|Born||September 21, 1947|
Portland, Maine, U.S.
|Alma mater||University of Maine|
|Children||3, including Joe and Owen|
Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American author of horror, supernatural fiction, suspense, crime, science-fiction, and fantasy novels. His books have sold more than 350 million copies, and many have been adapted into films, television series, miniseries, and comic books. King has published 62 novels, including seven under the pen name Richard Bachman, and five non-fiction books. He has also written approximately 200 short stories, most of which have been published in book collections.
King has received Bram Stoker Awards, World Fantasy Awards, and British Fantasy Society Awards. In 2003, the National Book Foundation awarded him the Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. He has also received awards for his contribution to literature for his entire bibliography, such as the 2004 World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement and the 2007 Grand Master Award from the Mystery Writers of America. In 2015, he was awarded with a National Medal of Arts from the U.S. National Endowment for the Arts for his contributions to literature. He has been described as the "King of Horror", a play on his surname and a reference to his high standing in pop culture.
Stephen Edwin King was born in Portland, Maine, on September 21, 1947. His father, Donald Edwin King, was a merchant seaman who was born with the surname Pollock but changed it to King as an adult. King's mother was Nellie Ruth King (née Pillsbury). His parents were married in Scarborough, Maine, on July 23, 1939. Shortly afterwards, they lived with Donald's family in Chicago before moving to Croton-on-Hudson, New York. King's parents returned to Maine towards the end of World War II, living in a modest house in Scarborough. When King was two years old, his father left the family. His mother raised him and his older brother David by herself, sometimes under great financial strain. They moved from Scarborough and depended on relatives in Chicago; Croton-on-Hudson; West De Pere, Wisconsin; Fort Wayne, Indiana; Malden, Massachusetts; and Stratford, Connecticut. When King was 11, his family moved to Durham, Maine, where his mother cared for her parents until their deaths. She then became a caregiver in a local residential facility for the mentally challenged. King was raised Methodist, but lost his belief in organized religion while in high school. While no longer religious, he says he chooses to believe in the existence of God.
As a child, King apparently witnessed one of his friends being struck and killed by a train, though he has no memory of the event. His family told him that after leaving home to play with the boy, King returned speechlessly and seemingly in shock. Only later did the family learn of the friend's death. Some commentators have suggested that this event may have psychologically inspired some of King's darker works, but King makes no mention of it in his memoir On Writing (2000). He related in detail his primary inspiration for writing horror fiction in his non-fiction Danse Macabre (1981), in a chapter titled "An Annoying Autobiographical Pause". He compared his uncle's dowsing for water using the bough of an apple branch with the sudden realization of what he wanted to do for a living. That inspiration occurred while browsing through an attic with his elder brother, when King uncovered a paperback version of an H. P. Lovecraft collection of short stories he remembers as The Lurker in the Shadows, that had belonged to his father. King told Barnes & Noble Studios during a 2009 interview, "I knew that I'd found home when I read that book."
King attended Durham Elementary School and graduated from Lisbon Falls High School in Lisbon Falls, Maine, in 1966. He displayed an early interest in horror as an avid reader of EC horror comics, including Tales from the Crypt, and he later paid tribute to the comics in his screenplay for Creepshow. He began writing for fun while still in school, contributing articles to Dave's Rag, the newspaper his brother published with a mimeograph machine, and later began selling stories to his friends based on movies he had seen (he was forced to return the profits when discovered by teachers.) The first of his stories to be independently published was "I Was a Teenage Grave Robber", which was serialized over four issues (three published and one unpublished) of a fanzine, Comics Review, in 1965. That story was published the following year in a revised form as "In a Half-World of Terror" in another fanzine, Stories of Suspense, edited by Marv Wolfman. As a teen, King also won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award.
From 1966, King studied at the University of Maine, graduating in 1970 with a Bachelor of Arts in English. That year, his daughter Naomi Rachel was born. He wrote a column, Steve King's Garbage Truck, for the student newspaper, The Maine Campus, and participated in a writing workshop organized by Burton Hatlen. King held a variety of jobs to pay for his studies, including janitor, gas pump attendant, and worker at an industrial laundry. King met his wife, fellow student Tabitha Spruce, at the University's Fogler Library after one of Professor Hatlen's workshops; they wed in 1971.
After graduating from the University of Maine, King earned a certificate to teach high school but, unable to find a teaching post immediately, he initially supplemented his laboring wage by selling short stories to men's magazines such as Cavalier. Many of these early stories have been republished in the collection Night Shift. The short story "The Raft" was published in Adam, a men's magazine. After being arrested for stealing traffic cones (he was annoyed after one of the cones knocked his muffler loose), he was fined $250 for petty larceny but had no money to pay. However, a check then arrived for "The Raft" (then entitled "The Float"), and King cashed it to pay the fine. In 1971, King was hired as a teacher at Hampden Academy in Hampden, Maine. He continued to contribute short stories to magazines and worked on ideas for novels. During 1966–1970, he wrote a draft about his dystopian novel called The Long Walk and the anti-war novel Sword in the Darkness, but neither of the works was published at the time; only The Long Walk was later released in 1979.
Carrie and aftermath
In 1973, King's novel Carrie was accepted by publishing house Doubleday. Carrie was King's fourth novel, but it was the first to be published. It was written on a portable typewriter that belonged to his wife. The novel began as a short story intended for Cavalier magazine, but King tossed the first three pages of his work in the garbage can. Tabitha King fished the pages out of the garbage can and encouraged him to finish the story, saying that she would help him with the female perspective; he followed her advice and expanded it into a novel. King said, "I persisted because I was dry and had no better ideas… my considered opinion was that I had written the world's all-time loser." According to The Guardian, Carrie "is the story of Carrie White, a high-school student with latent—and then, as the novel progresses, developing—telekinetic powers. It's brutal in places, affecting in others (Carrie's relationship with her almost hysterically religious mother being a particularly damaged one), and gory in even more."
When Carrie was chosen for publication, King's phone was out of service. Doubleday editor William Thompson – who would eventually become King's close friend – sent a telegram to King's house in late March or early April 1973 which read: "Carrie Officially A Doubleday Book. $2,500 Advance Against Royalties. Congrats, Kid – The Future Lies Ahead, Bill." According to King, he bought a new Ford Pinto with the money from the advance. On May 13, 1973, New American Library bought the paperback rights for $400,000, which—in accordance with King's contract with Doubleday—was split between them. Carrie set King's career in motion and became a significant novel in the horror genre. In 1976, it was made into a successful horror film.
King's 'Salem's Lot was published in 1975. In a 1987 issue of The Highway Patrolman magazine, he stated, "The story seems sort of down home to me. I have a special cold spot in my heart for it!" After his mother's death, King and his family moved to Boulder, Colorado, where King wrote The Shining (published 1977). The family returned to western Maine in 1975, where King completed his fourth novel, The Stand (published 1978). In 1977, the family, with the addition of Owen Philip (his third and youngest child), traveled briefly to England, returning to Maine that fall, where King began teaching creative writing at the University of Maine.
In 1982, King published Different Seasons, a collection of four novellas with a more serious dramatic bent than the horror fiction for which King is famous. The collection is notable for having had three of its four novellas turned into Hollywood films: Stand by Me (1986) was adapted from the novella The Body, The Shawshank Redemption (1994) was adapted from the novella Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption, and Apt Pupil (1998) was adapted from the novella of the same name.
In 1985, King wrote his first work for the comic book medium, writing a few pages of the benefit X-Men comic book Heroes for Hope Starring the X-Men. The book, whose profits were donated to assist with famine relief in Africa, was written by a number of different authors in the comic book field, such as Chris Claremont, Stan Lee, and Alan Moore, as well as authors not primarily associated with that industry, such as Harlan Ellison. The following year, King published It (1986), which was the best-selling hard-cover novel in the United States that year, and wrote the introduction to Batman No. 400, an anniversary issue in which he expressed his preference for that character over Superman.
The Dark Tower books
In the late 1970s, King began what became a series of interconnected stories about a lone gunslinger, Roland, who pursues the "Man in Black" in an alternate-reality universe that is a cross between J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth and the American Wild West as depicted by Clint Eastwood and Sergio Leone in their spaghetti Westerns. The first of these stories, The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger, was initially published in five installments by The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction under the editorship of Edward L. Ferman, from 1977 to 1981. The Gunslinger was continued as an eight-book epic series called The Dark Tower, whose books King wrote and published infrequently over four decades.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, King published a handful of short novels—Rage (1977), The Long Walk (1979), Roadwork (1981), The Running Man (1982) and Thinner (1984)—under the pseudonym Richard Bachman. The idea behind this was to test whether he could replicate his success again and to allay his fears that his popularity was an accident. An alternate explanation was that publishing standards at the time allowed only a single book a year. He picked up the name from the hard rock band Bachman-Turner Overdrive, of which he is a fan.
Richard Bachman was exposed as King's pseudonym by a persistent Washington, D.C. bookstore clerk, Steve Brown, who noticed similarities between the works and later located publisher's records at the Library of Congress that named King as the author of one of Bachman's novels. This led to a press release heralding Bachman's "death"—supposedly from "cancer of the pseudonym". King dedicated his 1989 book The Dark Half, about a pseudonym turning on a writer, to "the deceased Richard Bachman", and in 1996, when the Stephen King novel Desperation was released, the companion novel The Regulators carried the "Bachman" byline.
In 2006, during a press conference in London, King declared that he had discovered another Bachman novel, titled Blaze. It was published on June 12, 2007. In fact, the original manuscript had been held at King's Alma mater, the University of Maine in Orono, for many years and had been covered by numerous King experts. King rewrote the original 1973 manuscript for its publication.
King has used other pseudonyms. The short story "The Fifth Quarter" was published under the pseudonym John Swithen (the name of a character in the novel Carrie), by Cavalier in April 1972. The story was reprinted in King's collection Nightmares & Dreamscapes in 1993 under his own name. In the introduction to the Bachman novel Blaze, King claims, with tongue-in-cheek, that "Bachman" was the person using the Swithen pseudonym.
The "children's book" Charlie the Choo-Choo: From the World of The Dark Tower was published in 2016 under the pseudonym Beryl Evans, who was portrayed by actress Allison Davies during a book signing at San Diego Comic-Con, and illustrated by Ned Dameron. It is adapted from a fictional book central to the plot of King's previous novel The Dark Tower III: The Waste Lands.
In 2000, King published online a serialized horror novel, The Plant. At first the public assumed that King had abandoned the project because sales were unsuccessful, but King later stated that he had simply run out of stories. The unfinished epistolary novel is still available from King's official site, now free. Also in 2000, he wrote a digital novella, Riding the Bullet, and saying he foresaw e-books becoming 50% of the market "probably by 2013 and maybe by 2012". However, he also stated: "Here's the thing—people tire of the new toys quickly."
In August 2003, King began writing a column on pop culture appearing in Entertainment Weekly, usually every third week. The column was called The Pop of King (a play on the nickname "The King of Pop" commonly attributed to Michael Jackson).
In 2006, King published an apocalyptic novel, Cell. The book features a sudden force in which every cell phone user turns into a mindless killer. King noted in the book's introduction that he does not use cell phones.
In 2008, King published both a novel, Duma Key, and a collection, Just After Sunset. The latter featured 13 short stories, including a previously unpublished novella, N. Starting July 28, 2008, N. was released as a serialized animated series to lead up to the release of Just After Sunset.
In 2009, King published Ur, a novella written exclusively for the launch of the second-generation Amazon Kindle and available only on Amazon.com, and Throttle, a novella co-written with his son Joe Hill and released later as an audiobook titled Road Rage, which included Richard Matheson's short story "Duel". King's novel Under the Dome was published on November 10 of that year; it is a reworking of an unfinished novel he tried writing twice in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and at 1,074 pages, it is the largest novel he has written since It (1986). Under the Dome debuted at No. 1 in The New York Times Bestseller List.
On February 16, 2010, King announced on his Web site that his next book would be a collection of four previously unpublished novellas called Full Dark, No Stars. In April of that year, King published Blockade Billy, an original novella issued first by independent small press Cemetery Dance Publications and later released in mass-market paperback by Simon & Schuster. The following month, DC Comics premiered American Vampire, a monthly comic book series written by King with short-story writer Scott Snyder, and illustrated by Rafael Albuquerque, which represents King's first original comics work. King wrote the background history of the very first American vampire, Skinner Sweet, in the first five-issues story arc. Scott Snyder wrote the story of Pearl.
King's next novel, 11/22/63, was published November 8, 2011, and was nominated for the 2012 World Fantasy Award Best Novel. The eighth Dark Tower volume, The Wind Through the Keyhole, was published in 2012. King's next book was Joyland, a novel about "an amusement-park serial killer", according to an article in The Sunday Times, published on April 8, 2012.
During his Chancellor's Speaker Series talk at University of Massachusetts Lowell on December 7, 2012, King indicated that he was writing a crime novel about a retired policeman being taunted by a murderer. With a working title Mr. Mercedes and inspired by a true event about a woman driving her car into a McDonald's restaurant, it was originally meant to be a short story just a few pages long. In an interview with Parade, published on May 26, 2013, King confirmed that the novel was "more or less" completed he published it in June 2013. Later, on June 20, 2013, while doing a video chat with fans as part of promoting the upcoming Under the Dome TV series, King mentioned he was halfway through writing his next novel, Revival, which was released November 11, 2014.
King announced in June 2014 that Mr. Mercedes is part of a trilogy; the second book, Finders Keepers, was released on June 2, 2015. On April 22, 2015, it was revealed that King was working on the third book of the trilogy, End of Watch, which was ultimately released on June 7, 2016.
In 2018, he released the novel The Outsider, which featured the character of Holly Gibney, and the novella Elevation. In 2019, he released the novel The Institute. In 2020, King released If It Bleeds, a collection of four previously unpublished novellas.
King has written two novels with horror novelist Peter Straub: The Talisman (1984) and a sequel, Black House (2001). King has indicated that he and Straub will likely write the third and concluding book in this series, the tale of Jack Sawyer, but has set no deadline for its completion.
King produced an artist's book with designer Barbara Kruger, My Pretty Pony (1989), published in a limited edition of 250 by the Library Fellows of the Whitney Museum of American Art. Alfred A. Knopf released it in a general trade edition.
The Diary of Ellen Rimbauer: My Life at Rose Red (2001) was a paperback tie-in for the King-penned miniseries Rose Red (2002). Published under anonymous authorship, the book was written by Ridley Pearson. The novel is written in the form of a diary by Ellen Rimbauer, and annotated by the fictional professor of paranormal activity, Joyce Reardon. The novel also presents a fictional afterword by Ellen Rimbauer's grandson, Steven. Intended to be a promotional item rather than a stand-alone work, its popularity spawned a 2003 prequel television miniseries to Rose Red, titled The Diary of Ellen Rimbauer. This spin-off is a rare occasion of another author being granted permission to write commercial work using characters and story elements invented by King. The novel tie-in idea was repeated on Stephen King's next project, the miniseries Kingdom Hospital. Richard Dooling, King's collaborator on Kingdom Hospital and writer of several episodes in the miniseries, published a fictional diary, The Journals of Eleanor Druse, in 2004. Eleanor Druse is a key character in Kingdom Hospital, much as Dr. Joyce Readon and Ellen Rimbauer are key characters in Rose Red.
Throttle (2009), a novella written in collaboration with his son Joe Hill, appears in the anthology He Is Legend: Celebrating Richard Matheson. Their second novella collaboration, In the Tall Grass (2012), was published in two parts in Esquire. It was later released in e-book and audiobook formats, the latter read by Stephen Lang.
King and Richard Chizmar collaborated to write Gwendy's Button Box (2017), a horror novella taking place is King's fictional town of Castle Rock. A sequel titled Gwendy's Magic Feather (2019) was written solely by Chizmar. In November 2020, Chizmar announced that he and King were writing a third installment in the series titled Gwendy's Final Task, this time as a full-length novel, to be released in February 2022.
In 1988, the band Blue Öyster Cult recorded an updated version of its 1974 song "Astronomy". The single released for radio play featured a narrative intro spoken by King. The Blue Öyster Cult song "(Don't Fear) The Reaper" was also used in the King TV series The Stand.
King collaborated with Michael Jackson to create Ghosts (1996), a 40-minute musical video. King states he was motivated to collaborate as he is "always interested in trying something new, and for (him), writing a minimusical would be new". In 2012 King collaborated with musician Shooter Jennings and his band Hierophant, providing the narration for their album, Black Ribbons. King played guitar for the rock band Rock Bottom Remainders, several of whose members are authors. Other members include Dave Barry, Ridley Pearson, Scott Turow, Amy Tan, James McBride, Mitch Albom, Roy Blount, Jr., Matt Groening, Kathi Kamen Goldmark, Sam Barry, and Greg Iles. King and the other band members collaborated to release an e-book called Hard Listening: The Greatest Rock Band Ever (of Authors) Tells All (June 2013). King wrote a musical entitled Ghost Brothers of Darkland County (2012) with musician John Mellencamp.
Writing style and approach
King's formula for learning to write well is: "Read and write four to six hours a day. If you cannot find the time for that, you can't expect to become a good writer." He sets out each day with a quota of 2000 words and will not stop writing until it is met. He also has a simple definition for talent in writing: "If you wrote something for which someone sent you a check, if you cashed the check and it didn't bounce, and if you then paid the light bill with the money, I consider you talented."
When asked why he writes, King responds: "The answer to that is fairly simple—there was nothing else I was made to do. I was made to write stories and I love to write stories. That's why I do it. I really can't imagine doing anything else and I can't imagine not doing what I do." He is also often asked why he writes such terrifying stories and he answers with another question: "Why do you assume I have a choice?" King usually begins the story creation process by imagining a "what if" scenario, such as what would happen if a writer is kidnapped by a sadistic nurse in Colorado.
King often uses authors as characters, or includes mention of fictional books in his stories, novellas and novels, such as Paul Sheldon, who is the main character in Misery, adult Bill Denbrough in It, Ben Mears in 'Salem's Lot, and Jack Torrance in The Shining. He has extended this to breaking the fourth wall by including himself as a character in The Dark Tower series from The Dark Tower V: Wolves of the Calla onwards. In September 2009 it was announced he would serve as a writer for Fangoria.
King has called Richard Matheson "the author who influenced me most as a writer". In a current edition of Matheson's The Shrinking Man, King is quoted as saying, "A horror story if there ever was one...a great adventure story—it is certainly one of that select handful that I have given to people, envying them the experience of the first reading."
King's The Shining is immersed in gothic influences, including "The Masque of the Red Death" by Edgar Allan Poe (which was directly influenced by the first gothic novel, Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto). The Overlook Hotel acts as a replacement for the traditional gothic castle, and Jack Torrance is a tragic villain seeking redemption.
King's favorite books are (in order): The Golden Argosy; Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; The Satanic Verses; McTeague; Lord of the Flies; Bleak House; Nineteen Eighty-Four; The Raj Quartet; Light in August; and Blood Meridian.
Science fiction editors John Clute and Peter Nicholls offer a largely favorable appraisal of King, noting his "pungent prose, sharp ear for dialogue, disarmingly laid-back, frank style, along with his passionately fierce denunciation of human stupidity and cruelty (especially to children) [all of which rank] him among the more distinguished 'popular' writers."
In his book The Philosophy of Horror (1990), Noël Carroll discusses King's work as an exemplar of modern horror fiction. Analyzing both the narrative structure of King's fiction and King's non-fiction ruminations on the art and craft of writing, Carroll writes that for King, "the horror story is always a contest between the normal and the abnormal such that the normal is reinstated and, therefore, affirmed."
In his analysis of post–World War II horror fiction, The Modern Weird Tale (2001), critic S. T. Joshi devotes a chapter to King's work. Joshi argues that King's best-known works (his supernatural novels) are his worst, describing them as mostly bloated, illogical, maudlin and prone to deus ex machina endings. Despite these criticisms, Joshi argues that since Gerald's Game (1993), King has been tempering the worst of his writing faults, producing books that are leaner, more believable and generally better written.
In his short story collection A Century of Great Suspense Stories, editor Jeffery Deaver noted that King "singlehandedly made popular fiction grow up. While there were many good best-selling writers before him, King, more than anybody since John D. MacDonald, brought reality to genre novels. He has often remarked that 'Salem's Lot was "Peyton Place meets Dracula. And so it was. The rich characterization, the careful and caring social eye, the interplay of story line and character development announced that writers could take worn themes such as vampirism and make them fresh again. Before King, many popular writers found their efforts to make their books serious blue-penciled by their editors. 'Stuff like that gets in the way of the story,' they were told. Well, it's stuff like that that has made King so popular, and helped free the popular name from the shackles of simple genre writing. He is a master of masters."
In 2003, King was honored by the National Book Awards with a lifetime achievement award, the Medal of Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. Some in the literary community expressed disapproval of the award: Richard E. Snyder, the former CEO of Simon & Schuster, described King's work as "non-literature" and critic Harold Bloom denounced the choice:
The decision to give the National Book Foundation's annual award for "distinguished contribution" to Stephen King is extraordinary, another low in the shocking process of dumbing down our cultural life. I've described King in the past as a writer of penny dreadfuls, but perhaps even that is too kind. He shares nothing with Edgar Allan Poe. What he is is an immensely inadequate writer on a sentence-by-sentence, paragraph-by-paragraph, book-by-book basis.
Orson Scott Card responded:
Let me assure you that King's work most definitely is literature, because it was written to be published and is read with admiration. What Snyder really means is that it is not the literature preferred by the academic-literary elite.
Political views and activism
In April 2008, King spoke out against HB 1423, a bill pending in the Massachusetts state legislature that would restrict or ban the sale of violent video games to anyone under the age of 18. King argued that such laws allow legislators to ignore the economic divide between the rich and poor and the easy availability of guns, which he believed were the actual causes of violence.
During the 2008 presidential election, King voiced his support for Democratic candidate Barack Obama. King was quoted as calling conservative commentator Glenn Beck "Satan's mentally challenged younger brother".
On April 30, 2012, King published an article in The Daily Beast calling for rich Americans, including himself, to pay more taxes, citing it as "a practical necessity and moral imperative that those who have received much should be obligated to pay ... in the same proportion".
On January 25, 2013, King published an essay titled "Guns" via Amazon.com's Kindle single feature, which discusses the gun debate in the wake of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. King called for gun owners to support a ban on automatic and semi-automatic weapons, writing, "Autos and semi-autos are weapons of mass destruction...When lunatics want to make war on the unarmed and unprepared, these are the weapons they use." The essay became the fifth-bestselling non-fiction title for the Kindle.
In the 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries, King endorsed Elizabeth Warren's campaign. Warren eventually suspended her campaign, and King later endorsed Joe Biden's campaign in the 2020 general election.
King publicly criticized Paul LePage during LePage's tenure as Governor of Maine, referring to him as one of The Three Stooges (with then-Florida Governor Rick Scott and then-Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker being the other two). He was critical of LePage for incorrectly suggesting in a 2015 radio address that King avoided paying Maine income taxes by living out of state for part of the year. The statement was later corrected by the Governor's office, but no apology was issued. King said LePage was "full of the stuff that makes the grass grow green" and demanded that LePage "man up and apologize". LePage declined to apologize to King, stating, "I never said Stephen King did not pay income taxes. What I said was, Stephen King's not in Maine right now. That's what I said."
The attention garnered by the LePage criticism led to efforts to encourage King to run for Governor of Maine in 2018. King said he would not run or serve. King sent a tweet on June 30, 2015, calling LePage "a terrible embarrassment to the state I live in and love. If he won't govern, he should resign." He later clarified that he was not calling on LePage to resign, but to "go to work or go back home". On August 27, 2016, King called LePage "a bigot, a homophobe, and a racist".
King has stated that he donates approximately $4 million per year "to libraries, local fire departments that need updated lifesaving equipment (Jaws of Life tools are always a popular request), schools, and a scattering of organisations that underwrite the arts."
The Stephen and Tabitha King Foundation, chaired by King and his wife, ranks sixth among Maine charities in terms of average annual giving with over $2.8 million in grants per year, according to The Grantsmanship Center.
In November 2011, the STK Foundation donated $70,000 in matched funding via his radio station to help pay the heating bills for families in need in his home town of Bangor, Maine, during the winter.
King married Tabitha Spruce on January 2, 1971. She too is a novelist and philanthropic activist. The couple own and divide their time between three houses: one in Bangor, Maine (set to become a museum and writer's retreat); one in Lovell, Maine; and for the winter a waterfront mansion located off the Gulf of Mexico in Sarasota, Florida. The Kings have three children, a daughter and two sons, and four grandchildren. Their daughter Naomi is a Unitarian Universalist Church minister in Plantation, Florida, with her partner, Rev. Dr. Thandeka. Both of the Kings' sons are authors: Owen King published his first collection of stories, We're All in This Together: A Novella and Stories, in 2005. Joseph Hillström King, who writes as Joe Hill, published a collection of short stories, 20th Century Ghosts, in 2005. His debut novel, Heart-Shaped Box (2007), was optioned by Warners Bros.
In the early 1970s, King developed a drinking problem which would plague him for more than a decade. Soon after Carrie's release in 1974, King's mother died of uterine cancer; King has written of his severe drinking problem at this time, stating that he was drunk while delivering the eulogy at his mother's funeral.:69 King's addictions to alcohol and other drugs were so serious during the 1980s that, as he acknowledged in On Writing in 2000, he can barely remember writing Cujo.:73 Shortly after the novel's publication, King's family and friends staged an intervention, dumping on the rug in front of him evidence of his addictions taken from his office, including beer cans, cigarette butts, grams of cocaine, Xanax, Valium, NyQuil, Robitussin, and mouthwash. As King related in his memoir, he then sought help, quit all drugs (including alcohol) in the late 1980s, and has remained sober since.:72 The first novel he wrote after becoming sober was Needful Things.
Car accident and aftermath
On June 19, 1999, at about 4:30 p.m., King was walking on the shoulder of Maine State Route 5, in Lovell, Maine. Driver Bryan Edwin Smith, distracted by an unrestrained dog moving in the back of his minivan, struck King, who landed in a depression in the ground about 14 feet (four meters) from the pavement of Route 5.:206 Early reports at the time from Oxford County Sheriff deputy Matt Baker, claimed King was hit from behind and some witnesses said the driver was not speeding, reckless, or drinking. However Smith would later be arrested and charged with driving to endanger and aggravated assault. He pleaded guilty to the lesser charge of driving to endanger and was sentenced to six months in county jail (suspended), and had his driving license suspended for a year. In his book On Writing, King states he was heading north, walking against the traffic. Shortly before the accident took place, a woman in a car, also northbound, passed King first and then the light-blue Dodge van. The van was looping from one side of the road to the other, and the woman told her passenger she hoped "that guy in the van doesn't hit him.":206
King was conscious enough to give the deputy phone numbers to contact his family but was in considerable pain. He was transported to Northern Cumberland Hospital in Bridgton and then flown by air ambulance to Central Maine Medical Center (CMMC) in Lewiston. His injuries—a collapsed right lung, multiple fractures of his right leg, scalp laceration and a broken hip—kept him at CMMC until July 9. His leg bones were so shattered that doctors initially considered amputating his leg but stabilized the bones in the leg with an external fixator. After five operations in 10 days and physical therapy, King resumed work on On Writing in July, though his hip was still shattered and he could sit for only about 40 minutes before the pain became unbearable.:216
King's lawyer and two others purchased Smith's van for $1,500, reportedly to prevent it from appearing on eBay. The van was later crushed at a junkyard, to King's disappointment, as he had fantasized about smashing it.
- 2000: On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft (read by Stephen King), Simon & Schuster Audio, ISBN 978-0-7435-0665-6
- 2004: Salem's Lot (introduction), Simon & Schuster Audio, ISBN 978-0-7435-3696-7
- 2005 (Audible: 2000): Bag of Bones (read by Stephen King), Simon & Schuster Audio, ISBN 978-0743551755
- 2016: Desperation (read by Stephen King), Simon & Schuster Audio, ISBN 978-1508218661
- 2018: Elevation (read by Stephen King), Simon & Schuster Audio, ISBN 978-1508260479
|1981||Knightriders||No||No||No||Yes||Role: Hoagie Man|
|1982||Creepshow||No||No||Yes||Yes||Role: Jordy Verrill|
|1986||Maximum Overdrive||Yes||No||Yes||Yes||Role: Man at Bank ATM|
|1987||Creepshow 2||No||No||No||Yes||Role: Truck Driver|
|1987||Tales from the Darkside||No||No||Yes||No||1 episode: "Sorry, Right Number"|
|1989||Pet Sematary||No||No||Yes||Yes||Role: Minister|
|1991||Golden Years||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Miniseries, also created by King, role: Bus Driver|
|1992||Sleepwalkers||No||No||Yes||Yes||Role: Cemetery Caretaker|
|1994||The Stand||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Miniseries, role: Teddy Weizak|
|1995||The Langoliers||No||No||No||Yes||Miniseries, role: Tom Holby|
|1997||The Shining||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Miniseries, role: Gage Creed|
|1998||The X-Files||No||No||Yes||No||1 episode: "Chinga"|
|1999||Storm of the Century||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Miniseries, role: Lawyer in Ad / Reporter on Broken TV|
|1999||Frasier||No||No||No||Yes||1 episode: "Mary Christmas", role: Brian|
|2002||Rose Red||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Miniseries, role: Pizza Delivery Guy|
|2003||The Diary of Ellen Rimbauer||No||Yes||No||No||TV film|
|2004||Kingdom Hospital||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||9 episodes, also developed by King, role: Johnny B. Goode|
|2004||Riding the Bullet||No||Yes||No||No|
|2005||Fever Pitch||No||No||No||Yes||Role: Stephen King|
|2005||Gotham Cafe||No||No||No||Yes||Short film, role: Mr. Ring|
|2007||Diary of the Dead||No||No||No||Yes||Role: Newsreader (voice, uncredited)|
|2010||Sons of Anarchy||No||No||No||Yes||1 episode: "Caregiver", role: Bachman|
|2012||Stuck in Love||No||No||No||Yes||Role: Stephen King (voice)|
|2014||Under the Dome||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||1 episode: "Heads Will Roll", role: Diner Patron|
|2014||A Good Marriage||No||No||Yes||No|
|2017||Mr. Mercedes||No||Yes||No||Yes||Role: Diner Patron|
|2019||It Chapter Two||No||No||No||Yes||Role: Shopkeeper|
- List of adaptations of works by Stephen King
- Castle Rock (Stephen King)
- Charles Scribner's Sons (aka Scribner)
- Derry (Stephen King)
- Dollar Baby
- Jerusalem's Lot (Stephen King)
- King, Tabitha; DeFilippo, Marsha. "Biography". StephenKing.com. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- Morgan, Robert (November 22, 2006). "Stephen King". Newsnight. BBC. Archived from the original on September 18, 2019. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
- Breznican, Anthony (September 3, 2019)."Life Is Imitating Stephen King’s Art, and That Scares Him" Archived September 3, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. New York Times. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
- Barone, Matt (November 8, 2011). "The 25 Best Stephen King Stories" Archived February 7, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. Complex. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
- Jackson, Dan (February 18, 2016). "A Beginner's Guide to Stephen King Books" Archived February 7, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. Thrillist. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
- "Distinguished Contribution to American Letters". National Book Foundation. 2003. Archived from the original on March 10, 2011. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
- "FORUMS du CLUB STEPHEN KING (CSK)". Forum Stephen King. Archived from the original on February 22, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- "President Obama to Award 2014 National Medals of Arts". NEA. National Endowment for the Arts. September 3, 2015. Archived from the original on September 15, 2015. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- K.S.C. (September 7, 2017). "Why Stephen King's novels still resonate". The Economist. Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
- "In Search of our Fathers". Finding Your Roots. Season 2. Episode 1. September 23, 2014. PBS.
- "Donald Edwin King". geni.com. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- Ancestry of Stephen King Archived October 23, 2006, at the Wayback Machine at Genealogy.com. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- Rogak, Lisa (January 5, 2010). Haunted Heart: The Life and Times of Stephen King. St. Martin's Publishing Group. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-4299-8797-4.
- Rogak, Lisa (January 5, 2010). Haunted Heart: The Life and Times of Stephen King. St. Martin's Publishing Group. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4299-8797-4.
- Rogak, Lisa (January 5, 2010). Haunted Heart: The Life and Times of Stephen King. St. Martin's Publishing Group. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-4299-8797-4.
- Spignesi, Stephen J. (1991). The Shape Under the Sheet: The Complete Stephen King Encyclopedia. Popular Culture. pp. 31–38. ISBN 978-1-56075-018-5.
- Images, Getty. "The Secret Jewish History Of Stephen King". The Forward. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". StephenKing.com. Archived from the original on August 7, 2010. Retrieved October 21, 2010.
- Flood, Allison (October 29, 2014). "Stephen King: 'Religion Is a Dangerous Tool... but I Choose to Believe God Exists'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 16, 2017. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Beahm, George (1991). The Stephen King Story: A Literary Profile. Andrews and McMeel. ISBN 0836279891.
- "Stephen King – Meet the Writers (5:45 into the video)". YouTube. November 3, 2009. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- "The Author". StephenKing.com. Archived from the original on August 16, 2019. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
- Wood, Rocky; et al. (2006). Stephen King: Uncollected, Unpublished. Abingdon, Maryland: Cemetery Dance Publications. p. 199. ISBN 1-58767-130-1.
- "America's Most Creative Teens Named as National 2016 Scholastic Art & Writing Awards Recipients" (Press release). New York City: Scholastic Inc. March 14, 2016. Archived from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- "StephenKing.com - About the Author". www.stephenking.com. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
- Anstead, Alicia (January 23, 2008). "UM scholar Hatlen, mentor to Stephen King, dies at 71". Bangor Daily News. Archived from the original on March 2, 2008.
- Klein, T.E.D. (June 1983). "Cone fever . . ". Rod Serling's the Twilight Zone Magazine. Vol. 3 no. 2. p. 6.
- King, Stephen (2010). "Afterword". Full Dark, No Stars. Scribner. ISBN 9781439192566.
- Blue, Tyson (1989). The Unseen King. Borgo Press. ISBN 1-55742-073-4.
- *Spignesi, Stephen (1998). The Lost Work of Stephen King. Birch Lane Press. ISBN 1-55972-469-2.
- King, Stephen (2000) On Writing New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-1-43919-363-1, at p.77
- King (2000), p.78. Quote: "I did three single-spaced pages of a first draft, then crumpled them up in disgust and threw them away."
- King, Tabitha, Introduction to "Carrie" (Collector's Edition) Plume 1991
- King, Stephen (February 1980). "On Becoming a Brand Name". Adelina Magazine: 44.
- Smythe, James (May 24, 2012). "Rereading Stephen King: week one – Carrie". The Guardian. Archived from the original on February 15, 2019. Retrieved February 15, 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
- King (2000), p.83
- Beahm, George (September 1, 1998). Stephen King from A to Z: An Encyclopedia of His Life and Work. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 29. ISBN 9780836269147. Retrieved February 15, 2019 – via Internet Archive.
carrie stephen king april 5.
- Beahm, George Andrews (1989) The Stephen King Companion McMeel Press pp. 171–173.
- King (2000), p.86
- Flood, Alison (April 4, 2014). "How Carrie changed Stephen King's life, and began a generation of horror". The Guardian. Archived from the original on February 15, 2019. Retrieved February 15, 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
- Konstantin, Phil. "An Interview with Stephen King" Archived April 12, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, americanindian.net. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
- "The Author". stephenking.com. Archived from the original on September 17, 2012. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- "Books of the Times". The New York Times. August 11, 1982. Archived from the original on June 21, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
- "All the Stephen King Easter Eggs in Hulu's 'Castle Rock' – From Shawshank to Sissy Spacek". Entertainment Tonight. Archived from the original on February 15, 2019. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
- Heidenry, Margaret. "The Little-Known Story of How The Shawshank Redemption Became One of the Most Beloved Films of All Time". HWD. Archived from the original on February 26, 2019. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
- "'Apt Pupil': In a Suburb, Echoes of the Third Reich". archive.nytimes.com. Archived from the original on February 15, 2019. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
- "Cinema Fearité Presents 'Apt Pupil' – A Darker, More Twisted Stephen King Tale". September 14, 2017. Archived from the original on February 15, 2019. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
- "Stephen King at The Comic Book Database". Comicbookdb.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
- "Heroes for Hope". Comic Book Database. Archived from the original on May 20, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
- "'FATHERHOOD' AND 'IT' TOP SELLERS OF '86". nytimes.com. Archived from the original on August 3, 2018. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
- "Batman No. 400". Comic Book Database. Archived from the original on May 16, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
- Manning, Matthew K. (2010). "1980s". In Dolan, Hannah (ed.). DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9.
Batman celebrated the 400th issue of his self-titled comic with a blockbuster featuring dozens of famous comic book creators and... with an introduction by novelist Stephen King.
- King, Stephen. "Stephen King FAQ: "Why did you write books as Richard Bachman?"". StephenKing.com. Archived from the original on November 15, 2006. Retrieved December 13, 2006.
- Newton, Steve (January 13, 2009). "Bachman-Turner Overdrive founder searched for Stephen King". Straight.com. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- Brown, Steve. 'Richard Bachman Exposed' Archived December 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Lilja's Library: The World of Stephen King. Retrieved December 27, 2008.
- 'Blaze – Book Summary' Archived February 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Simon & Schuster. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
- Beahm, George (2015). The Stephen King companion: forty years of fear from the master of horror. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 118–119. ISBN 9781466856684.
- Beahm, George (1998). Stephen King from A to Z: An Encyclopedia of His Life and Work. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 75. ISBN 978-0836269147.
- "'Charlie the Choo-Choo': 'The Dark Tower' fans seek Stephen King storybook that isn't real". July 22, 2016. Archived from the original on August 10, 2017. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
- "Lilja's". liljas-library.com. Archived from the original on August 10, 2017. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
- Verton, Dan (January 8, 2001). "Barnes & Noble Takes Popular Literature Digital". Computerworld. p. 14.
- "Stephen King's Net Horror Story". Slashdot. December 4, 2000. Archived from the original on May 2, 2009. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
- Minzesheimer, Bob (October 20, 2010). "More bibliophiles get on the same page with digital readers". USA Today. Archived from the original on May 4, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
- King, Stephen (2001). Dreamcatcher. Scribner. ISBN 0-7432-1138-3.
- King, Stephen (February 1, 2007). "The Pop of King: The Tao of Steve". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on March 15, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
- Powers, Kevin (July 25, 2008). "Marvel Bringing Stephen King's "N" To Your Phone". Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2008.
- Schuessler, Jennifer (November 29, 2009). "Best Sellers – The New York Times". Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved March 20, 2011.
- Mullin, Pamela (October 25, 2009). "SCOTT SNYDER and STEPHEN KING to write a new horror comic book series, AMERICAN VAMPIRE". Vertigo.blog.dccomics.com. Archived from the original on December 18, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
- Rogers, Vaneta (October 26, 2009). "Stephen King Brings an American Vampire Tale to Vertigo". Newsarama. Archived from the original on October 28, 2009. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- Rogers, Vaneta. "Rafael Albuquerque Talks American Vampire, Stephen King" Archived May 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Newsarama, October 29, 2010
- Cowsill, Alan "2000s" in Dolan, p. 340: "The first five double-sized issues consisted of two stories, illustrated by Rafael Albuquerque. Scott Snyder wrote each issue's lead feature, and Stephen King wrote the back-up tales."
- 11/22/63. Amazon.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- King, Stephen. "Stephen King's 11/22/63" Archived March 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. stephenking.com. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
- "World Fantasy Award Ballot". World Fantasy Convention. Archived from the original on August 14, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
- King, Stephen. "The Dark Tower: The Wind Through the Keyhole: 2012" Archived September 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, stephenking.com. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
- "The Wind Through the Keyhole". The Sunday Times. UK. April 8, 2012. Archived from the original on December 6, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2012.(subscription required)
- "A Conversation with Stephen King" Archived December 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Chancellor's Speaker Series. University of Massachusetts Lowell. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- Tucker, Ken (May 25, 2013). "A Rare Interview with Master Storyteller Stephen King". Parade. Archived from the original on June 7, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
- "Under the Dome - Live Chat feat. Stephen King". CBS. June 20, 2013. Archived from the original on June 24, 2013. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- King, Stephen (November 11, 2014). Revival. Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
- King, Stephen (June 10, 2014). "Stephen King @Sephen King". @Stephen King. Stephen King via Twitter. Archived from the original on June 16, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- McClurg, Jocelyn (June 10, 2015). "Stephen King rules at No. 1". Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
- "Sleeping Beauties; A New Book By Stephen & Owen King Due In 2017". June 14, 2016. Archived from the original on November 19, 2016. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
- "The Collection | Barbara Kruger. My Pretty Pony. 1988". MoMA. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
- "Gauntlet Press website, forthcoming titles". Gauntletpress.com. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
- "June/July 2012 Contents". Esquire. May 22, 2012. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- "August 2012 Contents". Esquire. July 3, 2012. Archived from the original on March 26, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- King, Stephen; Hill, Joe; Lang, Stephen (October 9, 2012). In the Tall Grass. Simon & Schuster Audio. ISBN 978-1442359888.
- Thurman, Trace (September 21, 2016). "Stephen King Turns 69 Today!". Bloody Disgusting. Archived from the original on January 7, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
- Truitt, Brian (May 22, 2017). "Stephen King loads 'Gwendy's Button Box' with scares". USA Today. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Breznican, Anthony (May 1, 2019). "'Gwendy's Magic Feather' goes back to Stephen King's Castle Rock". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Richard Chizmar [@RichardChizmar] (November 29, 2020). "She's back" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Stephen King [@StephenKing] (January 26, 2021). "Reading CHASING THE BOOGEYMAN , by my sometime collaborator, Rich Chizmar (GWENDY'S BUTTON BOX and the forthcoming GWENDY'S FINAL TASK). BOOGEYMAN is creepy and engrossing. You'll believe it" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Richard Chizmar [@RichardChizmar] (March 9, 2021). "Couple of lucky guys in today's Publishers Marketplace..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Gregmar, Bolle. "Complete Blue Öyster Cult Discography" (PDF). Blue Öyster Cult. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 28, 2007. Retrieved July 14, 2008.
- Knopper, Steve (October 26, 2012). "Blue Oyster Cult's 40th anniversary CD". Newsday. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Ives, Brian (June 13, 2013). "Inside The Music Of Stephen King's 'Under The Dome' Miniseries". radio.com. CBS. Archived from the original on July 2, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Adams, Michael (July 14, 2009). "The Cold Case: Director Mick Garris on Michael Jackson's Forgotten Ghosts". Movieline. Archived from the original on June 2, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- King, Stephen (January 17, 2015). "Memories of Michael Jackson". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on September 19, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Lewis, Randy (February 27, 2010). "Shooter Jennings and Stephen King team for 'Black Ribbons'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 13, 2012. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
- Domonoske, Camila (June 17, 2013). "Digital Scrapbook Collects Rock-Star Authors' Memories". NPR. Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- Crowder, Courtney (July 12, 2013). "The Rock Bottom Remainders rock out in 'Hard Listening'". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- Everything You Need to Know About Writing Successfully—in Ten Minutes
- "Stephen King's official site". Archived from the original on May 9, 2007. Retrieved May 14, 2007.
- King, Stephen (1976). Night Shift. xii: Doubleday. p. 336.
- Jenna Blum, 2013, The Modern Scholar published by Recorded Books, The Author at Work: The Art of Writing Fiction, Disk 1, Track 11, ISBN 978-1-4703-8437-1
- "Stephen King writes for FANGORIA!". Archived from the original on September 25, 2009.
- Bricken, Rob (June 24, 2013). "R.I.P. Richard Matheson, Author of I Am Legend and Many Other Classics". io9. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Houellebecq, Michel (2005). H.P. Lovecraft: Against the World, Against Life. Believer Books. ISBN 9781932416183.
- Anderson, Kyle (October 17, 2017). "A Guide to Stephen King's Lovecraftian Gods". Nerdist.
Learning about Stephen King’s deep cosmic horror should prompt a deep dive into one of King's biggest influences, the early 20th Century horror and sci-fi writer H.P. Lovecraft, who is basically the inventor of cosmic horror.
- King, Stephen, "Self-Interview Archived 2009-02-01 at the Wayback Machine", 10:50 am, September 4, 2008. StephenKing.com. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- Stayton, Richard. "Ray Bradbury: A Lion at 90, 91, 92..." The Writer's Guild of America. Archived from the original on May 6, 2013. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
- Spignesi, Stephen J. (August 4, 2010). The Essential Stephen King: A Ranking of the Greatest Novels, Short Stories. Movies, and Other Creations of the World's Most Popular Writer. New Page Books. p. 312. Archived at Google Books. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- "Exclusive: Stephen King on J.K. Rowling, Stephenie Meyer"
- Robertson, Don (1987). The Ideal, Genuine Man. Bangor, ME: Philtrum Press. viiI.
- "The Castle of Otranto: The creepy tale that launched gothic fiction" Archived July 17, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. Retrieved October 11, 2017
- "Stephen King's Top Ten List (2007)". Archived from the original on September 2, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- Clute, John and Peter Nichols. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1993. ISBN 0-312-09618-6
- Carroll, Noël (1990) The Philosophy of Horror, or, Paradoxes of the Heart. NY: Routledge, 0-415-90145-6
- Joshi, S.T, The Modern Weird Tale: A Critique of Horror Fiction, McFarland & Company, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7864-0986-0
- "Past Winners List" Archived February 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. The PEN/O. Henry Prize Stories. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- Deaver, Jeffrey, ed. (2001). A Century of Great Suspense Stories. Berkley Hardcover. p. 290. ISBN 0-425-18192-8.
- Bloom, Harold (September 24, 2003). "Dumbing down American readers". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on June 17, 2006. Retrieved December 29, 2006.
- "Yummi Bears, Lions, Boomtown, Mayer, and King – Uncle Orson Reviews Everything". Hatrack.com. Archived from the original on October 9, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
- "The New Classics: Books | EW 1000: Books | The EW 1000". Entertainment Weekly. June 27, 2008. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
- King, Stephen; "Videogame Lunacy"; "The Pop of King" Entertainment Weekly; April 11, 2008.
- "Earth Times: show/175900,stephen-king-backing-barack-obama.html". July 29, 2012. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012.
- Von Drehle, David (September 17, 2009). "Mad Man: Is Glenn Beck Bad for America?". Time. Archived from the original on May 21, 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
- Bershad, Jon. "Stephen King Speaks At Budget Cut Protest, Says Florida Governor Should Star In His Next Horror Novel" Archived March 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Mediaite, March 9, 2011
- King, Stephen (March 21, 2011). "Stephen King: Tax Me, for F@%&'s Sake!". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on May 1, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- Carroll, Rory (January 25, 2013). "Stephen King risks wrath of NRA by releasing pro-gun control essay". The Guardian. Archived from the original on June 6, 2014. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- King, Stephen (February 1, 2013). "Stephen King: why the US must introduce limited gun controls". The Guardian. Archived from the original on February 26, 2017. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Samuel, Benjamin (February 14, 2013). "Why Stephen King was wrong to publish 'Guns' as a Kindle Single" Archived February 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Daily News.
- "Stephen King Bashes Trump on Twitter". KGAN. August 6, 2015. Archived from the original on August 24, 2015. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
- "Stephen King on new novel "End of Watch," thoughts on Donald Trump". CBS News. June 7, 2016. Archived from the original on June 8, 2016. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
- "Author Stephen King tells Iowans to vote out Steve King: 'I'm tired of being confused with this racist dumbbell'". The Hill. November 4, 2018. Archived from the original on November 4, 2018. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
- "Author Stephen King calls for release of 'unjustly imprisoned' Sentsov". Kyiv Post. June 15, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
- Christian, Carlos (February 4, 2020). "Stephen King Wants Warren to "Open a Large Can of Whup-Ass on Trump"". The Union Journal. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
- Sternlicht, Alexandra (June 29, 2020). "Willie Nelson Joins List of Celebrities Endorsing Biden". Forbes.
- King, Stephen (May 30, 2014). "For this lifetime Mainer, Bellows is the clear choice". Bangor Daily News. Archived from the original on May 30, 2014. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
- Mistler, Steve (March 20, 2015). "Stephen King calls out LePage on erroneous tax statements". Kennebec Journal. Archived from the original on March 22, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Mistler, Steve (March 20, 2015). "King to LePage: 'Man up and apologize'". Kennebec Journal. Archived from the original on March 22, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Mistler, Steve (March 26, 2015). "LePage crashes local budget forum, denies saying Stephen King doesn't pay taxes". Portland Press Herald. Archived from the original on March 28, 2015. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- Cousins, Christopher (March 23, 2015). "Stephen King for governor: Horror story or best seller?". Bangor Daily News. Archived from the original on March 25, 2015. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- Cousins, Christopher (March 23, 2015). "UPDATE: King continues attack on LePage, says 'I will not run' for governor". Bangor Daily News. Archived from the original on March 26, 2015. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Rhoda, Erin (July 1, 2015). "Stephen King joins call for LePage to resign". Bangor Daily News. Archived from the original on July 1, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- DeCosta-Klipa, Nik (August 28, 2016). "Maine's Stephen King says Gov. Paul LePage 'is a bigot, a homophobe, and a racist'". Boston.com. Archived from the original on August 31, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
- Flood, Alison (May 1, 2012). "Stephen King: I'm rich, tax me". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 24, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- "Top Giving Foundations: ME". The Grantsmanship Center. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- Flood, Alison (November 10, 2011). "Stephen King to donate $70,000 to heat Maine homes". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on December 28, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- King, Stephen. "Stephen King on Twitter: "A couple of kids got married 48 years ago today. So far it's worked out pretty well. Still in love."". Twitter. Archived from the original on January 2, 2019. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
- "Stephen King is turning his Maine home into a museum and writer's retreat". Telegram.com. October 17, 2019. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
- "River of Grass Ministry". Archived from the original on May 2, 2010. Retrieved April 5, 2009.
- "Jordan will build 'Box' for Warners". Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007.
- Adams, Tim (September 14, 2000). "The Stephen King interview, uncut and unpublished". The Guardian. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- King, Stephen (2000). On Writing: A Memoir. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-76996-3.
- "Stephen King, The Art of Fiction No. 189". The Paris Review. Archived from the original on June 13, 2013. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
- McCrea, Nick. (August 23, 2001), "Stephen King announces new radio show, hopes it will 'burn some feet'" Archived October 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Bangor Daily News
- "King's accident". Lijia's Library. Archived from the original on March 7, 2005. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
- "The writer, the accident, and a lonely end". The Guardian. October 1, 2002.
- Rogak, Lisa. Haunted heart: The Life and Times of Stephen King Archived March 26, 2018, at the Wayback Machine at Google Books. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "Novelist Stephen King" Archived September 5, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Fresh Air; NPR June 22, 2001
- Dubner, Stephen J. "What's Stephen King Trying to Prove?" Archived January 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The New York Times, August 13, 2000
- Alex Awards Archived April 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, American Library Association. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- Bram Stoker Awards Archived January 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Horror Writer's Association. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- "Horror Writers Association Blog » Blog Archive » 2011 Bram Stoker Award™ winners and Vampire Novel of the Century Award winner". Horror.org. April 1, 2012. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2012.
- "The Winners of the 2013 Bram Stoker Awards" Archived June 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Horror Writers Association. May 11, 2014.
- British Fantasy Society Awards Archived May 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Fantastic Fiction. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
- "1982 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. July 26, 2007. Archived from the original on May 7, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- International Horror Guild Awards Archived October 31, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, International Horror Guild. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- Kono Mystery ga Sugoi! 2014 (in Japanese). Takarajimasha. December 2013. ISBN 978-4-8002-2039-4.
- "Book Prizes – Los Angeles Times Festival of Books". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 10, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- Locus Awards Archived February 28, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Locus Magazine. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- King, Stephen. Full Dark, No Stars ISBN 978-1-4391-9256-6
- "National Magazine Awards 2013 Winners Announced" (Press release). American Society of Magazine Editors (ASME). May 2, 2013. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
- "The Shirley Jackson Awards Website". Shirleyjacksonawards.org. Archived from the original on July 31, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2012.
- "World Fantasy Awards – Complete Listing". Worldfantasy.org. Archived from the original on October 15, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2012.
- "Past WHCs". World Horror Convention. November 15, 2009. Archived from the original on April 15, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2012.
- "The Cocaine-Fueled Acting Cameos Of Stephen King". Cracked.com. May 9, 2017. Archived from the original on September 26, 2017. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
- Lowry, Brian (February 29, 2004). "Review: 'Stephen King's Kingdom Hospital'". Variety. Archived from the original on September 26, 2017. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
- Morrison, Sara (May 7, 2010). "Stephen King guests on Sons of Anarchy for season three". Monsters and Critics. Archived from the original on August 26, 2010.
- Bruney, Gabrielle (September 7, 2019). "Here's How 'It Chapter Two' Pulled Off Those Big Cameos". Esquire.
- Brooks, Justin (2008). Stephen King: A Primary Bibliography of the World's Most Popular Author. Cemetery Dance. ISBN 978-1-58767-153-1.
- Collings, Michael R. (1985). The Many Facets of Stephen King. Starmont House. ISBN 0-930261-14-3.
- Collings, Michael R.; Engebretson, David A. (1985). The Shorter Works of Stephen King. Starmont House. ISBN 0-930261-02-X.
- Collings, Michael R. (1985). Stephen King as Richard Bachman. Starmont House. ISBN 0-930261-00-3.
- Collings, Michael R. (1986). The Films of Stephen King. Starmont House. ISBN 0-930261-10-0.
- Collings, Michael R. (1986). The Annotated Guide to Stephen King: A Primary and Secondary Bibliography of the Works of America's Premier Horror Writer. Starmont House. ISBN 0-930261-80-1.
- Collings, Michael R. (1987). The Stephen King Phenomenon. Starmont House. ISBN 0-930261-12-7.
- Collings, Michael R. (2003). Horror Plum'd: An International Stephen King Bibliography and Guide 1960–2000. Overlook Connection Press. ISBN 1-892950-45-6.
- Collings, Michael R. (2008). Stephen King Is Richard Bachman. Overlook Connection Press. ISBN 978-1-892950-74-1.
- Hoppenstand, Gary, ed. (2010). Stephen King. Salem Press. ISBN 978-1-58765-685-9.
- Spignesi, Stephen (1991). The Complete Stephen King Encyclopedia. Contemporary Books. ISBN 978-0-8092-3818-7.
- Spignesi, Stephen (1998). The Lost Work of Stephen King. Birch Lane Press. ISBN 978-1-55972-469-2.
- Spignesi, Stephen (2001). The Essential Stephen King. Career Press. ISBN 978-1-56414-710-3.
- Wood, Rocky; Rawsthorne, David; Blackburn, Norma. The Complete Guide to the Works of Stephen King. Kanrock Partners. ISBN 0-9750593-3-5.
- Wood, Rocky (2006). Stephen King: Uncollected, Unpublished. Cemetery Dance. ISBN 1-58767-130-1.
- Wood, Rocky; Brooks, Justin. The Stephen King Collector's Guide. Kanrock Partners. ISBN 978-0-9750593-5-7.
- Wood, Rocky; Brooks, Justin (2008). Stephen King: The Non-Fiction. Cemetery Dance. ISBN 978-1-58767-160-9.
|Library resources about |
|By Stephen King|
- Official website
- Stephen King on Twitter
- Working with the King – Shotsmag Ezine Interview with Philippa Pride, King's UK editor
- Works by or about Stephen King in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Stephen King at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- Stephen King at the Internet Book List
- Stephen King at IMDb
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher; Rich, Nathaniel (Fall 2006). "Stephen King, The Art of Fiction No. 189". The Paris Review. Fall 2006 (178).
- "I try to create sympathy for my characters and then turn the monsters loose." - Stephen King and one of his key approaches to writing horror stories.