Stephen II of Croatia

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Stephen II
King of Croatia
Reign 1089–1091
Coronation 1089
Predecessor Demetrius Zvonimir
Successor Peter
Died December 1090, or beginning of 1091
Burial Church of St. Stephen, Solin
House House of Trpimirović
Father Častimir

Stephen II (Croatian: Stjepan II) (died 1091) was the last member of the Trpimirović dynasty and last native Croatian king to rule the entire medieval Croatian Kingdom.[1][2] Stephen's father was Častimir, the younger brother of Peter Krešimir IV of Croatia. Stephen was duke of Croatia under Krešimir around 1066.

He was due to succeed Peter Krešimir IV, but was sidelined by the people and clergy in 1075 who instead bestowed the title of king to Demetrius Zvonimir, previously a ban in Slavonia. Demetrius Zvonimir was a member of the junior Svetoslavić branch of the House of Trpimirović (descendants of Svetoslav Suronja). By the time Dmitar Zvonimir died in 1089, Stephen was old and seriously affected by ill health. Nevertheless, he assumed the throne after being persuaded by the aristocracy and clergy.

Stephen's rule was relatively ineffectual and lasted less than two years. He spent most of this time in the tranquility of the monastery of Sv. Stjepan pod Borovima (St. Stephen beneath the Pines) near Split. Zvonimir's widow, Queen Jelena, reportedly plotted the inheritance of the Croatian Crown for her brother, King Ladislaus I of Hungary.

Stephen II died peacefully in December 1090, or at the beginning of 1091, without leaving an heir. War and unrest broke out in Croatia shortly afterward, with the southern nobility electing Petar Svačić as King of Croatia in 1093, immediately entering into conflict with the Hungarian king Ladislaus. The war culminated in the Battle of Gvozd Mountain in 1097 leading to a personal union of Croatia and Hungary in 1102, ruled by Coloman.[3]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Demetrius Zvonimir
King of Croatia
Succeeded by


  1. ^ Stjepan II (1089 - 1091)
  2. ^ List of Croatian rulers PDF, University of Michigan
  3. ^ Ladislav Heka (October 2008). "Hrvatsko-ugarski odnosi od sredinjega vijeka do nagodbe iz 1868. s posebnim osvrtom na pitanja Slavonije" [Croatian-Hungarian relations from the Middle Ages to the Compromise of 1868, with a special survey of the Slavonian issue]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian). Hrvatski institut za povijest – Podružnica za povijest Slavonije, Srijema i Baranje. 8 (1): 152–173. ISSN 1332-4853. Retrieved 16 October 2011.