Stephen Sweeney

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Stephen Sweeney
Senate President Stephen M. Sweeney.jpg
114th President of the New Jersey Senate
In office
January 12, 2010 – January 11, 2022
Preceded byRichard Codey
Succeeded byNicholas Scutari
Majority Leader of the New Jersey Senate
In office
January 8, 2008 – January 12, 2010
Preceded byBernard Kenny
Succeeded byBarbara Buono
Member of the New Jersey Senate
from the 3rd district
In office
January 8, 2002 – January 11, 2022
Preceded byRaymond Zane
Succeeded byEdward Durr
Personal details
Born (1959-06-11) June 11, 1959 (age 63)
Camden, New Jersey, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
SpousePatti Sweeney
WebsiteSenate website
Official website

Stephen M. Sweeney (born June 11, 1959) is an American politician and labor leader who served in the New Jersey Senate from 2002 to 2022, representing the 3rd legislative district. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the 114th President of the New Jersey Senate from 2010 to 2022 and served as the body's majority leader from 2008 to 2010.

A Union Ironworker by trade, Sweeney was frequently described as a political power broker in New Jersey politics and identifies as a moderate and a fiscal conservative.[1] His legislative tenure ended after he was defeated in 2021 by Republican Edward Durr in what was considered a major political upset.[2] Following his defeat, Sweeney announced he would run for governor in 2025.[3]

Early life[edit]

Sweeney was born on June 11, 1959, in Camden, New Jersey, and graduated from Pennsauken High School in 1977. He is of Irish ancestry.[4] He joined Ironworkers Local 399 (of Camden, New Jersey) and gained journeyman status on January 1, 1980.


Sweeney serves as general vice president of the International Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental and Reinforcing Iron Workers.[5][6]

Gloucester County Commissioner[edit]

Sweeney served on the Gloucester County Board of County Commissioners, a post he held since 1997, and served as the Director of the board from January 6, 2006, until he left office in 2010.[7] During that period of time he simultaneously held a seat in the New Jersey Senate and was a Freeholder, a practice known as "double dipping" that was allowed under a grandfather clause in a 2007 state law that prevents dual-office-holding but allows those who had held both positions as of February 1, 2008, to retain both posts.[8]

New Jersey Senate[edit]

Sweeney sponsored a 2002 law allowing municipalities and other public entities beginning a construction project to enter into a Project Labor Agreement (PLA), an agreement that establishes the terms and conditions of employment and prohibits the use of strikes and lockouts, which can save money by reducing cost overruns and work stoppages, and contribute to decreased labor unrest.[9] A 2005 law Sweeney sponsored enabled the Delaware River and Bay Authority to establish an ethanol plant in Southern New Jersey, the first of its kind in any of the Mid-Atlantic states, a project intended to create jobs for South Jersey and supply a new market for farmers in the region.[10] In response to heightened security warnings around potential targets such as chemical and nuclear plants since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks that destroyed the World Trade Center, Sweeney pushed to require potentially vulnerable facilities to implement security standards and to explore possible safer technologies.[11] He sponsored legislation to allow security guards at nuclear plants to carry assault weapons and high-powered ammunition. The bill, which was signed into law in September 2003, requires guards to undergo mandated training in the use of the firearms before getting access to the weapons.[12][better source needed]

Other legislation sponsored by Sweeney and signed into law provides state pensions to surviving family members of police, firefighters and emergency services workers who die in the line of duty,[13][14] as well as the law that removes the remarriage prohibition to receive death benefits for spouses of police officers and firefighters killed while serving the public good.[15][16] Sweeney also co-sponsored the law providing health benefits to New Jersey National Guard members who serve for 30 days or more on state active duty.[17][18]

Sweeney sponsored "Maggie's Law", which establishes driving while seriously fatigued as a form of driver recklessness.[19] The first law of its kind in the United States, "Maggie's Law" was signed by Governor Jim McGreevey in August 2003. It subjects sleep deprived drivers who have been awake for 24 hours or more to sentences of up to 10 years in jail and fines up to $150,000 if they get into fatal car accidents caused by their lack of sleep. Sweeney first pursued the legislation when he was contacted by the mother of Maggie McDonnell, a Washington Township resident who was killed in a car accident by a driver who had been up for over 30 hours without sleeping.[20]

On June 1, 2006, Sweeney and two Assembly Democrats, Paul D. Moriarty (D, 4th legislative district) and Jerry Green (D, 22nd legislative district), announced their support for cuts of as much as 15% to New Jersey state worker salaries and benefits as part of an effort to avoid a one-point increase in the state's sales tax proposed by Governor Jon Corzine.[21] He urged that workers affected by the state shutdown in July 2006 should not collect pay for the time they were furloughed, stating that he would have voted to reject the state budget if he had known that state workers would receive pay for a period when they were not working.[22]

Sweeney was selected by the Senate Democratic Caucus to serve as Majority Leader on November 8, 2007.[23]

In December 2016, Sweeney was one of several Catholic elected officials who supported legislation legalizing assisted suicide, saying that state residents should be able to make their own decisions on a topic in which "the church takes positions that are not necessarily mainstream".[24]


  • Joint Budget Oversight[25]
  • Budget and Appropriations
  • Legislative Services Commission

Senate Presidency[edit]

Sweeney with U.S. Secretary of Labor Marty Walsh at the New Jersey Wind Port groundbreaking ceremony on July 22, 2021, in Hancocks Bridge, New Jersey.

On the afternoon of November 23, 2009, New Jersey Senate Democrats chose Sweeney as State Senate President over the incumbent, former governor Richard Codey. He took office on January 12, 2010.[26] In the absence of the governor and lieutenant governor, Sweeney served as acting governor of New Jersey during the eastern seaboard storm of December 2010.[27]

In January 2010, Sweeney abstained when the New Jersey Senate voted on the question of allowing same-sex couples to marry. The bill was not passed. Sweeney later called his abstention a mistake and said that the issue was a civil rights issue, not a religious issue.[28] In 2012, Sweeney was one of the prime sponsors of legislation that would legalize same-sex marriage.[29][better source needed] The bill was approved in both houses of the Legislature, but was ultimately vetoed by Governor Chris Christie; Christie favored putting the issue up for public referendum.[30]

In 2010, Sweeney helped design and pass thirty bills, known collectively as "Back to Work NJ," that aimed to help create jobs and economic growth in New Jersey.[31] In 2011, Sweeney proposed sweeping reforms to the public employee pension and health benefits systems that he estimates would save taxpayers over $120 billion over a 30-year period.[32] Sweeney also helped craft the state's two-percent property tax cap in order to control rising property taxes.[33] Sweeney was named as a "Politician Who's Ahead of the Curve" by Philadelphia Magazine in 2011 for his continued support of shared services between local government units.[34]

With Republican Thomas Kean, Jr. and fellow Democrat Raymond Lesniak, Sweeney sponsored Senate Bill S2664, the "Market Competition and Consumer Choice Act" in 2011, which Verizon said would encourage the firm to create additional jobs in the state.[35][better source needed]

Following Governor Christie's use of the line item veto on the state's 2011 budget, Sweeney was quoted by The Star-Ledger as being "incensed". Two days later, Sweeney was unapologetic about what The Star-Ledger described as a "tirade" against Christie, saying "[...] I don't apologize for it. The governor was wrong to hurt people", in response to further questions about the earlier reports which quoted him as describing Christie as a "rotten bastard", a "punk", and "Mr. Potter from It's a Wonderful Life."[36] Christie had cut funding for tax credits and health care for the working poor, women's health funding, AIDS medication funding, and mental health services.[37] In January 2013, two months after Hurricane Sandy hit New Jersey, Sweeney suggested that Governor Christie "got lucky" because the hurricane had distracted voters from New Jersey's slow economic recovery, an issue that many political observers believed was a potential point of weakness for Christie. He was heavily criticized for his remark, and a spokesman for Christie called it "politics at its worst".[38]

During Christie's tenure as Governor, Sweeney was the lead advocate of legislation to raise taxes on millionaires. Christie vetoed such legislation on five occasions. After Democrat Phil Murphy became Governor, Democrats backed off the legislation, with Sweeney saying, "This state is taxed out. If you know anything about New Jersey, they're just weary of the taxes."[39]

In December 2018, Sweeney led efforts to change the New Jersey constitution so that it entrenched the gerrymandering of New Jersey districts. The efforts were condemned by national Democrats such as former Attorney General Eric Holder, as well as by New Jersey governor Phil Murphy.[40]

Before New Jersey's 2010 creation of the Lieutenant Governor position, Sweeney often served as New Jersey's Acting Governor by virtue of his position as Senate President. As a presiding officer, Sweeney has received protection from the New Jersey State Police's Executive Protection Unit.[41]

2015 recall effort by pro-gun activists[edit]

In March 2015, a group of pro-gun activists began pushing for a recall of Sweeney. The organization, known as 'Recall Steve Sweeney', was led by the New Jersey Second Amendment Society which expressed displeasure with Sweeney's record on gun control legislation.[42] The group's first attempt at filing petitions in March was denied by the state for lacking additional certifications; a second attempt began shortly thereafter. For a recall election to occur, the group had to collect valid signatures from 25% of the 3rd district's registered voters, or 34,808 signatures, in 160 days.[42] The threshold was not met by the deadline, thus ending the recall effort for a second time.[citation needed]

Awards and recognition[edit]

Sweeney is frequently cited as the most powerful elected Democrat in New Jersey.[43][44][45] Sweeney was ranked #4 by NJBIZ in their 2015 "Power 100" rankings of the most influential people statewide, and was ranked #4 by PolitickerNJ in their most recent annual ranking of the state's most powerful elected officials.[46][47] Institutional Investor Magazine ranked Sweeney #12 nationwide on their "2017 Political Pension Power 25" list, ahead of figures such as financier Paul Singer and AFL-CIO President Richard Trumka.[48] In March 2022, Rowan University announced the formation of the Steve Sweeney Center for Public Policy in their College of Humanities & Social Sciences.[49] Sweeney is actively involved in a variety of local service and non-profit organizations and has received numerous accolades from business leaders, volunteer organizations, labor advocates, environmentalists and other important organizations from around New Jersey. He is especially committed to supporting and advocating for those with developmental disabilities—Sweeney's daughter, Lauren, was born prematurely with Down syndrome. Sweeney often credits his daughter with prompting his entry in to politics.[50][51]

Sweeney's awards include the Outstanding State Legislator Award from the NJ Veterans of Foreign Wars[52] and the "Legislator of the Year" Award from the New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce (2011).[53]

Personal life[edit]

Sweeney and his wife, Patti, were married in 1986. They live in West Deptford Township, New Jersey, and have two children, Stephen and Lauren.[7]

Electoral history[edit]


In 2021, Sweeney was defeated in a massive upset by Edward Durr, a Republican truck driver who had never held elected office. Durr spent less than $2,300 on his campaign,[54][55] while Sweeney spent approximately $305,000.[56]

New Jersey State Senate election, 2021[57]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Edward Durr 33,761 51.7%
Democratic Stephen M. Sweeney (incumbent) 31,562 48.3%
Republican gain from Democratic


Sweeney was widely viewed as a top contender for the 2017 gubernatorial election to succeed Governor Chris Christie.[58] On October 6, 2016, however, Sweeney announced that he would not seek the Democratic nomination for governor in 2017.[59]

Sweeney won re-election to a sixth term in 2017, defeating Salem County Republican Chairman Fran Grenier in the largest electoral victory of his career (59%–41%).[60] As of 2017, the election was one of the most expensive state legislative races in U.S. history.[61] Due to prior conflicts with Sweeney, the New Jersey Education Association, which typically backs Democratic candidates, controversially endorsed Grenier and spent millions of dollars in attack ads against Sweeney.[62][63][64]

New Jersey State Senate elections, 2017
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Stephen M. Sweeney (incumbent) 31,541 59
Republican Fran Grenier 22,204 41
Democratic hold


In the state's most expensive Senate race of the 2013 cycle, Sweeney defeated Republican attorney Niki Trunk 55%–45%[45][65]

New Jersey State Senate elections, 2013
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Stephen M. Sweeney (incumbent) 31,045 54.8
Republican Niki A. Trunk 25,599 45.2
Democratic hold


Sweeney won re-election to a fourth term defeating Michael Mulligan 56%–44%.[66]

New Jersey State Senate elections, 2011[67]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Stephen M. Sweeney (incumbent) 25,299 55.6
Republican Michael M. Mulligan 20,197 44.4
Democratic hold


Sweeney won re-election to a third term defeating Mark Cimino 57%–40%.[68]

New Jersey State Senate elections, 2007[69]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Stephen M. Sweeney (incumbent) 29,908 59.2
Republican Mark Cimino 20,645 40.8
Democratic hold


Sweeney won re-election to a second term defeating Phillip Rhudy 54%–45%.[70]

New Jersey general election, 2003
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Stephen M. Sweeney 29,051 54.0 Increase 2.5
Republican Phillip S. Rhudy 24,698 46.0 Decrease 2.5
Total votes 53,749 100.0


Then Freeholder Sweeney defeated eight-term Republican State Senator Raymond Zane 51%–49%.[71] The race was the most expensive legislative race in New Jersey history at the time, totaling $2.4 million, with Sweeney spending an individual record $1.8 million to triple Zane's spending of $624,000.[72] The record stood until 2003, when $4 million was spent in Fred H. Madden's successful race to unseat George Geist.[73][74]

New Jersey general election, 2001
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Stephen M. Sweeney 29,873 51.5
Republican Raymond J. Zane 28,138 48.5
Total votes 58,011 100.0


  1. ^ Friedman, Matt (January 10, 2018). "Will Democratic Legislature be a check on Murphy's liberalism?". Politico.
  2. ^ "Spending $2,300, GOP newcomer Ed Durr beats top NJ lawmaker". AP NEWS. November 4, 2021. Retrieved November 6, 2021.
  3. ^ Wildstein, David. "Sweeney Tells Plumbers Union He's Running For Governor". New Jersey Globe. Sea of Reeds Media. Retrieved March 14, 2022.
  4. ^ "It All Started With Layren", Third Legislative District. Accessed March 18, 2020. "'My grandparents had a finished basement, with a bar, and they’d entertain,' Sweeney says. 'We felt blessed. We got to grow up with our grandparents. You know, I may be Irish, but I was raised Italian.'"
  5. ^ Senator Sweeney's legislative web page, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed March 14, 2008.
  6. ^ "Stephen Sweeney".
  7. ^ a b Stephen M. Sweeney Biography, Third Legislative District. Accessed March 15, 2013.
  8. ^ via Associated Press. "N.J. Lawmakers keep double dipping", WPVI-TV, March 4, 2008. Accessed June 4, 2009.
  9. ^ Saharko, Peter. "STATE SEN. SWEENEY BACKS BILL FOR LABOR", The Press of Atlantic City, February 15, 2002. Accessed January 7, 2012. "The measure would let state, local and county governments set terms of employment beforehand and prohibit strikes and lockouts. Public entities would be able to enter into project labor agreements when completing a public-works project under legislation sponsored by state Sen. Stephen M. Sweeney, D-Cumberland, Salem, Gloucester."
  10. ^ "A Hotbed of Residential and Commercial Activity", Gloucester County, New Jersey, March 21, 2005. Accessed August 28, 2012.
  11. ^ Fifield, Adam. "Sweeney joining plant-safety push", The Philadelphia Inquirer, May 2, 2003. Accessed August 28, 2012.
  12. ^ S-1453, New Jersey Office of Legislative Services, introduced May 13, 2002. Accessed August 28, 2012.
  13. ^ S-1432, New Jersey Office of Legislative Services, introduced March 26, 2002. Accessed August 28, 2012.
  14. ^ Saharko, Peter. "STATE LINES / CHANGING FACE OF N.J. LEGISLATURE", The Press of Atlantic City, November 12, 2001. Accessed August 28, 2012. "For Sweeney, transportation and the environment are important issues, but a passion of his involves ensuring police and fire pensions for the spouses of those killed in the line of duty."
  15. ^ S-1434, New Jersey Office of Legislative Services, introduced March 26, 2002. Accessed August 28, 2012.
  16. ^ McAleer, Pete. "LAW SAVES AID TO COP WIDOWS", The Press of Atlantic City, September 13, 2003. Accessed August 28, 2012. "It eliminates the remarriage penalty for spouses of state troopers, police, firefighters and emergency responders killed in the line of duty, allowing spouses to continue to collect pension benefits if they remarry. State Sen. Stephen Sweeney and Assemblymen Doug Fisher and John Burzichelli, all D-Camden, Gloucester, sponsored the bill, which had in the Statehouse for a decade."
  17. ^ SENATE, No. 2507 210th LEGISLATURE Introduced May 15, 2003, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed August 28, 2012. "Provides State-paid health care benefits coverage through SHBP for certain National Guard members called to State active duty for 30 days or more."
  18. ^ Governor Signs New Laws Enhancing Benefits for Active National Guard Members, Governor of New Jersey, August 1, 2003. Accessed August 28, 2012.
  19. ^ Senate, Bill No. 1644, State of New Jersey, 210th Legislature, introduced June 13, 2002.
  20. ^ McDonnell, Carole.Manifesting Maggie's Law, Sleep Review: the Journal for Sleep Specialists. January / February 2004.[dead link]
  21. ^ Ung, Elisa. "Sweeney to N.J. workers: Cut pay: The senator, a labor leader, said he was angered by union support for an N.J. sales-tax increase", The Philadelphia Inquirer, June 2, 2006. Accessed August 28, 2012. "Democratic State Sen. Stephen M. Sweeney, a major union leader from Gloucester County, shocked state employee unions yesterday by calling on their members to take a 15 percent cut in salaries and benefits.... Sweeney said he was angered by a union flyer that asked legislators to support a proposed increase in the sales tax from 6 percent to 7 percent - 'so that,' he said, 'state workers don't have to experience the pain that every taxpayer in the state is going to experience.'"
  22. ^ Pillets, Jeff. "Furloughed state workers to get all their back pay", The Record (Bergen County), July 11, 2006. Accessed August 28, 2012. "'If I knew they were going to pay everybody like this, I would not have voted for the budget,' said Sen. Stephen M. Sweeney, a Democrat who represents voters in several South Jersey counties."
  23. ^ "Codey and Sweeney Elected to Lead Senate, New Jersey Senate Democratic press release, November 8, 2007. Accessed on August 28, 2012
  24. ^ Alex, Patricia. "Catholic lawmakers support assisted suicide despite faith", The Record (Bergen County), December 13, 2016. Accessed July 15, 2019. "'The church takes positions that are not necessarily mainstream. Why not give someone a choice?' Senate President Stephen Sweeney, who is Catholic, said of the proposal, which he has actively supported. He said the measure is about helping the terminally ill have peaceful deaths."
  25. ^ "Senator Stephen M. Sweeney (D) (Democratic Majority Leader / Conference Chair)". Archived from the original on April 11, 2008. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  26. ^ Margolin, Josh. "Democrats vote N.J. Sen. Stephen Sweeney in as Senate president", The Star-Ledger, November 23, 2009. Accessed January 7, 2012. "Senate Democrats emerged from a Statehouse meeting room a few minutes ago, saying Sen. Steve Sweeney (D-Gloucester) has been voted Senate president, replacing Richard Codey, the Essex County Democrat who long led the Senate's Democratic caucus. Codey left the second-floor caucus room at 2:50 p.m. and made only a brief comment to reporters waiting outside."
  27. ^ Lisa Fleisher (December 27, 2010). "New Jersey's Acting Governor Juggles Blizzard Aftermath". Wall Street Journal Metropolis. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
  28. ^ Spoto, MaryAnn. "Sweeney: N.J. gay marriage fight will be with Christie, not Legislature, Star Ledger, January 10, 2012. Accessed August 28, 2012. "With his abstention two years ago, Sweeney helped defeat a same-sex marriage bill that came up in the waning days of the lame-duck administration of Gov. Jon Corzine, who had pledged to sign it if the legislature passed it. Since then, Sweeney has said he made a mistake and should have voted for the measure because, he said, it's a matter of civil rights, not a religious issue."
  29. ^ Senate Dems Announce New Push for Marriage Equality, NJ Senate Democrats' YouTube Channel, January 9, 2012
  30. ^ "Gov. Christie follows through on promise to veto gay marriage bill" Associated Press, February 18, 2012.
  31. ^ NJ legislators advance package of jobs bills, The Associated Press, January 7, 2011
  32. ^ Sweeney: updated website will provide info on changing pension reform ideas, Gloucester County Times, June 14, 2011
  33. ^ NJ governor signs property tax cap bill, Associated Press, July 14, 2010
  34. ^ Politician Who's Ahead of the Curve: Steve Sweeney, Philadelphia Magazine
  35. ^ Staff. "Telecommunications bill ignites debate", Courier Post, March 21, 2011. Accessed August 28, 2012.
  36. ^ Friedman, Matt. "N.J. Senate leader Sweeney won't apologize for his tirade against Gov. Christie", The Star-Ledger, July 5, 2011. Accessed August 28, 2012. "In The Sunday Star-Ledger, Sweeney called Christie, among other things, a 'rotten bastard,' a 'punk' and 'Mr. Potter from It's a Wonderful Life."
  37. ^ Moran Tom. "Sweeney unleashes his fury as N.J. budget battle turns personal", The Star Ledger, July 3, 2011. Accessed August 28, 2012.
  38. ^ Friedman, Matt. "Sweeney: Gov. Christie 'prayed a lot' and 'got lucky' when Hurricane Sandy hit". January 8, 2013. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
  39. ^ Stein, Jeff (May 23, 2018). "N.J. Democrats loved the idea of taxing the rich — until they actually could do it". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  40. ^ Corasaniti, Nick (December 13, 2018). "Democrats in New Jersey Have a Firm Grip on Power. They Want Even More". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  41. ^ "Editorial: Let's hope NJ Transit gets the help it needs in special appropriation bill - NJBIZ". March 12, 2017.
  42. ^ a b Romalino, Carly Q. (April 5, 2015). "Sweeney: Recall committee can 'bring it on'". Courier-Post. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
  43. ^ "Democratic State Senator Stephen Sweeney Is Now The Most Powerful Democrat in the". December 14, 2009.
  44. ^ "North Jersey". North Jersey.
  45. ^ a b Friedman, Matt (November 5, 2013). "Stephen Sweeney maintains N.J. Senate seat in Gloucester County". NJ Advance Media. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
  46. ^ "The Top 10: 5-1 - NJBIZ". January 25, 2016.
  47. ^ "PolitickerNJ's 50 Most Powerful Elected Officials: 2014". October 27, 2014.
  48. ^ "The 2017 Pension Political Power 25: Steve Sweeney". Institutional Investor.
  49. ^ "Rowan University launches public policy center named for Steve Sweeney". WHYY. Retrieved September 15, 2022.
  50. ^ "It All Started with Lauren « New Jersey's 3rd Legislative District". Archived from the original on April 2, 2015.
  51. ^ Sokolic, William. "Legislative Roundup: Sweeney honored for work on behalf of disabled". Courier-Post.
  52. ^ State VFW Honors Sweeney, West Deptford Patch, February 12, 2011
  53. ^ Chamber names 4 lawmakers “Legislators of the Year”, Asbury Park Press, August 24, 2011
  54. ^ "NJ election results 2021". North Jersey Media Group. Associated Press. November 4, 2021. Retrieved November 5, 2021.
  55. ^ Friedman, Matt (November 4, 2021). "This truck driver just took down New Jersey's most powerful lawmaker". Politico. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  56. ^ Catalini, Mike (November 10, 2021). "Durr grapples with new post as Sweeney cites 'red wave'". Associated Press. Retrieved November 13, 2021.
  57. ^ "2021 New Jersey State Senate General Election Results" (PDF). Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  58. ^ "A preview of 2017? Fulop, Sweeney trade words over Jersey City pension bill". January 7, 2014.
  59. ^ "New Jersey Senate President not running for governor". McClatchy. Associated Press. October 6, 2016. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  60. ^ "2017-official-general-election-results-state-senate.pdf" (PDF). New Jersey Secretary of State. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  61. ^ Seidman, Andrew. "Steve Sweeney reelection in N.J. may be most expensive state legislative campaign ever".
  62. ^ "Democrats question NJEA's crusade against Sweeney". Politico.
  63. ^ "Dumbest move of 2017: The NJEA's Trump romance". October 22, 2017.
  64. ^ King, Kate (October 24, 2017). "N.J. Teachers Union Seeks State Senate President Ouster, Backs Republican". Wall Street Journal – via
  65. ^ "Official List Candidates for State Senate For GENERAL ELECTION 11/05/2015 Election" (PDF). Secretary of State of New Jersey. December 4, 2013. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
  66. ^ Official List Candidate Returns for State Senate For November 2011 General Election, New Jersey Department of State, December 14, 2011. Accessed January 7, 2012.
  67. ^ Official List Candidate Returns for State Senate For November 2011 General Election, New Jersey Department of State, December 14, 2011. Accessed January 7, 2012.
  68. ^ Official List Candidate Returns for State Senate For November 2007 General Election, New Jersey Department of State, December 3, 2007. Accessed June 21, 2012.
  69. ^ Official List Candidate Returns for State Senate For November 2007 General Election, New Jersey Department of State, December 3, 2007. Accessed June 21, 2012.
  70. ^ Official List Candidate Returns for State Senate For November 2003 General Election, New Jersey Department of State, December 2, 2003. Accessed August 27, 2012.
  71. ^ Official List Candidate Returns for State Senate For November 2001 General Election, New Jersey Department of State. Accessed August 27, 2012.
  72. ^ Smith, Joseph P. "Zane paid a price for defying the party", Asbury Park Press, September 24, 2003. Accessed May 23, 2008. "The Zane-Sweeney race in the 3rd District cost $2.4 million, making it the most expensive legislative race in state history. Freeholder Sweeney spent $1.8 million; Zane, $624,000, state election records show."
  73. ^ "Camden Co. Senate Too Close To Call", WCAU, 2003. Accessed August 28, 2012. "Even still, Democrat Fred Madden -- who spent nearly $3 million, almost twice the record for a legislative race -- claimed victory over Republican George Geist."
  74. ^ Gurney, Kaitlin; and Ruderman, Wendy. "Madden's $3 million race sets N.J. mark Democrats are pouring money into his bid to unseat Sen. George Geist. Observers are taken aback.", The Philadelphia Inquirer, October 30, 2003. Accessed August 28, 2012. "Democrat Fred Madden has amassed $3.3 million - more than any other legislative candidate in New Jersey history - in his quest to go from career state trooper to state senator.... Madden's campaign has shattered the $1.8 million state fund-raising record set in 2001 by another South Jersey Democrat, State Sen. Stephen Sweeney."

External links[edit]

New Jersey Senate
Preceded by Member of the New Jersey Senate
from the 3rd district

Succeeded by
Preceded by Majority Leader of the New Jersey Senate
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by President of the New Jersey Senate
Succeeded by