Stepin Fetchit in 1930
|Born||Lincoln Theodore Monroe Andrew Perry
May 30, 1902
Key West, Florida, U.S.
|Died||November 19, 1985
Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, California, US
|Cause of death||Pneumonia and heart failure|
|Resting place||Calvary Cemetery, East Los Angeles|
|Spouse(s)||Dorothy Stevenson (1929–1931)
Winifred Johnson (1937-1938)
Bernice Sims (1951–1984) (her death)
|Children||Jemajo Perry (1930–)
Donald Lambright (1938–1969)
Lincoln Theodore Monroe Andrew Perry (May 30, 1902 – November 19, 1985), better known by the stage name Stepin Fetchit, was an American comedian and film actor, who had his greatest fame throughout the 1930s. In films and on stage, the persona of Stepin Fetchit was billed as "the Laziest Man in the World".
Perry parlayed the Fetchit persona into a successful film career and became a millionaire. He was the first black actor to do so. He was also the first black actor to receive featured screen credit in a film.
Perry's film career slowed after 1939, and after 1953, nearly stopped altogether. Around that time, the actor and the character began to be seen by black Americans and Americans at large as an embarrassing and harmful anachronism, echoing and perpetuating negative stereotypes. The Stepin Fetchit character has undergone a re-evaluation by some scholars, who view him as an embodiment of the trickster archetype.
Little is certain about Perry's background other than that he was born in Key West, Florida, to West Indian immigrants. He was the second child of Joseph Perry, a cigar maker from Jamaica (although some sources indicate the Bahamas) and Dora Monroe, a seamstress from Nassau. Both of his parents came to the United States in the 1890s, where they married. By 1910, the family had moved north to Tampa, Florida. Another source says he was adopted when he was eleven years old and taken to live in Montgomery, Alabama.
His mother wanted him to be a dentist, so Perry was adopted by a quack dentist, for whom he blacked boots before running away at age twelve to join a carnival. He earned his living for a few years as a singer and tap dancer.
Perry began entertaining in his teens as a comic character actor. By the age of twenty, Perry had become a vaudeville artist and the manager of a traveling carnival show. His stage name was a contraction of "step and fetch it". His accounts of how he adopted the name varied, but generally he claimed that it originated when he performed a vaudeville act with a partner. Perry won money betting on a racehorse named "Step and Fetch It", and he and his partner decided to adopt the names "Step" and "Fetchit" for their act. When Perry became a solo act he combined the two names, which later became his professional name.
Perry played comic relief roles in a number of films, all based on his character known as "The Laziest Man in the World". In his personal life, Perry was highly literate and had a concurrent career writing for The Chicago Defender. He made his reputation and earned a five-year studio contract with his performance in In Old Kentucky (1927). The film featured a romantic connection between Perry and actress Carolynne Snowden, a subplot that was decidedly an on-screen rarity for African-American actors working among a white cast.
For his role as Joe in the 1929 part-talkie film version of Show Boat, Perry's singing voice was supplied by Jules Bledsoe, who had originated the role in the stage musical. Fetchit did not "sing" "Ol' Man River", but instead a new song used in the film, "The Lonesome Road". Bledsoe was actually seen singing "Ol' Man River" in the sound prologue shown preceding the film.
By the mid-1930s, Perry was a bona fide film star, and was the first black actor to become a millionaire. Fetchit appeared in 44 films between 1927 and 1939. In 1940, Perry temporarily stopped appearing in films, having been frustrated in his attempt to get equal pay and billing with his white costars. He returned in 1945, in part due to financial need, though he only appeared in eight more films between 1945 and 1953.
Perry declared bankruptcy in 1947, stating assets of $146 (equal to about $1,566 today) resulting in a return to vaudeville appearing at the Anderson Free Fair in 1949 alongside Singer's Midgets 
He found himself in conflict during his career with civil rights leaders who criticized him personally for the film roles that he portrayed. In 1968, CBS aired an hour-long documentary, Black History: Lost, Stolen, or Strayed, written by Andy Rooney (for which he would receive an Emmy Award) and narrated by Bill Cosby, which criticized the depiction of blacks in American film, and especially singled out Stepin Fetchit for criticism. After the show aired, Perry unsuccessfully sued CBS and the documentary's producers for defamation of character.
Awards and honors
In 1976, despite popular aversion to his character, the Hollywood chapter of the NAACP awarded Perry a Special NAACP Image Award. Two years after that, he was inducted into the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame.
Perry spawned imitators, most notably Willie Best (Sleep 'n Eat) and Mantan Moreland, the scared, wide-eyed manservant of Charlie Chan. (Perry actually played a manservant in the Chan series before Moreland, in 1935's Charlie Chan in Egypt.)
Perry appeared in a 1930 Our Gang short, A Tough Winter. Previous to Perry entering films the Our Gang shorts had employed several black child actors including Allen Hoskins, Jannie Hoskins, Ernest Morrison and Eugene Jackson. In the sound Our Gang era black actors Matthew Beard and Billie Thomas were featured. The black performers' personas in Our Gang shorts were the polar opposites of Perry's persona.
In the 2005 book Stepin Fetchit: The Life and Times of Lincoln Perry, African American critic Mel Watkins argued that the Stepin Fetchit character was not truly lazy or simpleminded, but rather deliberately tricked his white employers so that they would do the work instead of him, a technique that developed during American slavery and was referred to as "putting on old massa", which black audiences of the time would have been familiar with.
Perry was married three times: to Dorothy Stevenson, Winifred Johnson, and Bernice Sims. In 1930 his wife Dorothy gave birth to their son, Jemajo. With Winifred he had a second son in 1938: Donald, who later took his step-father's name, Lambright. In April 1969, Donald Lambright traveled the Pennsylvania Turnpike shooting people. It was reported that he injured fifteen and killed three, including his wife, before turning a .30 caliber rifle on himself.
Lambright's death was ruled a murder-suicide, however the circumstances were questioned by his daughter and discussed at length in a self-published book in 2005 about Stepin Fetchit. Even Lincoln Perry himself once reported in a LA Times interview his belief that his son was set-up. It was believed that Lambright's involvement with the black power movement at the peak of the COINTELPRO program was related to his death. A "mysterious long-haired white man" was reported at the scene of the crime who was thought to have been involved in some way. Ultimately, his death was ruled a murder-suicide when the white man wasn't found. Perry never provided child support for Lambright and they only met two years before his son's violent death.
A stroke in 1976 ended Perry's acting career, and he moved into the Motion Picture & Television Country House and Hospital. He died November 19, 1985 from pneumonia and heart failure at age 83. He was buried at Calvary Cemetery in East Los Angeles with a Catholic Funeral Mass.
- The Mysterious Stranger (1925)
- In Old Kentucky (1927)
- The Devil's Skipper (1928)
- Nameless Men (1928)
- The Tragedy of Youth (1928)
- Kid's Clever (1929)
- The Ghost Talks (1929)
- Hearts in Dixie (1929)
- Thru Different Eyes (1929)
- Show Boat (1929)
- Innocents of Paris (1929)
- Fox Movietone Follies of 1929 (1929)
- Salute (1929)
- Big Time (1929)
- Cameo Kirby (1930)
- The Big Fight (1930)
- Swing High (1930)
- A Tough Winter (1930)
- La Fuerza del Querer (1930)
- The Prodigal (1931)
- Wild Horse (1931)
- The Galloping Ghost (1931)
- Neck and Neck (1931)
- Carolina (1934)
- David Harum (1934)
- Stand Up and Cheer! (1934)
- The Littlest Rebel (1935)
- The World Moves On (1934)
- Judge Priest (1934)
- Marie Galante (1934)
- Bachelor of Arts (1934)
- Helldorado (1935)
- The County Chairman (1935)
- One More Spring (1935)
- Charlie Chan in Egypt (1935)
- Steamboat Round the Bend (1935)
- The Virginia Judge (1935)
- Dimples (1936)
- 36 Hours to Kill (1936)
- On the Avenue (1937)
- Love Is News (1937)
- Fifty Roads to Town (1937)
- His Exciting Night (1938)
- Zenobia (1939)
- Open the Door Richard (1945)
- Big Timers (1945)
- Miracle in Harlem (1948)
- Mouse Cleaning (1948 MGM Tom and Jerry cartoon short subject, uncredited voice; Fetchit's only animation role)
- I Ain't Gonna Open That Door (1949)
- Harlem Follies of 1949 (1950)
- Bend of the River (1952)
- The Sun Shines Bright (1953)
- Inquiring Nuns (1968, cameo appearance)
- Cutter (1972, TV movie)
- Muhammad Ali, the Greatest (1974)
- Amazing Grace (1974, cameo appearance)
- Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? (1975, archival footage)
- Won Ton Ton, the Dog Who Saved Hollywood (1976, cameo appearance)
- Amos 'n' Andy
- Jar Jar Binks#Allegations of racial caricature
- Buckwheat, a character played by Billie Thomas in the 1930s U.S. short film series Our Gang
- Billy Kersands
- "Old Aunt Jemima"
- Fred Toones
- Uncle Tom
- Clark, Champ (2005). Shuffling to Ignominy: The Tragedy of Stepin Fetchit. iUniverse. p. 41. ISBN 0-595-37125-6
- Clark, Champ (2005). Shuffling to Ignominy: The Tragedy of Stepin Fetchit. iUniverse. p. 58, 61. ISBN 0-595-37125-6
- Clark, Champ (2005). Shuffling to Ignominy: The Tragedy of Stepin Fetchit. iUniverse. p. 87. ISBN 0-595-37125-6
- "Stepin Fetchit". New York Times. 2007-01-18. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
- Lamparski, Richard (1982). Whatever Became Of ...? Eighth Series. New York: Crown Publishers. pp. 106–7. ISBN 0-517-54855-0.
- Clark, Champ (2005). Shuffling to Ignominy: The Tragedy of Stepin Fetchit. iUniverse. p. 2. ISBN 0-595-37125-6.
- Roy Hurst (March 6, 2006). "Stepin Fetchit, Hollywood's First Black Film Star". National Public Radio. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
- United States Census, Year: 1910; Census Place: Tampa Ward 5, Hillsborough, Florida; Roll: T624_162; Page: 14A; Enumeration District: 0054; FHL microfilm: 1374175
- Watkins, Mel (2005). Stepin Fetchit: The Life and Times of Lincoln Perry. Pantheon Books. pp. 32–33. ISBN 0-375-42382-6.
- Black Past: Carolynne Snowden
- Ely, Melvin Patrick, The Adventures of Amos 'N' Andy: A Social History of an American Phenomenon, Macmillan Free Press, 1991, pg. 100-101
- Hall, Mordaunt (1929-02-28). "Hearts in Dixie (1929)". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
- Hall, Mordaunt (1929-04-18). "Showboat (1929)". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
- Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
- Nielsen Business Media, Inc. (16 July 1949). "16 Rides, 17 Shows Listed At Anderson". Billboard: 65. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Clark, Champ (2005). Shuffling to Ignominy: The Tragedy of Stepin Fetchit. iUniverse. pp. 124, 126, 132. ISBN 0-595-37125-6
- "Andy Rooney". CBS News. September 21, 2005. Archived from the original on 18 October 2008. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- Sennwald, Andre (1935-06-24). "Charlie Chan in Egypt (1935)". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
- http://birthmoviesdeath.com/2014/04/26/the-annotated-mad-men-farina-stymie-and-buckwheat |accessdate=2016-07-21 |
- Clark, Champ (2005). Shuffling to Ignominy: The Tragedy of Stepin Fetchit. iUniverse. p. 60. ISBN 0-595-37125-6
- Angry Young Man, The New York Times (April 6, 1969)
- Pike killer felt violence only racial answer, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (April 7, 1969)
- Pike killer not on drugs, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (April 10, 1969)
- Clark, Champ (2005-01-01). Shuffling to Ignominy: The Tragedy of Stepin Fetchit. iUniverse. ISBN 9780595371259.
- SEILER, MICHAEL (1985-11-20). "Stepin Fetchit, Noted Black Movie Comic of '30s, Dies". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
- "Comedian Stepin Fetchit, 83". The Philadelphia Inquirer. November 20, 1985. p. C–19.
- "Mass to Be Said Friday for Actor Stepin Fetchit". The Los Angeles Times. November 21, 1985. p. A30. Retrieved 2013-05-04.
- Katz, Ephraim (1979). The Film Encyclopedia. Thomas Y. Crowell, New York. ISBN 0-690-01204-7.
- Watkins, Mel (2005). Stepin Fetchit: The Life and Times of Lincoln Perry. Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-375-42382-6.
- Clark, Champ (2005). Shuffling to Ignominy: The Tragedy of Stepin Fetchit. iUniverse. ISBN 0-595-37125-6.