Fuller served in the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during the Irish War of Independence (1919–1921). He opposed the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1922 and fought in the Anti-Treaty IRA during the Irish Civil War (1922–23). During the civil war, he was captured by the forces of the Irish Free State and detained in Ballymullen Barracks in Tralee. On 7 March 1923, he was one of the victims of a reprisal execution by National Army troops. In reprisal for the deaths of five of their comrades at the hands of an IRA landmine at Knocknagoshel, the Free State soldiers took Fuller and eight other republican prisoners from Tralee to Ballyseedy crossroads, tied them to a mine and detonated it. Fuller survived the explosion but his eight comrades were killed. He was badly wounded but escaped to tell others of the event, challenging the National Army version that the prisoners had died while clearing a road booby-trapped by the Anti-Treaty IRA.
Fuller left the IRA after the civil war and joined Fianna Fáil, a political party founded by republican leader Éamon de Valera.
He was elected to Dáil Éireann on his first attempt, as a Fianna Fáil candidate at the 1937 general election, when he was the last of three Fianna Fáil TDs to be elected to the 9th Dáil in the four-seat constituency. He was re-elected to the 10th Dáil at the 1938 general election, when Fianna Fáil again won three out of four seats, but lost his seat at the 1943 general election to the independent candidate Patrick Finucane. He did not contest any further elections.
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