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Temporal range: ToarcianCallovian
~183–163 Ma
Macrospondylus bollensis Holzmaden.jpg
Steneosaurus bollensis, Holzmaden Germany
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Suborder: Thalattosuchia
Family: Teleosauridae
Genus: Steneosaurus
Geoffroy 1825
  • S. baroni Newton 1893
  •  ?S. bollensis (Jaeger 1828)
  • S. boutilieri Eudes-Deslongchamps 1869
  •  ?S. brevior Blake in Tate and Blake 1876
  • S. edwardsi (Eudes-Deslongchamps 1868)
  •  ?S. gracilirostris Westphal 1961
  • S. heberti Morel de Glasville 1876
  • S. larteti (Eudes-Deslongchamps 1868)
  •  ?S. leedsi Andrews 1909
  •  ?S. megistorhynchus (Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire in Eudes-Deslongchamps 1869)
  • S. pictaviensis Vignaud 1998
  • S. rostromajor Geoffey Saint Hilaire 1825 (type)

Steneosaurus is an extinct genus of teleosaurid crocodyliform from the Early Jurassic to Middle Jurassic (Toarcian to Callovian). Fossil specimens have been found in England, France, Germany, Switzerland and Morocco. The largest species, S. heberti, reached up to 5 metres (16 ft) in length, though 2.5 to 3.5 metres (8.2 to 11.5 ft) was more common.[1]


S. durobrivensis skull

Species in this genus are traditionally classed into two skull groups: longirostrine (long, narrow jaws) and brevirostrine (short, broad jaws).

  • S. brevior - Toarcian Alum Shale of England
  • S. edwardsi - Callovian Marnes de Dives Formation, Le Wast and Les Lourdines in France and Oxford Clay of England
  • S. rostrominor Saint-Hilaire 1825 - Callovian Vaches Noires cliffs of France

Additional Steneosaurus fossils not attributed to a specific genus have been found in:

Reassigned species[edit]

  • Steneosaurus bouchardi Sauvage 1872
  • Steneosaurus deslongchampsianus (Lennier 1887)[10]
  • Steneosaurus megarhinus (Hulke 1871) = Bathysuchus[11][12]
  • Steneosaurus obtusidens Andrews 1909 = Lemmysuchus

Evolutionary relationships[edit]

A 2005 phylogenetic analysis into the evolutionary relationships of Thalattosuchia did not support the monophyly of Steneosaurus, as the genera Machimosaurus and Teleosaurus both fell within Steneosaurus.[13] Reinforcing the paraphyly of Steneosaurus, the Callovian species "Steneosaurus" obtusidens has been recovered as the sister species of Machimosaurus in recent cladistic analyses of Thalattosuchia and renamed Lemmysuchus, while Steneosaurus bollensis was recovered in a basal position to other members of Steneosaurus sensu lato.[14][15]

Niche partitioning[edit]

From the semi-aquatic Oker locality in Lower Saxony, Germany (Kimmeridgian-age) two genera of teleosaurids (Steneosaurus and Machimosaurus) are known, in addition to the neosuchian genera Goniopholis and Knoetschkesuchus.[16]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "croco_thalattosuchia". Archived from the original on 2014-10-20. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
  2. ^ Steneosaurus atelestatus at
  3. ^ Steneosaurus blumembachi at
  4. ^ Steneosaurus durobrivensis at
  5. ^ Steneosaurus oplites at
  6. ^ Steneosaurus roissyi at
  7. ^ Steneosaurus rudis at
  8. ^ Steneosaurus stephani at
  9. ^ Steneosaurus temporalis at
  10. ^ Foffa, Davide; Young, Mark T.; Brusatte, Stephen L. (2018). "Filling the Corallian gap: New information on Late Jurassic marine reptile faunas from England" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 63: 287–313. Retrieved 2019-03-07.
  11. ^ Foffa, D.; Young, M.T.; Brusatte, S.L.; Steel, L. (2015). "New specimen and revision of the late Jurassic teleosaurid 'Steneosaurus' megarhinus". PeerJ Preprints. 3: e1351v1. Retrieved 2019-03-07.
  12. ^ Foffa, D.; Johnson, M.M.; Young, M.T.; Steel, L.; Brusatte, S.L. (2019). "Revision of the Late Jurassic deep-water teleosauroid crocodylomorph Teleosaurus megarhinus Hulke, 1871 and evidence of pelagic adaptations in Teleosauroidea". PeerJ. 7: e6646. doi:10.7717/peerj.6646.
  13. ^ Mueller-Töwe, I. J. (2005). "Phylogenetic relationships of the Thalattosuchia" (PDF). Zitteliana. A45: 211–213.
  14. ^ Young, M. T.; Brusatte, S. L.; De Andrade, M. B.; Desojo, J. B.; Beatty, B. L.; Steel, L.; Fernández, M. S.; Sakamoto, M.; Ruiz-Omeñaca, J. I.; Schoch, R. R. (2012). Butler, Richard J, ed. "The Cranial Osteology and Feeding Ecology of the Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph Genera Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus from the Late Jurassic of Europe". PLoS ONE 7 (9): e44985. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044985. PMC 3445579. PMID 23028723. edit
  15. ^ Martin, J. E. and Vincent, P. (2013), New remains of Machimosaurus hugii von Meyer, 1837 (Crocodilia, Thalattosuchia) from the Kimmeridgian of Germany. Fossil Record, 16: 179–196. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300009
  16. ^ Karl H-V, Gröning E, Brauckmann C, Schwarz D, Knötschke N.2006. The Late Jurassic crocodiles of the Langenberg near Oker, Lower Saxony (Germany), and description of related materials (with remarks on the history of quarrying the “Langenberg Limestone” and “Obernkirchen Sandstone”). Clausthaler Geowissenschaften 5: 59–77.

External links[edit]