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Steller's sea cow

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Steller's sea cow
The body is oblong. On the left end is the head which is slightly smaller than the body, with a dot for an eye near the top. Just behind the head on the underside is an arm that bends back towards the tail. The tail is drawn sideways like that of a fish to show the knotch, and the top half of the tail is shaded darker than the bottom half.
Drawing of a dead female published by Peter Simon Pallas in 1840, thought to be the only one drawn from an actual specimen[1]

Extinct  (1768) (IUCN 3.1)[2]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Sirenia
Family: Dugongidae
Subfamily: Hydrodamalinae
Genus: Hydrodamalis
Species: H. gigas
Zimmermann, 1780
The triangular Kamchatka Peninsula to the left, and on the right half are the small Bering Island, which is rectangular and slanted left, and Copper Island, which is also rectungular and slanted left but smaller than Bering Island
Map showing the position of the Commander Islands to the east of Kamchatka. The larger island to the west is Bering Island; the smaller island to the east is Copper Island.

The Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) is an extinct species of sirenian that was found exclusively around the Commander Islands, which is situated in the Bering Sea between Alaska and Russia. Its closest relative is the dugong (Dugong dugon), which is the sole surviving member of the Dugongidae of which the Steller's sea cow was also a part of. They were among the largest mammals other than whales to have existed into the Holocene epoch, reaching weights of 8–10 metric tons (8.8–11.0 short tons) and lengths of 9 metres (30 ft).

The Steller's sea cow was the largest of all sirenians, and had a much thicker epidermis in response to the cold waters of its environment. They were monogamous and gregarious, living in small family groups. They fed solely on kelp. They were slow swimmers. Like other sirenians, they probably cared for their young.

Georg Wilhelm Steller had discovered the Steller's sea cow along with the Commander Islands in 1741 on Vitus Bering's Great Northern Expedition where they were shipwrecked, and much of what is known about the sea cow in life comes from Steller's account on the island documented in his posthumous publication "The Beasts of the Sea". Within 27 years of discovery by Europeans, the slow-moving and easily captured Steller's sea cow was hunted to extinction, though there were sightings proceeding 1768. They feature a role in various media, such as in Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book.


The Steller's sea cow grew to be 8 to 9 m (26 to 30 ft) in length as an adult, much larger than the extant sirenians of today;[5] however, concerning their weight, Georg Steller's work contains two contradictory estimates: 4 and 24.3 metric tons (4.4 and 26.8 short tons). The true value is estimated to lie between these figures, at about 8–10 metric tons (8.8–11.0 short tons),[6] making it one of the largest mammals of the Holocene, besides whales.[7] Their large size was probably to reduce their surface-area-to-volume ratio and conserve heat. The forelimbs, according to Steller, were used as a sort of holdfast to anchor themselves down to prevent being swept away by the strong nearshore waves around their habitat. In all collected skeletons, the manus is missing. Unlike other sirenians, the Steller's sea cow was positively buoyant, meaning they could not completely submerge. They had a thick epidermis to prevent injury from abrasions on sharp rocks and ice, and possibly to prevent the skin that was not submerged from drying out.[8][9]

The skull has a hole on the snout, large eye-sockets on either side, and flattens out on the top. There are no teeth visible.
The skull of a Steller's sea cow

Its head was small and short compared to the huge body. The upper lip was large and broad, and extended so far beyond the mandible, that the mouth appeared to be located underneath the skull. Instead of teeth, the Steller's sea cow had a dense array of white bristles, 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) long, which were used to pull out seaweed and hold food,[10] and used keratinous plates for chewing.[11] According to Steller, these plates, or "masticatory bones", were held together by papillae and had many small holes for nerves and arteries.[10] The rostrum was pointed downwards, as in all sirenians, to better grasp kelp.[12]

The nostrils were 5.1 centimetres (2 in) long and wide, and located at the tip of the rostrum. The small eyes were parallel to the nostrils, halfway between them and the ears, and, like other sirenians, they used sphincters to close their eyes as opposed to eyelids.[13] The irises were black, the eyeball was livid, and the canthi were not visible externally. Like other diving creatures, such as the sea otters, the Steller's sea cow had a nictitating membrane which covered the eye to prevent injury while feeding. Their tongue was rough with short papillae; it was 30 centimetres (12 in) long and kept in the back of the mouth.[10]


There are two large, oval-shaped plates with a ridge running down the middle, and grooves running diagonally from either side of the ridge. There are many bristles of varying sizes and widths, but all are stiff at the base and taper out at the end. There are several small rectangular teeth with numerous holes in them.
Illustrations of the dentition of the Steller's sea cow by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber

Whether or not Steller's sea cows had any predators is unknown. They may have been hunted by killer whales and sharks, but their buoyancy may have made it difficult for killer whales to drown them, and the rocky kelp forests may have protected them from sharks. According to Steller, the young were guarded by the adults from predators.[14] Steller described an ectoparasite on the Steller's sea cow which was similar to the whale louse (Cyamus ovalis); however the parasite remains unidentified as the host has gone extinct and the original specimens he had collected are lost.[15] Apparently, these parasites were picked off the sea cows by seagulls in a symbiotic relationship.[10]

Like other sirenians, the Steller's sea cow was an obligate herbivore, and kelp was most likely their main food source. They may have also fed on seagrasses, but this could not have been a main food source for supporting a viable population, because grasses did not occur in sufficient quantity. Since this animal floated, it most likely fed on canopy kelp. Kelp releases a chemical deterrent to prevent grazing, but canopy kelp release a lower concentration, allowing the sea cows to graze without developing resistance.[16][17] Steller noted that they get thin during the frigid winters, indicating a period of fasting.[10]

Steller described the sea cows as being gregarious and highly social. He stated that they lived in small family groups and helped injured members. The Steller's sea cow was apparently monogamous. Steller noted that, after a hunt wherein they had captured a female, her mate followed the boat to shore, even after she died. The group also attacked the boat while the female was being taken. Gestation took place in a little over a year, and calves, although they could have been born year-round, were delivered usually in autumn; females probably had one calf at a time. They may have exhibited childcare. To sleep, they went further out to sea to prevent beaching themselves when the tides recede.[10]


Relations within Sirenia



H. schinzii

H. alleni


D. jordani

D. reinharti

D. dewana

D. takasatensis


H. gigas

H. cuestae

H. spissa


Dugong dugon


Trichechus inunguis

Trichechus manatus

Trichechus senegalensis

Based on a 2004 study by Hitoshi Furusawa[18]

The Steller's sea cow was a direct descendant of the Cuesta sea cow,[19] an extinct tropical sea cow of California. It most likely went extinct due to the onset of the Ice Ages and the subsequent cooling of the oceans; lineages which could not adapt died out, and those that could started the lineage of the Steller's sea cow.[20] The Steller's sea cow was a member of the genus Hydrodamalis, a group of large sirenians, whose sister taxon was Dusisiren. Much like the Steller's sea cow, the ancestors of the Dusisiren were associated with tropical mangroves, and adapted to the cold climates of the North Pacific and to consuming kelp.[21] The Steller's sea cow is a member of the order Sirenia along with other sea cows, and of the family Dugongidae, whose sole surviving member, and thus closest living relative, is the dugong (Dugong dugon).[22]

Steller's sea cow was discovered in the mid-18th century by Georg Wilhelm Steller, and subsequently named after him; Steller studied the local wildlife of Bering Island, including a relict population of sea cows, sea otters, Steller's sea lion, and the Northern fur seal, while he was shipwrecked there.[23] His account was written in his posthumous publication De bestiis marinis, or "The Beasts of the Sea", which was published by the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg, Russia in 1751.[10] In 1811, naturalist Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger placed the Steller's sea cow under the genus Rhytina, which many writers at the time adopted. However, the animal had already been classified long before this. Zoologist Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann had described its specific name as gigas in 1780, and biologist Anders Jahan Retzius, 17 years before Illiger had described the sea cow as Rhytina, placed it under the genus Hydrodamalis. He, however, described its specific name as stelleri, as Steller was the first person to describe it. It was not until the 1900s that Hydrodamalis gigas was used.[4]

For decades after their discovery, no osteological evidence, that is skeletal remains, of the existence of the Steller's sea cow was discovered. The first Steller's sea cow bones were unearthed around 1840, over 70 years after they were presumed extinct. The first partial skull was discovered in 1844 by Ilya Voznesensky after spending two days in the Commander Islands, and the first skeleton in 1855 in northern Bering Island. It was sent to the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg in 1857, and another nearly complete skeleton arrived in Moscow around 1860. Most of the skeletal remains were unearthed in the late 1800s; in the period between 1878 and 1883, 12 of the 22 skeletons (with a known time of collection) were discovered. Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, Benedykt Dybowski, and Leonhard Hess Stejneger unearthed many large bones during this time period, from which complete skeletons were erected. Towards the end of the 1800s, Steller's sea cow specimens were valuable objects, and could be sold to museums for high prices. Collection died down in the 1900s, with many bones that were being sold commercially probably not actually belonging to a Steller's sea cow specimen. As of 2006, 27 nearly complete skeletons and 62 complete skulls exist.[9]


The Sea of Okhosk with the Kamchatka Peninsula to the left and Bering Island near the bottom. Above Bering Island and to the right of Russia are illustrations of the Steller's sea cow and Steller's sea lion. For the sea cow, the body is oblong. On the left end is the head which is slightly smaller than the body, with a dot for an eye near the top. Just behind the head on the underside is an arm that bends back towards the tail. The tail is drawn sideways like that of a fish to show the knotch, and the top half of the tail is shaded darker than the bottom half. For the sea lion, the back end of it is parallel to the ground, and the front end is perpendicular to the ground. The ears are thin and long. They have a thick neck, and a smashed-in face with the nose protruding. The front flipper is shaped like that of a dolphin, and drawn perpendicular to the ground, bending back towards the back-end. The back flipper is rectangular with four grooves parallel to each other on it.
A map of the Commander Islands including illustrations of Steller's sea cow and Steller's sea lion by a crew member of Vitus Bering's Great Northern Expedition (1744)

Their range at the time of their discovery was apparently restricted to the Commander Islands, which consists mainly of Bering Island and Copper Island,[24] and remained uninhabited until the Russian-American Company relocated Aleuts from namely Attu Island and Atka Island to hunt sea otters.[25] The first fossils discovered outside the Commander Islands were interglacial Pleistocene deposits in Amchitka,[12] and further fossils dating to the late Pleistocene that were found in Monterey Bay, California, Honshu, Japan, and Amchitka, Alaska suggest that their range was much more expansive in prehistoric times.[9][26][27] According to Steller, they often resided in the shallow, sandy shorelines and in the mouths of freshwater rivers.[10]

Bones fragments and accounts by native Aleut people indicate that sea cows also inhabited the Near Islands during historic times,[28] possibly with viable populations in the western Aleutian Islands that were in contact with humans prior to their initial discovery by Steller. A sea cow rib discovered in 1998 on Kiska Island was dated to around 1,000 years old, and is now in the possession of the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture in Seattle, Washington. The dating may be skewed due to the marine reservoir effect; the large reserves of C14 in the oceans cause radiocarbon dated marine creatures to appear much older than they actually are by several hundred years, so it is much more likely that the animal died between 1710 and 1785.[29] One study in 2004 reported sea cow bones discovered in Adak Island and Buldir Island of the western Aleutian Islands found to be around 1,700 and 1,600 years old, respectively,[30] however these bones may be from cetaceans.[29] According to Lucien Turner, a late 1800s American ethnologist and naturalist, the sea cows of the Near Islands, based on interviews with the natives of Attu Island, survived into the 1800s, and were hunted from time to time by the natives.[29] One sighting after 1768 includes one made by a passenger in the Nordenskiöld Archipelago whilst on board the Kruzenshtern's world voyage between 1803 and 1806.[31]

Extinction and sightings[edit]

The Steller's sea cow was quickly wiped out by the sailors, seal hunters, and maritime fur traders who followed Vitus Bering's route past the islands to Alaska, and hunted it for its meat before sailing to nearby islands in search of sea otter pelts.[32] When the crew of the Great Northern Expedition were stranded om Bering Island, they hunted the Steller's sea cow with relative ease; because of their large size, the challenge was hauling the animal back to shore. Their success inspired maritime fur traders on their North Pacific expeditions to stop by the Commander Islands and restock their food supply by hunting sea cows.[12] It was also hunted for its valuable subcutaneous fat, which was not only used for food (usually as a butter substitute), but also for oil lamps because it did not give off any smoke or odor and could be kept for a long time in warm weather without spoiling. By 1768, 27 years after it had been discovered by Europeans, Steller's sea cow was extinct.[2][26][33] It is possible that the extinction of these remaining endangered populations of sea cow could have been induced solely by the hunting of the sea cow for meat by fur-trading mariners of the time, and no other factors need have contributed.[7]

It has been argued that the Steller's sea cow's decline may have also been an indirect response to the harvest of sea otters by aboriginal people from the inland areas. With the otters reduced, the population of sea urchins would have increased and reduced availability of kelp, the sea cow's primary source of food.[17] Thus, aboriginal hunting of both species may have contributed to the sea cow's disappearance from continental shorelines.[26] In historic times, though, aboriginal hunting had depleted sea otter populations only in localized areas.[26] The sea cow would have been easy prey for aboriginal hunters, who would likely have exterminated accessible populations with or without simultaneous otter hunting. In any event, the sea cow was limited to coastal areas off islands without a human population by the time Bering arrived, and was already endangered.[34][7] Stejneger estimated in 1887 that there had been fewer than 1,500 individuals remaining at the time of their discovery, and thus had been in immediate danger of extinction.[2]

In 1963 the Russian magazine Priroda (Nature), official journal of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, published an article reporting a possible sighting. In 1962 the whaling ship Buran had reported a group of large marine mammals in shallow water in Cape Navarin off Kamchatka, grazing on seaweed. The crew reported seeing a small group of six large animals ranging from 6 to 8 metres (20 to 26 ft), with trunks and split lips. There have also been reports from local fishermen in the northern Kuril Islands, and around the Kamchatka and Chukchi peninsulas.[35][36][37] These possible sightings may be attributed to large arctic marine mammals, such as the narwhal (Monodon monoceros) and the Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris).[31]

Portrayals in media[edit]

On slightly yellow paper using black ink, there is Kotick the white seal with his arms protruding straight up out of the water. He is facing a sea cow who is darkly shaded, has large nostrils, small eyes, stocky body, and covered in seaweed. Behind Kotick is another sea cow who is eating seaweed, and in the background there are many other sea cows. One of the sea cows is sticking their tail out of the water, which resembles that of a dolphin. The coastline is visible to the right
Kotick the white seal talking to sea cows in Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book (1895)

Kotick the rare white seal, on his journey to find a new home and escape hunters, consults Sea Cow in the story The White Seal contained in The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling, which takes place in the Bering Sea.[38]

In Jules Verne's 1870 novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, the travelers in Captain Nemo's fictional submarine Nautilus encounter various sirenians during their journey. He describes them as being manatees, although he states that they weigh 5,000 kilograms (11,000 lb) each,[39] which far exceeds the weight of the largest manatee, a West Indian manatee, on record at 1,655 kilograms (3,650 lb).[40] Nemo also makes it a point that the sirenians are scarce due to hunting, yet harpoonist Ned Land kills the animal to eat it.[39]

Tales of a Sea Cow is a 2012 film by Icelandic-French artist Etienne de France "documenting" a fictional 2006 re-discovery by scientists of a population of Steller's sea cows off the coast of Greenland via sound recordings and their calls.[41] This film has been exhibited in public institutions such as art museums and universities in Europe.[42] Art critic Annick Bureaud found the film a "tongue in cheek and joyous but unsettling fable".[43]

The Steller's sea cow appears in two books of poetry: Species Evanescens by Russian poet Andrei Bronnikov, and Nach der Natur by Winfried Georg Sebald. In Bronnikov's book, he depicts the events of the Great Northern Expedition in which the Steller's sea cow was discovered through the eyes of Steller.[44] Sebald's book looks at the conflict between man and nature as seen through the eyes of Steller and the extinction of the Steller's sea cow, the German Renaissance painter Matthias Grünewald, and himself.[45]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas): The Pallas Picture". Retrieved 22 January 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Domning, D.; Anderson, P.K.; Turvey, S. (2008). "Hydrodamalis gigas". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 19 August 2016. 
  3. ^ Wilson, Don E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 1 (2 ed.). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. 
  4. ^ a b Palmer, Theodore S. (1895). "The Earliest Name for Steller's sea cow and Dugong". Science. 2 (40): 449–450. doi:10.1126/science.2.40.449-a. PMID 17759916. 
  5. ^ Helene 2011, p. 21.
  6. ^ Scheffer, Victor B. (November 1972). "The Weight of the Steller Sea Cow". Journal of Mammalogy. 53 (4): 912–914. doi:10.2307/1379236. JSTOR 1379236. 
  7. ^ a b c Turvey, S. T.; Risley, C. L. (2006). "Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow". Biology Letters. 2 (1): 94–7. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0415. PMC 1617197Freely accessible. PMID 17148336. 
  8. ^ Helene 2011, p. 24.
  9. ^ a b c Mattioli, Stefano; Domning, Daryl P. (2006). "An Annotated List of Extant Skeletal Material of Steller's Sea Cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) (Sirenia: Dugongidae) from the Commander Islands". Aquatic Mammals. 32 (3): 273–288. doi:10.1578/AM.32.3.2006.273. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Steller, Georg W. (2011) [1751]. "The Manatee". In Miller, Walter. De Bestiis Marinis. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska. pp. 13–43. ISBN 978-1-295-08525-5. 
  11. ^ Perrin, William F.; Wursig, Bernd; Thewissen, J. G. M. (2008). Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (2nd ed.). San Diego, California: Academic Press. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-12-373553-9. 
  12. ^ a b c Whitmore Jr., Frank C.; Gard, Jr., L. M. (1977). "Steller's Sea Cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) of Late Pleistocene Age from Amchitka, Aleutian Islands, Alaska" (PDF). Geological Survey Professional Paper. Washington D. C.: United States Government Printing Office. 1036: 9. 
  13. ^ Evans, Peter G. H.; Raga, Juan Antonio (2001). Marine Mammals: Biology and Conservation. New York, New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-306-46573-4. 
  14. ^ Helene 2011, p. 31.
  15. ^ Loker, Eric; Hofkin, Bruce (2015). Parasitology: A Conceptual Approach. New York, New York: Taylor and Francis Group. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-8153-4473-5. 
  16. ^ Helene 2011, p. 32.
  17. ^ a b Estes, James A.; Burdin, Alexander; Doak, Daniel F. (2016). "Sea otters, kelp forests, and the extinction of Steller's sea cow". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (4): 880–885. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113..880E. doi:10.1073/pnas.1502552112. PMC 4743786Freely accessible. PMID 26504217. 
  18. ^ Furusawa, Hitoshi (2004). "A phylogeny of the North Pacific Sirenia (Dugongidae: Hydrodamalinae) based on a comparative study of endocranial casts". Paleontological Research. 8 (2): 91–98. doi:10.2517/prpsj.8.91. 
  19. ^ Helene 2011, p. 76.
  20. ^ Domning, Daryl P. (1978). "An Ecological Model for Late Tertiary Sirenian Evolution in the North Pacific Ocean". Systematic Zoology. 25 (4): 352–362. JSTOR 2412510. 
  21. ^ Domning, D. P. (1978). Sirenian evolution in the North Pacific Ocean. 118. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences. pp. 1–176. ISBN 978-0-520-09581-6. 
  22. ^ Marsh, Helene. "Chapter 57: Dugongidae". Fauna of Australia (PDF). 1B. CSIRO. ISBN 978-0-644-06056-1. 
  23. ^ Frost, Orcutt William (2003). "Shipwreck and Survival". Bering: The Russian Discovery of America. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-300-10059-4. 
  24. ^ "Komandor Islands". Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  25. ^ Derbeneva, Olga A.; Sukernik, Rem I.; Volodko, Natalia V.; Hosseini, Seyed H.; Lott, Marie T.; Wallace, Douglas C. (2002). "Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Aleuts of the Commander Islands and Its Implications for the Genetic History of Beringia". American Journal of Human Genetics. 71 (2): 415–421. doi:10.1086/341720. PMC 379174Freely accessible. 
  26. ^ a b c d Anderson, Paul K. (July 1995). "Competition, Predation, and the Evolution and Extinction of Steller's Sea Cow, Hydrodamalis gigas". Marine Mammal Science. Society for Marine Mammalogy. 11 (3): 391–394. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1995.tb00294.x. 
  27. ^ MacDonald, Stephen O.; Cook, Joseph A. (2009). Recent Mammals of Alaska. University of Alaska Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-1-60223-047-7. 
  28. ^ Corbett, D. G.; Causey, D.; Clemente, M.; Koch, P. L.; Doroff, A.; Lefavre, C.; West, D. (2008). "Aleut Hunters, Sea Otters, and Sea Cows". Human Impacts on Ancient Marine Ecosystems. University of California Press. pp. 43–76. ISBN 978-0-520-93429-0. JSTOR 10.1525/j.ctt1pphh3. 
  29. ^ a b c Domning, Daryl P.; Thomason, James; Corbett, Debra G. (2007). "Steller's sea cow in the Aleutian Islands". Marine Mammal Science. 23 (4): 976–983. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2007.00153.x. 
  30. ^ Savinetsky, A. B.; Kiseleva, N. K.; Khassanov, B. F. (2004). "Dynamics of sea mammaland bird populations of the Bering Sea region over the last several millennia". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 209 (1–4): 335–352. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2004.02.009. 
  31. ^ a b Eberhart, G. H. (2002). Mysterious Creatures: A Guide to Cryptozoology. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 519. ISBN 978-1-57607-283-7. 
  32. ^ Haycox, Stephen W. (2002). Alaska: An American Colony. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press. pp. 55, 144. ISBN 978-0-295-98249-6. 
  33. ^ Jones, Ryan T. (September 2011). "A 'Havock Made among Them': Animals, Empire, and Extinction in the Russian North Pacific, 1741–1810". Environmental History. 16 (4): 585–609. doi:10.1093/envhis/emr091. JSTOR 23049853. 
  34. ^ Ellis, Richard (2004). No Turning Back: The Life and Death of Animal Species. New York, New York: Harper Perennial. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-06-055804-8. 
  35. ^ Berzin, A. A.; Tikhomirov, E. A.; Troinin, V. I. (2007) [1963]. Translated by Ricker, W. E.. "Ischezla li Stellerova korova?" [Was Steller's sea cow exterminated?] (PDF). Priroda. 52 (8): 73–75. 
  36. ^ Bertram, C.; Bertram, K. (1964). "Does the "extinct" sea cow survive?". New Scientist. 24 (415): 313. 
  37. ^ Silverberg, R. (1973). The Dodo, the Auk and the Oryx. London, United Kingdom: Puffin Books. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-14-030619-4. 
  38. ^ Kipling, Rudyard (1894). "The White Seal". The Jungle Book. ISBN 978-0-585-00499-0. 
  39. ^ a b Vernes, J. (1872) [1870]. "Arabian Tunnel". Vingt mille lieues sous les mers [Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea]. Voyages Extraordinaires. Pierre-Jules Hetzel. ISBN 978-1-85326-031-5. 
  40. ^ Wood, G. L. (1983). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats (3rd ed.). Sterling Pub Co Inc. ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9. 
  41. ^ "Tales of a Sea Cow (2012)". IMDb. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  42. ^ "Etienne de France, "Tales of a Sea Cow" — Exhibition at Parco Arte Vivente, Torino, Italy". 
  43. ^ Bureaud, Annick. "Tales of a Sea Cow: A Fabulatory Science Story" (PDF). Retrieved August 19, 2016. 
  44. ^ Species Evanescens (Russian Edition). ASIN 9079625027. 
  45. ^ Sebald, W. G. "Nach der Natur Sebald" (in German). Hanser Literaturverlage. Retrieved 19 January 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]