7 December 1938|
Johannesburg, South Africa
|Alma mater||University of Cambridge|
• Salter's Duck|
• Cloud reflectivity enhancement
• Wave generation and absorption in wave tanks
|Institutions||University of Edinburgh|
Stephen Hugh Salter, MBE, FRSE (born 7 December 1938) is Emeritus Professor of Engineering Design at the University of Edinburgh and inventor of the eponymous Salter duck wave energy device. Salter is also a proponent of geoengineering and is responsible for creating the concept of the mechanical enhancement of clouds to achieve cloud reflectivity enhancement.
The wide tank at the University of Edinburgh — a novel design and invention by Stephen Salter, built in 1977 — was the world's first multi-directional wave tank equipped with absorbing wavemakers. Feedback control systems on the wavemaking flaps were used for the absorption of reflected waves, propagating along the water surface of the tank interior towards the 89 flaps.
Salter was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) in the 2004 Birthday Honours for services to engineering. In 2012 he received the Royal Academy of Engineering Sustained Achievement Award.
While historic references to the power of waves do exist, the modern scientific pursuit of wave energy was begun in the 1970s by Stephen Salter, in response to the Oil Crisis. His 1974 invention became known as Salter's Duck or Nodding Duck, although it was officially referred to as the "Edinburgh Duck". In small scale controlled tests, the Duck's curved cam-like body can stop 90% of wave motion and can convert 90% of that to electricity. According to sworn testimony before the House of Parliament, The UK Wave Energy programme was shut down on 19 March 1982, in a closed meeting. An analysis of Salter's Duck resulted in a miscalculation of the estimated cost of energy production by a factor of 10, an error which was only recently identified. Some wave power advocates believe that this error, combined with a general lack of enthusiasm for renewable energy in the 1980s (after oil prices fell), hindered the advancement of wave power technology.
- Engineering at Edinburgh University: a short history, 1673-1983 - Ronald M. Birse - Google Books. Retrieved 2013-11-27 – via Google Books.
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- McGrath, Jane. "Could Salter's Duck have solved the oil crisis?". Green Science. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- Salter, S.H. (1974). "Wave power". Nature. 249 (5459): 720–724. Bibcode:1974Natur.249..720S. doi:10.1038/249720a0.
- Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Latham, John; Sahraei, Jalil; Salter, Stephen (2006). "Computational assessment of a proposed technique for global warming mitigation via albedo-enhancement of marine stratocumulus clouds". Atmospheric Research. 82 (1–2): 328–336. Bibcode:2006AtmRe..82..328B. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2005.11.013.
- Salter, S.H. (1981). "Conference on Directional Wave Spectra Applications". ASCE: 185–202.
- "Wide Wave Tank 1977 – 2001". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 2009-03-02.
- "Wave master". The Engineer. 10 April 2007. Retrieved 2009-03-02.
- "Aquamarine Power". Aquamarine Power. 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "''The London Gazette'', Number 57315, Saturday 12 June 2004". London-gazette.co.uk. 2004-06-12. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
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- "Edinburgh Wave Energy Project" (PDF). University of Edinburgh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-01. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
- "Memorandum submitted by Professor S H Salter, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Edinburgh". Parliament of the United Kingdom. 2001-02-09. Archived from the original on 2012-03-01. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
- "Further Memorandum by S H Salter, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Edinburgh" (PDF). Parliament of the United Kingdom. 1988-06-01. Retrieved 2017-12-29 – via S.H. Salter online archive.
- "Water Power Devices". Earth Science Australia. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
- "The untimely death of Salter's Duck". Green Left Weekly. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
- Walter Sullivan (15 April 1975). "System of Tapping Wave Power Would Use Giant Lopsided Vane". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-02.
- John Vidal (16 June 2004). "Eco sounding". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-02-02.