. He wished to create a new, noble German culture, and offered "form", regarded as a mental discipline and a guide to relationships with others, as an ideal while Germany was in a period of social, political, spiritual and artistic decadence.[12] George's poetry was discovered by the small but ascendant Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP), a precursor to Nazism, which had its roots in Bavaria. George's concepts of "the thousand year Reich" and "fire of the blood" were adopted by the NSDAP and incorporated into the party's propaganda. George would come to detest their racial theories, especially the notion of the “Nordic superman”.[13] After the assumption of power by the Nazis in 1933, Joseph Goebbels offered him the presidency of a new academy for the arts, which he refused. He also stayed away from celebrations prepared for his 65th birthday in July 1933. Instead he travelled to Switzerland, where he died near Locarno on 4 December 1933. After his death, his body was interred before a delegation from the German government could attend the ceremony.[14]


George's poetry is characterized by an aristocratic ethos; his verse is formal in style, lyrical in tone, and often arcane in language, being influenced by Greek classical forms, in revolt against the realist trend of German literature at the time. Believing that the purpose of poetry was an alternate to reality‍—‌he was a strong advocate of art for art's sake‍—‌George's products had many similarities with the French Symbolist style and he was in communication with many of its representatives, including Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine.

George was an important intermediary between the 19th century and German modernism, even though he was a harsh critic of the then modern era. He experimented with various poetic metres, punctuation, obscure allusions and typography. George's "evident homosexuality"[15] is represented by works such as Algabal and the love poetry he devoted to a gifted adolescent of his acquaintance named Maximilian Kronberger,[16] whom he called "Maximin", and whom he believed to be a manifestation of the divine. The relevance of George's sexuality to his poetic work has been discussed by contemporary critics, such as Thomas Karlauf and Marita Keilson-Lauritz.[17]

Algabal is one of George's best remembered collections of poetry, if also one of his strangest; the title is a reference to the effete Roman emperor Elagabalus. George was also an important translator; he translated Dante, Shakespeare and Baudelaire into German.

George was awarded the Goethe Prize during 1927.[18]

Das neue Reich[edit]

George's last complete book of poems, Das neue Reich ("The New Realm"), was published in 1928. It was banned in Occupied Germany after World War II, as the title sounded tainted by Nazism. But George had dedicated the work, which includes the lyric Geheimes Deutschland ("Secret Germany") written in 1922, to Berthold Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg, who, with his brother Claus, took a leading role in the 20 July plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler and overthrow the Nazi Party.[19] Both brothers, who were executed after the plot failed, had considered themselves to be acting on the teachings of the George-Circle by trying to kill Hitler.[20] The book describes a new form of society ruled by a hierarchical spiritual aristocracy. George rejected all attempts to use it for mundane political purposes, including those of National Socialism.


In a view inspired by the German Romantic poets and the French Symbolist, George and his followers saw him as the monarch of a separate government of Germany, composed of his intellectual and artistic disciples, bonded by their faithfulness to "The Master" and to a common vision. In his memoirs, Albert Speer claims to have met George during the early 1920s and that his elder brother, Hermann, was an acquaintance of his: George "radiated dignity and pride and a kind of priestliness... there was something magnetic about him."[21]

George's poetry emphasized self-sacrifice, heroism, and power, which won him the approval of the National Socialists. Though many Nazis claimed George as an influence, George remained aloof from such associations. Soon after the Nazi seizure of power, George left Germany for Switzerland where he died the same year.[19]

Some of the members of the 20 July plot against Hitler were drawn from among his devotees, notably the Stauffenberg brothers who were introduced to George by the poet and classical scholar Albrecht von Blumenthal.[19] Although some members of the George circle were avowedly anti-semitic (for example, Klages), the Circle also included Jewish authors such as Gundolf, the historian Ernst Kantorowicz, the Zionist Karl Wolfskehl, and Erich Berger. George was fond of his Jewish disciples, but he expressed reservations about their ever becoming a majority in the group.

George's influence on Kantorowicz was decisive in the latter's publication of his controversial study of Emperor Frederick II in 1927. The book's account of Frederick II and his "dynamic personality and ability to shape the Empire according to a higher vision seemed to sum up the aspirations of the George circle." George is even reported to have "carefully corrected" the manuscript and saw that it was published.[22]

One of George's most well known collaborators was Hugo von Hofmannsthal, a leading literary modernist in the Austria-Hungarian Empire. Hofmannsthal, however, refused membership in the group. Later in life, Hofmannsthal wrote that no one had influenced him more than George. Those closest to the "Master," as George had his disciples call him, included several members of the 20 July plot to assassinate Hitler, among them Claus von Stauffenberg himself. Stauffenberg frequently quoted George's poem Der Widerchrist (The Anti-Christ)[23] to his fellow members of the 20 July plot.[24]

George's poetry was a major influence on the music of the Second Viennese School of composers, particularly during their Expressionist period. Arnold Schoenberg set George's poetry in such works as "Ich darf nicht dankend", Op. 14/1 (1907), String Quartet No. 2, Op. 10 (1908), and The Book of the Hanging Gardens, Op. 15 (1909), while his student Anton Webern made use of George's verse for his early choral work Entflieht auf leichten Kähnen, Op. 2, as well as in two sets of songs, Opp. 3 and 4 of 1909, and in several posthumously published vocal works from the same period.

In popular culture[edit]

In Rainer Werner Fassbinder's 1976 movie Satansbraten the protagonist Walter Kranz attempts to model his life on that of George.


  • 1890: Hymnen ("Hymns"), 18 poems written reflecting Symbolism; dedicated to Carl August Klein; limited, private edition[25]
  • 1891: Pilgerfahrten ("Pilgrimages") limited, private edition.[25]
  • 1892: Algabal (1892); illustrated by Melchior Lechter; limited, private edition.[25]
  • 1897: Das Jahr der Seele ("The Year of the Soul").[25]
  • 1899: Teppich des Lebens ("The Tapestry of Life").[25]
  • 1900: Hymnen, Pilgerfahrten, and Algabal, a one-volume edition published in Berlin by Georg Bondi which first made George's work available to the public at large.[25]
  • 1901: Die Fibel ("Primer"), poems written from 1886–1889.[25]
  • 1903: Tage und Taten ("Days and Works"; cf. Hesiod's Works and Days).[25]
  • 1907: Der siebente Ring ("The Seventh Ring").[25]
  • 1913: Der Stern des Bundes ("The Star of the Covenant")[25]
  • 1917: Der Krieg ("The War").[25]
  • 1928: Das neue Reich ("The Kingdom Come").[25]


  1. ^ Michael and Erika Metzger (1972), Stefan George, Twayne's World Authors Series. Page 13.
  2. ^ Michael and Erika Metzger (1972), Stefan George, Twayne's World Authors Series. Page 13.
  3. ^ Michael and Erika Metzger (1972), Stefan George, Twayne's World Authors Series. Page 14.
  4. ^ Michael and Erika Metzger (1972), Stefan George, Twayne's World Authors Series. Pages 14-15.
  5. ^ Michael and Erika Metzger (1972), Stefan George, Twayne's World Authors Series. Page 15.
  6. ^ Michael and Erika Metzger (1972), Stefan George, Twayne's World Authors Series. Page 15.
  7. ^ Michael and Erika Metzger (1972), Stefan George, Twayne's World Authors Series. Page 15.
  8. ^ Michael and Erika Metzger (1972), Stefan George, Twayne's World Authors Series. Pages 17-18.
  9. ^ Michael and Erika Metzger (1972), Stefan George, Twayne's World Authors Series. Page 18.
  10. ^ Boehringer, Robert. Mein Bild von Stefan George. München, Düsseldorf: Helmut Küpper vormals Georg Bondi Verlag, 1967. pp. 126–127
  11. ^ Thomas Karlauf: Stefan George. Die Entdeckung des Charisma. Blessing, München 2007. ISBN 978-3-89667-151-6
  12. ^ Kramarz, Joachim (1967). Stauffenberg: The Architect of the Famous July 20th Conspiracy to Assassinate Hitler. Macmillan. p. 29.
  13. ^ Jeffers, Bill. "Claus von Stauffenberg: Hero or Traitor?" (PDF).
  14. ^ Robert E. Norton, Secret Germany: Stefan George and his Circle (Cornell University Press, 2002)
  15. ^ Robert E. Norton, Secret Germany: Stefan George and his Circle (Cornell University Press, 2002) page 354
  16. ^ Palmer, Craig B. (2002), "George, Stefan",, retrieved 2007-11-23.
  17. ^ See for example, Marita Keilson-Lauritz, "Ubergeschlechtliche Liebe: Stefan George's Concept of Love" (Rieckmann, ed A Companion to the Works of Stefan George (Camden House, 2005)
  18. ^ "Stefan George, 65, German poet, dies". New York Times. 5 December 1933. p. 23.
  19. ^ a b c "The secret society that inspired a Nazi officer's attempt to kill Hitler". Retrieved 2020-06-25.
  20. ^ Herbert Ammon: Vom Geist Georges zur Tat Stauffenbergs - Manfred Riedels Rettung des Reiches, in: Iablis 2007 at
  21. ^ Speer, Albert, author. Inside The Third Reich. ISBN 978-1-4746-0338-6. OCLC 935680842.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ Monod, Paul (2005-08-01). "Reading the Two Bodies of Ernst Kantorowicz". Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook. 50 (1): 105–123. doi:10.3167/007587405781998534. ISSN 0075-8744.
  23. ^ George, Stefan. "The Anti-Christ". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  24. ^ Joachim Fest, Plotting Hitler's Death: The Story of the German Resistance, Metropolitan Books, 1994. Page 216.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Stefan George, Poems, Trans. & Ed. Carol North Valhope and Ernst Morwitz. (New York: Pantheon, 1946).

Further reading[edit]

  • Breuer, Stefan (1996). Ästhetischer Fundamentalismus: Stefan George und der deutsche Antimodernismus. Darmstadt: Primus.
  • Capetanakis, D., 'Stefan George', in Demetrios Capetanakis A Greek Poet In England (1947), p. 72–89
  • Frank, Lore & Sabine Ribbeck (2000). Stefan-George-Bibliographie 1976–1997. Mit Nachträgen bis 1976. Auf der Grundlage der Bestände des Stefan-George-Archivs in der Württembergischen Landesbibliothek. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
  • Goldsmith, Ulrich (1951). Stefan George and the theatre. New York: The Modern Language Association (PLMA Publications LXVI:2).
  • Goldsmith, Ulrich (1959). Stefan George: A study of his early work. Boulder: University of Colorado Press (University of Colorado Studies Series in Language and Literature 7).
  • Goldsmith, Ulrich (1970). Stefan George. New York: Columbia University Press (Essays on Modern Writers).
  • Goldsmith, Ulrich (1974). Shakespeare and Stefan George: The sonnets. Berne: Franke.
  • Kluncker, Karlhans (1985). "Das geheime Deutschland": Über Stefan George und seinen Kreis. Bonn: Bouvier (Abhandlungen zur Kunst-, Musik- und Literaturwissenschaft 355).
  • Norton, Robert E. (2002). Secret Germany: Stefan George and his Circle. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Norton, Robert E. (2010). "Wozu Stefan George?" WestEnd. Neue Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung, 7. Jg., Heft 2, : 133–141.
  • Schmitz, Victor (1978). Stefan George und Rainer Maria Rilke: Gestaltung und Verinnerlichung. Berne: Wild.
  • Rieckmann, Jens (ed.) (2005). A Companion to the Works of Stefan George. Camden House.
  • Lacchin, Giancarlo (2006). Stefan George e l'antichità. Lineamenti di una filosofia dell'arte. Lugano: University Words.
  • Schefold, Bertram. (2011). Politische Ökonomie als Geisteswissenschaft. Edgar Salin und andere Ökonomen um Stefan George, in Studien zur Entwicklung der ökonomischen Theorie, XXVI. Edited by Harald Hagemann, Duncker & Humblot
  • Lerner, Robert E. (2017). Ernst Kantorowicz: A Life, for George's relationship with his pupil Kantorowicz.

External links[edit]