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Stereolab (1994).jpg
Stereolab performing in London (1994)
Background information
OriginLondon, England
Years active1990–2009
Associated acts
Past members

Stereolab were an English-French avant-pop band from London, formed in 1990 by Tim Gane (guitar/keyboards) and Lætitia Sadier (vocals/keyboards/guitar) who both remained at the songwriting helm across many line-up changes. Other long-time members included Mary Hansen (backing vocals/keyboards/guitar), who joined in 1992 and remained in the line-up until her accidental death in 2002, and Andy Ramsay (drums), who joined in 1993 and was still in the official line-up. Sean O'Hagan of the High Llamas was a member from 1993 to 1994, and continued appearing on later records for occasional guest appearances.

The group's music combined influences from krautrock, lounge and 1960s pop music. Their sound, which some music journalists dubbed "post-rock", incorporated a repetitive "motorik" beat with heavy use of vintage electronic keyboards and female vocals sung in English and French. Their lyrics reference socio-political themes which had been alleged of carrying a strong Marxist message. Gane rejected labels such as "Marxist pop", stating that they do not cross the line into "sloganeering". Additionally, both he and Sadier cited the Surrealist and Situationist cultural and political movements as influences.

Although many of Stereolab's albums have been underground hits, they never found larger commercial success. The band were released from their recording contract with Elektra Records reportedly due to poor record sales. Since then, their self-owned label Duophonic Records, had signed a distribution deal with Too Pure. Duophonic hold the copyrights to the group's recordings; and many of their limited-edition records had been released under the label. In 2009, Stereolab announced via their website that they were on indefinite hiatus.


1990–1993: Formation[edit]

In 1985, Tim Gane formed McCarthy, a band from Essex, England known for their left-wing politics.[1] Gane met Lætitia Sadier, born in France,[2] at a McCarthy concert in Paris and the two quickly fell in love. The musically-inclined Sadier was disillusioned with the rock scene in France and soon moved to London to be with Gane and pursue her career.[3] In 1990, after three albums, McCarthy broke up and Gane immediately formed Stereolab with Sadier (who had also contributed vocals to McCarthy's final album) and ex-Chills bassist Martin Kean.[4] Stereolab's name was taken from a division of Vanguard Records demonstrating hi-fi effects.[5]

"Our records were written and recorded very quickly, [and all the love and care went into making them], but we didn't ponder over [them] for years... There was no preciousness along with making records... we would write 35 tracks, sometimes more... but somehow that's how we did it."[6]

Sadier in a 2015 interview

Gane and Sadier, along with future band manager Martin Pike, created a record label called Duophonic Super 45s which, along with later offshoot Duophonic Ultra High Frequency Disks, would become commonly known as "Duophonic".[7] Gane said that their "original plan" was to distribute multiple 7 and 10 inch records "–to just do one a month and keep doing them in small editions".[8] The 10 inch vinyl EP Super 45, released in May 1991, was the first release for both Stereolab and the label, and was sold through mail order and through the Rough Trade Shop in London. Super 45's band-designed album art and packaging was the first of many customised and limited-edition Duophonic records. In a 1996 interview in Wire, Gane calls the "do-it-yourself" aesthetic behind Duophonic "empowering", and said that by releasing one's own music "you learn; it creates more music, more ideas".[9] Other independent bands such as Tortoise, Broadcast, and Labradford would also release material on Duophonic.

Stereolab released the EP, Super-Electric in September 1991, and a single, titled Stunning Debut Album, followed in November 1991 (which was neither debut nor album). The early material was rock and guitar-oriented; of Super-Electric, Jason Ankeny wrote in AllMusic that "Droning guitars, skeletal rhythms, and pop hooks—not vintage synths and pointillist melodies—were their calling cards ..."[10] Under the independent label Too Pure, the group's first full-length album, Peng! was released in May 1992, and a compilation of their earliest material Switched On, was released in October 1992. Around this time, the line-up consisted of Gane and Sadier plus vocalist and guitarist Mary Hansen, drummer Andy Ramsay, bassist Duncan Brown, and keyboardist Katharine Gifford. Hansen, born in Australia, had been in touch with Gane since his McCarthy days. After joining, she and Sadier developed a style of vocal counterpoint that distinguished Stereolab's sound.[11] After a concert in the early 1990s, the band was introduced to Sean O'Hagan, who had recently formed the band the High Llamas. He recalled: "we got on very well. Their keyboard player left and they needed a quick replacement for a tour. I filled in but then was invited in on [their next] record. I was allowed to make suggestions and the fun started."[12]

Beginning with their EP Space Age Bachelor Pad Music, released in March 1993, Stereolab incorporated easy-listening elements into their sound. The EP raised the band's profile and landed them a major-label American record deal with Elektra Records. The group's next album, Transient Random-Noise Bursts with Announcements (August 1993), was their first American release under Elektra, and became an underground hit in both the US and the UK.[14] Mark Jenkins commented in Washington Post that with the album, Stereolab "continues the glorious drones of [their] indie work, giving celestial sweep to [their] garage-rock organ pumping and rhythm-guitar strumming".[15] In the UK, the album was released on Duophonic Ultra High Frequency Disks, which is responsible for domestic releases of Stereolab's major albums.[7] Additionally, Crumb Duck, an EP which was a collaboration with Nurse With Wound, was issued in October 1993.

1994–2001: Underground success[edit]

In January 1994, Stereolab achieved their first chart entry when the 1993 EP Jenny Ondioline, entered at number 75 on the UK Singles Chart. (Over the next three years, four more releases by the band would appear on this chart, ending with the EP Miss Modular in 1997.) Their third album, Mars Audiac Quintet, was released in August 1994. The album contains the single "Ping Pong", which gained press coverage for its allegedly explicit Marxist lyrics.[16] The band focused more on pop and less on rock, resulting in what AllMusic described as "what may be the group's most accessible, tightly-written album".[17] It was the last album to feature O'Hagan as a full-time member. He would continue to make guest appearances on later releases.[18] The group issued an EP titled Music for the Amorphous Body Study Center in April 1995. The EP was their musical contribution to an interactive art exhibit put on in collaboration with New York City artist Charles Long.[19] Their second compilation of rarities, titled Refried Ectoplasm (Switched On, Vol. 2), was released in July 1995.

Stereolab performing in Central Park, New York City (1995)

The band's fourth album, Emperor Tomato Ketchup (March 1996), was a critical success and was played heavily on college radio.[14] A record that "captivated alternative rock", it represented the group's "high-water mark" said music journalists Tom Moon and Joshua Klein, respectively.[20] The album incorporated their early krautrock sound with hip-hop influences and experimental instrumental arrangements.[21] Stephan Davet of French newspaper Le Monde said that the album had musical influences such as the Velvet Underground, Burt Bacharach, and Françoise Hardy.[22] John McEntire of Tortoise also assisted with production and played on the album. Katharine Gifford was replaced by Morgane Lhote before recording, and bassist Duncan Brown by Richard Harrison after.[14] On the same year, Stereolab collaborated with Herbie Mann on the song "One Note Samba/Surfboard" for the AIDS-Benefit album, Red Hot + Rio, produced by the Red Hot Organization.[23]

Released in September 1997, Dots and Loops was their first album to enter the Billboard 200 charts, peaking at number 111. Barney Hoskyns wrote in Rolling Stone that with the album, the group moved "ever further away from the one-chord Velvets drone-mesh of its early days" toward easy listening and Europop.[24] A review in German newspaper Die Zeit stated that in Dots and Loops, Stereolab transformed the harder Velvet Underground-like riffs of previous releases into "softer sounds and noisy playfulness".[25] Writers Stephen Thomas Erlewine and Eric Harvey considered the album as their finest effort.[26] Contributors to the album included John McEntire and Jan St. Werner of German electropop duo Mouse on Mars.[14] A second Nurse With Wound collaboration, Simple Headphone Mind, was released in 1997. Stereolab's third compilation of rarities, Aluminum Tunes, was issued in October 1998. Stereolab collaborated with French avant-garde singer and poet Brigitte Fontaine in the single "Calimero" on the same year.

The group took a break from touring while Gane and Sadier had a child.[14] Their sixth album, Cobra and Phases Group Play Voltage in the Milky Night, was released in September 1999, co-produced by McEntire and American producer Jim O'Rourke. The album received mixed reviews for its lighter sound, and peaked at number 154 on the Billboard 200.[27] An unsigned NME review said that "this record has far more in common with bad jazz and progressive rock than any experimental art-rock tradition."[28] In a 1999 article of Washington Post, Mark Jenkins asked Gane about the album's apparent lack of guitars; Gane responded, "There's a lot less upfront, distorted guitar ... But it's still quite guitar-based music. Every single track has a guitar on it."[29] Stereolab recruited a new bassist, Simon Johns, for their Cobra and Phases Group ... tour.[14]

Stereolab's seventh album, Sound-Dust (August 2001), rose to number 178 on the Billboard 200. The album also featured producers McEntire and O'Rourke. Sound-Dust was more warmly received than Cobra and Phases Group Play Voltage in the Milky Night.[31] Critic Joshua Klein said that "the emphasis this time sounds less on unfocused experimentation and more on melody ... a breezy and welcome return to form for the British band."[30] Erlewine of Allmusic stated that the album "[finds the group] deliberately recharging their creative juices" but argued that "[Stereolab]'s melodies, singalong choruses, and Marxist platitudes no longer sound fresh, [thus] preventing the group from pushing forward into new territory."[32]

2002–2008: Mary Hansen's death[edit]

In 2002, as they were planning their next album, Stereolab started building a studio north of Bordeaux, France. ABC Music: The Radio 1 Sessions; a compilation of BBC Radio 1 sessions was released in October. On the same year, Gane and Sadier's romantic relationship ended.[33] As the year was coming to a close, tragedy struck.

On 9 December, Mary Hansen, a longstanding member of Stereolab was killed when hit by a truck while riding her bicycle.[34] Writer Pierre Perrone said that Hansen's "playful nature and mischievous sense of humour came through in the way she approached the backing vocals she contributed to Stereolab and the distinctive harmonies she created with Sadier."[35] For the next few months, Stereolab laid dormant as the members grieved. They eventually decided to continue. (Future album and concert reviews would mention the effects of Hansen's absence.)[36]

"Losing Mary is still incredibly painful ... But it's also an opportunity to transform and move on. It's a new version. We've always had new versions, people coming in and out. That's life."[37]

Sadier in a 2004 interview

The EP Instant 0 in the Universe (October 2003) was recorded in France, and was Stereolab's first release following Hansen's death. Music journalist Jim DeRogatis said that the EP marked a return to their earlier, harder sound—"free from the pseudo-funk moves and avant-garde tinkering that had been inspired by Chicago producer Jim O'Rourke".[38] On the same year, Sadier's side-project, Monade, released its debut album Socialisme Ou Barbarie: The Bedroom Recordings.[39]

Stereolab's eighth album, Margerine Eclipse, was released on 27 January 2004 with generally positive reviews, and peaked at number 174 on the US Billboard 200.[41] The track "Feel and Triple" was written in tribute to Hansen; Sadier said, "I was reflecting on my years with her ... reflecting on how we sometimes found it hard to express the love we had for one another."[33] Sadier continued, "Our dedication to her on the album says, 'We will love you till the end', meaning of our lives. I'm not religious, but I feel Mary's energy is still around somewhere. It didn't just disappear."[33] The Observer's Molloy Woodcraft gave the album four out of five stars, and commented that Sadier's vocal performance as "life- and love-affirming", and the record as a whole as "Complex and catchy, bold and beatific."[42] Kelefa Sanneh commented in Rolling Stone that Margerine Eclipse was "full of familiar noises and aimless melodies".[43] Margerine Eclipse was Stereolab's last record to be released on American label Elektra Records, which shut down that same year.[44] Future material would be released on Too Pure, the same label which had released some of the band's earliest material.[45]

Stereolab performing in 2006

Oscillons from the Anti-Sun; a three-CD and one-DVD retrospective of the group's rarer material was released in April 2005. Monade's second album, A Few Steps More, was also released in the same year.[46] In 2005 and 2006, Stereolab released six limited-edition singles which were anthologised in the compilation Fab Four Suture, released in March 2006, and contained material which Mark Jenkins thought continued the brisker sound of the band's post-Hansen work.[47] Serene Velocity, a "best-of" compilation focusing on the band's Elektra years, was released in August 2006. By June 2007, Stereolab's line-up comprised Tim Gane, Lætitia Sadier, Andy Ramsay, Simon Johns, Dominic Jeffrey, Joseph Watson, and Joseph Walters. The band had finished the production of their next album, entitled Chemical Chords, which was released in June 2008 under the label 4AD. The release was followed by an autumn tour in Europe, the United States and Canada.[48]

2009–present: Indefinite hiatus[edit]

They toured Australia in February 2009 as part of the St Jerome's Laneway Festival.[49] In April 2009, Stereolab's manager Martin Pike announced a pause in their activities for the time being. After 19 years, he said that it was time for them to take a rest and move on to new projects.[50] Not Music was released in 2010; a collection of unreleased material recorded at the same time as Chemical Chords.[51]

In 2013, founding members Tim Gane and Laetitia Sadier, who both focused on Cavern of Anti-Matter and solo work respectively, performed at the All Tomorrow's Parties festival held at Pontins in Camber Sands.[52]

Musical style[edit]

Stereolab's music combines a droning rock sound with lounge instrumentals, overlaid with sing-song female vocals and pop melodies. It has been generally described as avant-pop,[53][54] indie pop,[14][55] art pop,[56] indie electronic,[57] indie rock,[58] post-rock,[58] experimental rock,[55] and experimental pop.[59] Their records are heavily influenced by the "motorik" technique of 1970s krautrock groups such as Neu! and Faust.[60] Tim Gane has supported the comparison: "Neu! did minimalism and drones, but in a very pop way."[61] The track "Diagonals" from Dots and Loops (1997), samples a drum beat from "I Can't Wait" by the krautrock commune Amon Düül.[62]

Funk, jazz, and Brazilian music were additional inspirations.[63] Emperor Tomato Ketchup (1996) forayed into funk and experimental stylings while Dots and Loops leaned towards jazz with bossa nova and 60's pop incorporations.[64] The sounds influenced by minimalist composers Philip Glass and Steve Reich can be found on the 1999 album Cobra and Phases Group Play Voltage in the Milky Night.[30] Regarding their later work such as Instant 0 in the Universe (2003) and Margerine Eclipse (2004), critics have compared the releases to their earlier guitar-driven style.[65] Stereolab's style also incorporates easy-listening music of the 1950s and '60s. Joshua Klein in Washington Post said that, "Years before everyone else caught on, Stereolab was referencing the 1970s German bands Can and Neu!, the Mexican lounge music master Esquivel and the decidedly unhip Burt Bacharach."[30]

Stereolab make use of vintage electronic keyboards and synthesizers from brands such as Farfisa and Vox and Moog. Gane has praised the instruments for their versatility: "We use the older effects because they're more direct, more extreme, and they're more like plasticine: you can shape them into loads of things."[66] The 1994 album Mars Audiac Quintet prominently features Moog synthesizers.[67]

Lætitia Sadier's English and French vocals was a part of Stereolab's music since the beginning;[14] and would occasionally sing wordlessly along with the music.[30] In reference to her laid-back delivery, Peter Shapiro wrote facetiously in Wire that Sadier "display[ed] all the emotional histrionics of Nico",[9] while some critics have commented that her vocals were unintelligible.[68] Sadier would often trade vocals with Mary Hansen back-and-forth in a sing-song manner that has been described as "eerie" and "hypnotic".[35] After Hansen's death in 2002, critic Jim Harrington commented that her absence is noticeable on live performances of Stereolab's older tracks, and that their newer songs could have benefited from Hansen's backing vocals.[69]

In interviews, Gane and Sadier have discussed their musical philosophy. Gane said that "to be unique was more important than to be good."[70] On the subject of being too obscure, he said in a 1996 interview that "maybe the area where we're on dodgy ground, is this idea that you need great knowledge [of] esoteric music to understand what we're doing." Sadier responded to Gane, saying that she "think[s] we have achieved a music that will make sense to a lot of people whether they know about Steve Reich or not."[9] The duo were up-front about their desire to grow their sound: for Gane, "otherwise it just sounds like what other people are doing",[71] and for Sadier, "you trust that there is more and that it can be done more interesting."[72]

Live performances[edit]

Stereolab toured regularly to support their album releases. In a 1996 Washington Post gig review, Mark Jenkins wrote that Stereolab started out favouring an "easy-listening syncopation", but eventually reverted to a "messier, more urgent sound" characteristic of their earlier performances.[73] In another review Jenkins said that the band's live songs "frequently veer[ed] into more cacophonous, guitar-dominated territory", in contrast to their albums such as Cobra and Phases Group Play Voltage in the Milky Night.[74] In the Minneapolis Star Tribune Jon Bream compared the band's live sound to feedback-driven rock bands like the Velvet Underground, Sonic Youth and My Bloody Valentine.[75] Stereolab's stage presence would be negatively received by critics, commenting that Sadier's vocal delivery was too subdued and that the band tended to play instead of perform its music.[76] Regarding being onstage, Gane has said that "I don't like to be the center of attention ... I just get into the music and am not really aware of the people there. That's my way of getting through it."[29]

Lyrics and titles[edit]

Stereolab's music is politically and philosophically charged. Dave Heaton of Popmatters said that the group "[uses] lyrics to convey ideas while using them for the pleasurable way the words sound."[77] Lætitia Sadier, who writes the group's lyrics, was strongly influenced by the Situationist philosophy Society of the Spectacle by Marxist theorist Guy Debord.[62] Her more recent inspiration was her anger towards the Iraq War.[78] The Surrealist, as well as the Situationist cultural and political movements were also influences, as stated by Sadier and Gane in a 1999 Salon interview.[70]

"Basically, I want to change the world. I want to make people think about how they live every day, shake them a bit."[3]

Sadier in an interview with Melody Maker (1991)

Critics have seen Marxist allusions in the band's lyrics, and have gone so far as to call the band members themselves Marxist.[80] Music journalist Simon Reynolds commented that Sadier's lyrics tend to lean towards Marxist social commentary rather than "affairs of the heart".[61] The 1994 single "Ping Pong" has been put forward as evidence in regard to these alleged views. In the song, Sadier sings "about capitalism's cruel cycles of slump and recovery" with lyrics that constitute "a plainspoken explanation of one of the central tenets of Marxian economic analysis" (said critics Reynolds and Stewart Mason, respectively).[79]

Band members have resisted attempts to link the group and its music to Marxism. In a 1999 interview, Gane stated that "none of us are Marxists ... I've never even read Marx." Gane said that although Sadier's lyrics touch on political topics, they do not cross the line into "sloganeering".[29] Sadier also said that she had read very little Marx.[70] In contrast, Cornelius Castoriadis, a radical political philosopher but strong critic of Marxism, has been cited as a marking influence in Sadier's thinking.[81] The name of her side project, Monade, and its debut album title, Socialisme ou Barbarie, are also references to the work of Castoriadis.[39]

Stereolab's album and song titles occasionally reference avant-garde political groups and artists. Gane said that the title of their 1999 album Cobra and Phases Group Play Voltage in the Milky Night contains the names of two Surrealist organisations, "CoBrA" and "Phases Group",[70] The title of the song "Brakhage" from Dots and Loops (1997), is a nod to experimental filmmaker Stan Brakhage.[70] Other examples are the 1992 compilation Switched On, named after Wendy Carlos' 1968 album Switched On Bach,[82] and the 1993 song "Jenny Ondioline", an interlock of inventor Georges Jenny and his instrument the Ondioline.[83]


Stereolab performing in Pomona, California (2008)

Stereolab have been called one of the most "influential" and "fiercely independent and original groups of the Nineties" by writers Stephen Thomas Erlewine and Pierre Perrone respectively;[84] as well as one of "the decade's most innovative British bands." by Mark Jenkins.[85] Simon Reynolds commented in Rolling Stone that the group's earlier records form "an endlessly seductive body of work that sounds always the same, always different."[61] In a review for the 1992 single "John Cage Bubblegum", Jason Ankeny said that "No other artist of its generation fused the high-minded daring of the avant-garde and the lowbrow infectiousness of pop with as much invention, skill, and appeal."[86] In Wire, Peter Shapiro compared the band to Britpop bands Oasis and Blur, and defended their music against the charge that it is "nothing but the sum total of its arcane reference points."[9] They were one of the first groups to be termed post-rock—in a 1996 article, journalist Angela Lewis applied the "new term" to Stereolab and three other bands who have connections to the group.[87] The group have also received negative press. Barney Hoskyns questioned the longevity of their music in a 1996 Mojo review, saying that their records "sound more like arid experiments than music born of emotional need."[88] In Guardian, Dave Simpson stated: "With their borrowings from early, obscure Kraftwerk and hip obtuse sources, [Stereolab] sound like a band of rock critics rather than musicians."[89] Lætitia Sadier's vocals were cited by author Stuart Shea as often being "indecipherable".[90]

A variety of artists, musical and otherwise, have collaborated with Stereolab. In 1995 the group teamed up with sculptor Charles Long for an interactive art show in New York City, for which Long provided the exhibits and Stereolab the music.[19] They have released tracks by and toured with post-rock band Tortoise, while John McEntire of Tortoise has in turn worked on several Stereolab albums.[91] In the 1990s Stereolab and veteran industrial band Nurse With Wound released two limited-edition records together; both contained Nurse With Wound remixes of original tracks provided by Stereolab.

Stylistically, music journalist J. D. Considine credits the band for anticipating and driving the late 1990s revival of vintage analogue instruments among indie rock bands.[92] Indie rock band Pavement (who also toured with Stereolab) acknowledged the group's sound on their song "Half A Canyon".[93] Stereolab alumni have also founded bands of their own. Guitarist Sean O'Hagan formed the High Llamas, while keyboardist Katharine Gifford formed Snowpony with former My Bloody Valentine bassist Debbie Googe.[94] Sadier has released three albums with her four-piece side-project Monade, whose sound Mark Jenkins called a "little more Parisian" than Stereolab's.[95] Australian band Turnstyle sampled "OLV 26" from Emperor Tomato Ketchup on their debut album and going as far as using Andy Ramsay to mix and master their reunion album Time equals Function. Backing vocalist Mary Hansen formed a band named Schema with members of Hovercraft and released their eponymous EP in 2000.[96]

Despite receiving critical acclaim and a sizeable fanbase, commercial success eluded the group.[97] Early in their career, their 1993 EP Jenny Ondioline entered the UK Singles Chart, but financial issues prevented the band from printing enough records to satisfy demand.[98] When Elektra Records was closed down by Warner Bros. Records in 2004, Stereolab was dropped along with many other artists, reportedly because of poor sales.[44] Tim Gane said in retrospect that that the group "signed to Elektra because we thought we would be on there for an album or two and then we'd get ejected. We were surprised when we got to our first album!"[8] Since then, Stereolab's self-owned label Duophonic has inked a worldwide distribution deal with independent label Too Pure.[45] Through Duophonic, the band both licenses their music and releases it directly (depending on geographic market). Gane said, "... we license our recordings and just give them to people, then we don't have to ask for permission if we want to use it. We just want to be in control of our own music."[7]

In hip-hop culture, the song "Come And Play in the Milky Night" was sampled by American producer J Dilla for "Show Me What You Got" by Busta Rhymes,[99] Sadier was featured in the track "PartyIsntOver/Campfire/Bimmer" by Tyler, The Creator in his Wolf album,[100] and Pharrell Williams "is a fan" of the song "The Flower Called Nowhere".[62]

Selected discography[edit]

Stereolab released 13 studio albums, 15 EPs, and 16 singles over their career. They made it a practice to make almost all of their more obscure material widely available by anthologising non-LP tracks as compilation albums.[101]

Studio albums[edit]

Compilation albums[edit]

As of August 1999, US album sales stood at 300,000 copies sold.[102]


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  2. ^ She is sometimes known as "Seaya Sadier"; see Arundel (1991).
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  6. ^ Lætitia Sadier Lecture (2015) Red Bull Music Academy
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  82. ^ Taylor (2001), p.108
  83. ^ Taylor (2001), p.109
  84. ^ Erlewine (AMG: Stereolab), Perrone (2002)
  85. ^ Jenkins (1998)
  86. ^ Akeny (AMG:John Cage Bubblegum/Eloge d'Eros)
  87. ^ Lewis (1996)
  88. ^ Hoskyns (1996)
  89. ^ Simpson (2001)
  90. ^ Shea (2002), pp.53,54
  91. ^ Jenkins (2003)
  92. ^ Considine (1997)
  93. ^ See:
    • Erlewine (AMG: Wowee Zowee) Australian band Turnstyle sampled "OLV 26" from Emperor Tomato Ketchup on their debut album and going as far as using Andy Ramsay to mix and master their album Time Equals Function.
    • "Discography (French Disko)". Stereolab Official Site. Stereolab. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
  94. ^ Jenkins (1998); Unterberger (The High Llamas)
  95. ^ Jenkins (2005)
  96. ^ Couture (AMG:Schema)
  97. ^ Eliscu (2004), Stevens (2003)
  98. ^ See:
  99. ^ "The 50 Best J Dilla Songs40. Busta Rhymes "Show Me What You Got" (2000)". Complex. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  100. ^ "Tyler, The Creator Wolf Tracklist: Laetitia Sadier, Frank Ocean, Not Dave Matthews". Stereogum. 2013-03-27. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  101. ^ Phares (AMG: Fab Four Suture)
  102. ^ Gidley (1999)


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