Sir Stephen Bauzan (born after 1210 – died 1257) was an English knight. Stephen descended from a prominent family originating in Devon/Cornwall.
Move to Wales
Stephen Bauzan, aka Bauchan, Bacun, Bauceyn (see source 3 below) in various translations from early French and Latin documents, first came to Wales in service to Richard Marshall. In 1234, he is holding himself in the abbey of Flexle with others under service to Earl Richard Marshall, who died in that year, and is to be surrendered to Nicholas de Molis his kinsman (cognatum) by a mandate to the Sherriff of Glocester, by Hugh le Dispenser. (Patent Rolls, vol 3, see source 4 below)
In 1243, Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford (recently appointed feudal lord of Glamorgan, and the Earl of Clare) made Bauzan Sheriff of the County.
This was possibly a plot to reduce the influence of the noble Richard Siward, Lord of Talyfan and Llanbleddian (who had been appointed 'keeper' of Glamorgan by Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford- Richard's father). Richard charged Siward with treason for breaking a truce.
In order to settle the matter, Bauzan challenged Siward to a Trial by Combat. Siward refused. After refusing the Trial, Siward was declared an outlaw by Richard, and all of his lands were confiscated. Richard granted to Bauzan the lands of Breigan and Llansannor, which he had recently stripped from Siward.
Additional information: Stephen Bauzan's wife was Agnes, (Patent rolls, vols. 5,6, see source 4 below] This is possibly Agnes de Clare, first daughter of Gilbert de Clare and Isabel Marshal, which would explain the appointment as sherriff of Glamorgan (and the grants of Breigan and Llansannor as given in paragraph above) by Richard de Clare, as well as the gift of Gilbert Marshall, of Kardigan-under-Hirewern, a grant affirmed by king's patent in 1242. (Patent rolls, vol.2, source 4 below] Stephen became a king's knight, (ibid) which also supports the idea that his wife Agnes was likely née de Clare, because Isabel, her mother, became the spouse of Richard of Cornwall after the death of Gilbert de Clare, thus making Stephen a (distant) member of the king's household. This might help explain the rapid rise of Stephen, apart from his obviously great skills as a knight, in King Henry's service.
Conflict with the Welsh and the battle of Cadfan
Stephen Bauzan was by 1249 in the king's service. (In that same year Geoffrey Bauzan Hospitaller of the House of St. John of Jerusalem, possibly another brother of Stephen, was allowed to come back to the realm "as often as he likes" having been made to join the Hospitallers and leave the kingdom in 1236.) From 1249 to 1253 Stephen served to make inquisitions and enquiries in several criminal cases at the king's appointment, and was also a Justiciar. In 1251 he was given the manor of Burthinbury to hold in the youth of the heir of Henry of Hastings. Also in 1251, Stephen was granted at farm the town and hundred of Wotton and pasture in the park of Wodestock for "maintaining the king's oxen and horses." In 1253, Stephen was given protection going beyond seas in the king's service. Stephen Bauzan was Steward of Edward (Longshanks) eldest son of Henry III, later Edward I king of England. By 1254, when Stephen is noted as being in service to Edmund, the king's son, Edward may have still been under his care but was by that time already 15 years old.
Stephen was appointed seneschal of Entre Deux Mers before 1254, and was in the service of Edmund the king's (younger) son by that time. "Gilbert son of Stephen who is with Stephen Bauzan in the service of Edmund the king's son in Gascony" was given "protection with clause until midsummer" in November 1254. From this entry in the patent rolls it appears that Stephen may have had a son named Gilbert. It is hard to say whether Gilbert was also in service to Edmund from this entry.
There was no specific statement in the patent rolls that Stephen was seneschal of all Gascony, as was Nicholas de Molis, aka Nicholas de Moels,(his relation) according to information in the Wikipedia article on Nicholas de Molis. However, by 1254, Gascony had been "given" to Edward by Henry III, and since Stephen was seneschal and steward of Edward, that would be implied.]
Following his recent land gains, Bauzan began to align himself with the king's son, Prince Edward. Stephen was made Seneschal of Gascony in 1255 having fallen further into royal favour. (Here, did Stephen "begin to align himself" to Edward? It seems he was appointed Steward and Seneschal to Edward by the king.)
Edward had recently been appointed Earl of Chester, and was starting to put pressure on the Welsh prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. Llywelyn responded to the English threat by stripping the English supporter Rhys Fychan of his lands in Southwestern Wales. Stephen Bauzan was sent with a large army to restore Rhys Fychan. However the land taken from Rhys had been given to Rhys's uncles Maredudd ap Rhys and Maredudd ap Owain, and they were not ready to submit to Stephen's army. When Stephen's army invaded Wales, they were greeted by a strong Welsh force and defeated at the Battle of Cadfan in 1257. Bauzan was killed during the battle.
According to the History of Buckfast Abbey, Richard, Stephen's brother (here spelled Bauceyn) donated Stephen's manor at Holne, Devon to Buckfast Abbey in his honor. Joan de Vautorte also gave her dower there at that time, leading to the question: was Joan related?
Agnes, widow of Stephen, was granted the Castle of Totnes in Devon for a term ending Michelmas 1261 by Edward (Longshanks) son of Henry III, which she surrendered back to King Henry at that time because Edward was not in the country, found in the patent rolls 45 Hen III. Agnes "de Bauceyn" There is an effigy in Llannsannor Church long said to be that of Stephen Bauzan.
donated the manor of Holne, Devon which had been Stephen's, to Buckfast Abbey in memory and for the soul of Stephen. Joan de Vautorte also gave her dower land at Holne at that time. This raises the question:was Joan related?
After Stephen's death,
3.[History of St. Mary's Abbey of Buckfast, Adam Hamilton, pub. 1906, pp. 87–92] 4.