Stereotypes of East Asians in the United States
Stereotypes of East Asians are ethnic stereotypes found in U.S. society about first-generation immigrants, and American-born citizens whose family members immigrated to the U.S., from East Asian countries, such as China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Stereotypes of East Asians, like other ethnic stereotypes, are often portrayed in the popular press, literature, film, and other creative expressions. These stereotypes have been largely and collectively internalized by society and have mainly negative repercussions for Americans of East Asian descent and East Asian immigrants in daily interactions, current events, and governmental legislation. Media portrayals of East Asians often reflect an Americentric perception rather than realistic and authentic depictions of true cultures, customs and behaviors. East Asians have experienced discrimination and have been victims of hate crimes related to their ethnic stereotypes, as it has been used to reinforce xenophobic sentiments.
- 1 Orientalism, mysticism and exoticism
- 2 Infantilization
- 3 Exclusion or hostility
- 4 Model minority
- 5 Archetypes in American fiction
- 6 Men
- 7 Women
- 8 Physical attributes and traits
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Orientalism, mysticism and exoticism
According to Edward Said, orientalism refers to the manner in which West interprets or comes to terms with their experiences and encounters with the foreign, unfamiliar Orient, or the East. Said claimed that "the Orient" was a European invention to denote East Asia as a place of exoticism, romance, and remarkable experiences and also as a concept to contrast against Western civilization.
The effects of orientalism in Western cultures includes the "othering" of East Asians and East Asian Americans; their cultures and lifestyles perceived as "exotic", in stark contrast to "ordinary" Western customs. While Western cultures are perceived or believed capable of change and modernization, East Asian cultures are often considered ancient in contrast.
East Asians have been portrayed as immature, childlike, and not to be taken seriously. As John Cho says, "there's this belief that Asian babies are really cute, and it got me thinking that our whole race is infantilized to some degree, and it manifests itself in different ways. You infantilize a woman, and she becomes eroticized. You infantilize a man, and he becomes emasculated. You infantilize a baby—and it's possible, it appears that you can infantilize a baby even more. The babies need to be cuter than white babies. And it's just a weird thing that I felt like said something about mainstream America's relationship to Asians in general." This infantilization results in Asians having less social autonomy. They are often perceived as polite and quiet, and less threatening than people of other races. Because Asians are seen like children, the perception is that they have little power, access, and control.
Exclusion or hostility
The term "Yellow Peril" refers to a white apprehension, peaking in the late 19th-century, that white inhabitants of Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, or the United States would be overwhelmed and swamped by a massive influx of East Asians; who would fill the nation with a foreign culture and speech incomprehensible to those already there and steal jobs away from the white inhabitants and that they would eventually take over and destroy western civilization, their ways of life, culture and values. The term has also referred to the belief and fear that East Asian societies would invade and attack Western societies, wage wars with them and lead to their eventual destruction and eradication. During this time, numerous anti-Asian sentiments were expressed by politicians and writers, especially on the West Coast, with headlines like "The 'Yellow Peril'" (Los Angeles Times, 1886) and "Conference Endorses Chinese Exclusion" (The New York Times, 1905) and the later Japanese Exclusion Act. The American Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of Asians because they were considered an "undesirable" race.
Australia had similar fears and introduced a White Australia policy, restricting immigration between 1901 and 1973, with some elements of the policies persisting to the 1980s. On February 12, 2002, Helen Clark, then prime minister of New Zealand apologized "to those Chinese people who had paid the poll tax and suffered other discrimination, and to their descendants". She also stated that Cabinet had authorized her and the Minister for Ethnic Affairs to pursue with representatives of the families of the early settlers a form of reconciliation which would be appropriate to and of benefit to the Chinese community. Similarly, Canada had in place a head tax on East Asian immigrants to Canada in the early 20th century; a formal government apology was given in 2007 (with compensation to the surviving head tax payers and their descendants).
There is a widespread perception that Asian Americans are not "American" but are instead "perpetual foreigners". Asian Americans often report being asked the question, "Where are you really from?" by other Americans, regardless of how long they or their ancestors have lived in United States and been a part of its society. Many Asian Americans are themselves not immigrants but rather born and raised in the United States.
Asian Americans have been perceived, treated, and portrayed by many in US society as "perpetual" foreigners who are unable to be assimilated and inherently foreign regardless of citizenship or duration of residence in the United States. A similar view has been advanced by Ling-chi Wang, professor emeritus of Asian American studies at the University of California, Berkeley. Wang asserts that mainstream media coverage of Asian communities in the United States has always been "miserable". He states, "In [the] mainstream media's and policymakers' eyes, Asian Americans don't exist. They are not on their radar... and it's the same for politics."
I. Y. Yunioshi from Blake Edwards' 1961 American romantic-comedy Breakfast at Tiffany's is one such example which had been broadly criticized by mainstream publications. In 1961, The New York Times review said that "Mickey Rooney's bucktoothed, myopic Japanese is broadly exotic." In 1990, The Boston Globe criticized Rooney's portrayal as "an irascible bucktoothed nerd and an offensive ethnic caricature". Critics note that the character of Mr. Yunioshi reinforced anti-Japanese wartime propaganda to further exclude Japanese Americans from being treated as normal citizens, rather than hated caricatures.
A study by UCLA researchers for the Asian American Justice Center (AAJC), Asian Pacific Americans in Prime Time, found that Asian-American actors were under represented on network TV. While Asian-Americans make up 5 percent of the US population, the report found only 2.6 percent were primetime TV regulars. Shows set in cities with large Asian populations, like New York and Los Angeles, had few Asian roles.
Asian Americans have also been stereotyped as a "model minority"; that is, traits perceived as positive are applied as a stereotype. Asians as a whole are seen as hardworking, politically inactive, studious, intelligent, productive, and inoffensive people who have elevated their social standing through merit and diligence. However, some Asian Americans believe the model minority stereotype to be damaging and inaccurate, and are acting to dispel this stereotype. Some may acknowledged that model minority is seen as a "denial of racial reality" which is one of the eight themes in racial microaggression. Scholars, activists, and most major American news sources have started to oppose this stereotype, calling it a misconception that exaggerates the success of Asian Americans. According to those trying to debunk this belief, the model minority stereotype alienates Asian Americans from other minorities and covers up actual Asian American issues and needs that are still not properly addressed in America today. This creates how Asian Americans as model minority are experiencing essential socioeconomic and/or educational disadvantages. For example, the widespread notion that Asian Americans earn higher-than-average income obscures issues such as the "bamboo ceiling" phenomenon, where advancement into the highest-level managerial or executive positions is blocked, and the fact that Asian Americans must acquire more education and work more hours than their white counterparts to earn the same amount of money.
The "model minority" image is also seen as being damaging to Asian American students because their assumed success makes it easy for educators to overlook Asian American students who are struggling academically. It also undermines the achievements of Asian American students as part of their racial attributes, rather than because of their extra effort and hard work.
For example, 25.2% of Asian Americans over age 25 hold a bachelor's degree compared to only 15.5% of the general American population, thus giving the impression of Asian American success. However, only 6.9% of Cambodians, and 6.2% of Laotians in this age group in America hold bachelor's degrees- albeit attributed by researchers to poverty and severe mental health issues due to these nations' civil war. Despite this stereotype of supposed Asian American success, there is a high 80% unemployment rate among the Hmong Americans and other Asian Americans groups from refugee backgrounds.
Asian Americans commit crimes at a disproportionately lower rate than other racial and ethnic groups in America. However, examples of criminal and unethical behavior are in contrast to the model minority construct. Asian Americans had been implicated in violent crimes, such as shooting sprees. Most notable is the Virginia Tech massacre by Seung-Hui Cho, which led to the deaths of 33 individuals, including Cho himself. The shooting spree, along with Cho's Korean ethnicity, stunned American society.
Another effect of the stereotype is that American society may tend to ignore the racism and discrimination Asian Americans still face. Complaints are dismissed with the claim that the racism which occurs to Asian Americans is less important than or not as bad as the racism faced by other minority races, thus establishing a systematic racial hierarchy. Believing that due to their success and that they possess so-called "positive" stereotypes, many[who?] assume they face no forms of racial discrimination or social issues in the greater American society, and that their community is fine, having "gained" educational and economic equality.
Archetypes in American fiction
Fu Manchu and Charlie Chan are two important and well-known fictional East Asian characters in America's cultural history. Both were created by white authors, Sax Rohmer and Earl Derr Biggers respectively, in the early part of the 20th century. Fu Manchu is a sardonic, intelligent, yet evil Chinese murderer with plots of world domination, an embodiment of America's imagination of a threatening mysterious East Asian people. Charlie Chan is an apologetic submissive Chinese-Hawaiian detective who solves cases while politely handling the many racist insults hurled at him by white American characters, and represents America's archetypal "good" East Asian. Both characters found widespread popularity in numerous novels and films.
Thirteen novels, three short stories, and one novelette have been written about Fu Manchu and Sir Denis Nayland Smith, the British agent determined to stop him. Millions of copies have been sold in the United States with publication in British and American periodicals and adaptations to film, comics, radio, and television. Due to his enormous popularity, the "image of Fu Manchu has been absorbed into American consciousness as the archetypal East Asian villain." In The Insidious Doctor Fu-Manchu, Sax Rohmer introduces Fu Manchu as a cruel and cunning man, with a face like Satan, who is essentially the "Yellow Peril incarnate".
Sax Rohmer inextricably tied the evil character of Fu Manchu to all East Asians as a physical representation of the Yellow Peril, attributing the villain's evil behavior to his race. Rohmer also adds an element of mysticism and exoticism to his portrayal of Fu Manchu. Fu Manchu contrives unnecessarily elaborately creative and cruel methods of murdering his victims, replete with allegedly East Asian methods or elements in his murders such as: "death by silk rope"- none of which have any basis in reality. Despite Fu Manchu's specifically Manchu ethnicity, his evil and cunning are pan-Asian attributes again reinforcing Fu Manchu as representational of all East Asian people.
Blatantly racist statements (not considered so at the time the novels were published) made by white protagonists such as: "the swamping of the white world by yellow hordes might well be the price of our failure" again add to East Asian stereotypes of exclusion. Fu Manchu's inventively sardonic methods of murder and white protagonist Denis Nayland Smith's grudging respect for his intellect reinforce stereotypes of East Asian intelligence, exoticism/mysticism, and extreme cruelty.
Charlie Chan, a fictional character created by author Earl Derr Biggers loosely based on Chang Apana (1871–1933), a real-life Chinese-Hawaiian police officer, has been the subject of 10 novels (spanning from 1925 to as late as 1981), over 40 American films, a comic strip, a board game, a card game, and a 1970s animated television series. In the films, the role of Charlie Chan has usually been played by white actors (namely Warner Oland, Sidney Toler, and Roland Winters).
In stark contrast to the Chinese villain Fu Manchu, East Asian American protagonist Charlie Chan represents the American archetype of the "good" East Asian. In The House Without a Key, Earl Derr Biggers describes Charlie Chan in the following manner: "He was very fat indeed, yet he walked with the light dainty step of a woman. His cheeks were chubby as a baby's, his skin ivory tinted, his black hair close-cropped, his amber eyes slanting." Charlie Chan speaks English with a heavy accent and flawed grammar, and is exaggeratedly polite and apologetic. After one particular racist affront by a Bostonian woman, Chan responds with exaggerated submission, "Humbly asking pardon to mention it, I detect in your eyes slight flame of hostility. Quench it, if you will be so kind. Friendly co-operation are essential between us." Bowing deeply, he added, "Wishing you good morning."
Because of Charlie Chan's emasculated, unassertive, and apologetic physical appearance and demeanor he is considered a non-threatening East Asian man to mainstream audiences despite his considerable intellect and ability. Many modern critics, particularly Asian-American critics, claim that Charlie Chan has none of the daring, assertive, or romantic traits generally attributed to white fictional detectives of the time, allowing "white America ... [to be] securely indifferent about us as men." Charlie Chan's good qualities are the product of what Frank Chin and Jeffery Chan call "racist love", arguing that Chan is a model minority and "kissass". Instead, Charlie Chan's successes as a detective are in the context of proving himself to his white superiors or white racists who underestimate him early on in the various plots.
The Chan character also perpetuates stereotypes as well, oft quoting supposed ancient Chinese wisdom at the end of each novel, saying things like: "The Emperor Shi Hwang-ti, who built the Great Wall of China, once said: 'He who squanders to-day talking of yesterday's triumph, will have nothing to boast of tomorrow.'" Fletcher Chan, however, argues that the Chan of Biggers's novels is not subservient to whites, citing The Chinese Parrot as an example; in this novel, Chan's eyes blaze with anger at racist remarks and in the end, after exposing the murderer, Chan remarks "Perhaps listening to a 'Chinaman' is no disgrace."
In the early stage of Hollywood's film production, East Asian males such as Sessue Hayakawa exhibited their male attractiveness both on and off screen, but they became the victim of their own success when their popularity caused dissension.
Emasculation and asexuality
In the mid-1800s, Chinese laborers were given an emasculated image due to their physical appearance and the fact that they did what Americans considered to be "women's work". The Chinese workers sported long braids (the "queue hairstyle" which was compulsory in China) and sometimes wore long silk gowns. Because Chinese men were seen as an economic threat to the white workforce, laws were passed that barred the Chinese from many "male" labor-intensive industries, the only jobs available to the Chinese of the time were jobs that whites deemed "women's work" (i.e., laundry, cooking, and childcare).
This stereotype had probably received wider usage as a backlash due to Sessue Hayakawa's status as a sex symbol back in old Hollywood. During his time as a Hollywood sex symbol and a leading man in romantic films coupled with his good looks led to millions of American women desiring an affair with Hayakawa and from it his popularity, sex appeal and extravagant lifestyle angered the whites of American society, resulting in discriminatory stereotypes being created to make Asian men appear less appealing and asexualizing them, fueled with the belief of yellow peril.
In the documentary The Slanted Screen, the Filipino American director Gene Cajayon talks about the revised ending for the action movie Romeo Must Die, a retelling of Romeo and Juliet where Aaliyah plays Juliet to Jet Li's Romeo. The original ending had Aaliyah kissing Chinese actor Li, which would have explained the title of Romeo, a scenario that did not test well with an urban audience. The studio changed the ending to Trish (Aaliyah) giving Han (Jet Li) a tight hug. According to Cajayon, "Mainstream America, for the most part, gets uncomfortable with seeing an East Asian man portrayed in a sexual light." Asian men are often portrayed as feminine or sexless in American media.
Predators of white women
East Asian men have been portrayed as threats to white women in many aspects of American media. Depictions of East Asian men as "lascivious and predatory" were common at the turn of the 20th century. Fears of "white slavery" were promulgated in both dimestore novels and melodramatic films.
Between 1850 and 1940, both US popular media and propaganda before and during World War II humanized Chinese men, while portraying Japanese men as a military and security threat to the country, and therefore a sexual danger to white women due to the perception of a woman's body traditionally symbolizing her "tribe's" house or country. In the 1916 film Patria, a group of fanatical Japanese individuals invade the United States in an attempt to rape a white woman. Patria was an independent film serial funded by William Randolph Hearst (whose newspapers were known to promulgate threats of the yellow peril), in the lead up to the United States' entry into World War I.
The Bitter Tea of General Yen portrays the way in which an "Oriental" beguiles white women. The film portrays Megan Davis (Barbara Stanwyck) coming to China to marry a missionary (Gavin Gordon) and help in his work. They become separated at a railway station, and Davis is rescued/kidnapped by warlord General Yen (Nils Asther). Yen becomes infatuated with Davis, and knowing that she is believed to be dead, keeps her at his summer palace.
Another stereotype of East Asian men is that they are misogynistic, insensitive, and disrespectful towards women. Even though studies have shown that East Asian men express more gender egalitarian attitudes than the American average,, East Asian men are commonly portrayed in Western media as male chauvinists. This can be seen in best-selling novels such as Rising Sun by Michael Crichton, in which Japanese businessmen mistreat and denigrate their white mistresses. Popular films such as The Wolverine portrays Japanese patriarchs as domineering, controlling and abusive towards their daughters.
Even literatures written by Asian American authors aren't free of the pervasive popular cliche on Asian men. Amy Tan's book The Joy Luck Club has been criticized by Asian American figures such as Frank Chin for perpetuating racist stereotypes of Asian men.
Changing perceptions of East Asian males
More recent media depictions of East Asian males are at a seeming variance with traditional stereotypes. Study findings from an analysis of the TV show Lost suggest that increased globalization is responsible for providing a more multidimensional and complex portrayal of East Asian males in televised media.
East Asian women have been portrayed as aggressive or opportunistic sexual beings or predatory gold diggers using their feminine wiles. Western film and literature has continually portrayed such stereotypes of East Asian women: depicting East Asian women as cunning "Dragon Ladies". This is contrasted with the other stereotypes of servile "Lotus Blossom Babies", "China dolls", "Geisha girls", war brides, or prostitutes.
In contemporary times, the Dragon Lady stereotype is personified by Ling Woo, a fictional character in the US comedy-drama Ally McBeal, (1997–2002) portrayed by American actress Lucy Liu. Ling was a cold and ferocious Chinese American lawyer who spoke Mandarin and was knowledgeable in the art of sexual pleasure unknown to the American world. At the time, she was the only significant representative of East Asian women on television (besides news anchors and reporters), leaving no one else to counteract this prominent stereotype. Thus, the portrayal of Ling Woo attracted much scholarly attention. This attention has led to the idea that racial microaggression is another form of stereotypes as it states how Asian American women are portrayed as exotic beauty, also known as "exoticization of Asian American women"; yet White men still see Asian women being very submissive and some form of sexual object or material. University of Wyoming Darrell Hamamoto, Professor of Asian American Studies at the University of California, Davis, describes Ling as "a neo-Orientalist masturbatory fantasy figure concocted by a white man whose job it is to satisfy the blocked needs of other white men who seek temporary escape from their banal and deadening lives by indulging themselves in a bit of visual cunnilingus while relaxing on the sofa." Hamamoto does maintain, however, that Ling "sends a powerful message to white America that East Asian American women are not to be trifled with. She runs circles around that tower of Jell-O who serves as her white boyfriend. She's competitive in a profession that thrives on verbal aggression and analytical skill." Contemporary actress Lucy Liu has been accused of popularizing this stereotype by characters she have played in mainstream media.
According to author Sheridan Prasso, the China [porcelain] doll stereotype and its variations of feminine submissiveness recurs in American movies. These variations can be presented as an associational sequence such as: "Geisha Girl/Lotus Flower/Servant/China Doll: Submissive, docile, obedient, reverential; the Vixen/Sex Nymph: Sexy, coquettish, manipulative; tendency toward disloyalty or opportunism; the Prostitute/Victim of Sex Trade/War/Oppression: Helpless, in need of assistance or rescue; good-natured at heart."
An iconic source of images of East Asian women in the 20th century in the West is the 1957 British novel and 1960 American film, The World of Suzie Wong, about a Hong Kong woman. UC Berkeley Professor of Asian American Studies Elaine Kim argued in the 1980s that the stereotype of East Asian women as submissive has impeded their economic mobility.
Another is Madama Butterfly (Madame Butterfly), an opera in three acts (originally two acts) by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa. It is the story of a Japanese maiden (Cio-Cio San), who falls in love with and marries a white American navy lieutenant. After the officer leaves her to continue his naval service away from Japan, Cio-Cio San gives birth to their child. Cio-Cio San blissfully awaits the lieutenant's return, unaware that he had not considered himself bound by his Japanese marriage to a Japanese woman. When he arrives back in Japan with an American wife in tow and discovered that he has a child by Cio-Cio San, he proposes to take the child to be raised in America by himself and his American wife. The heartbroken Japanese girl bids farewell to her callous lover, then kills herself.
There has been much controversy about the opera, especially its treatment of sex and race. It is the most-performed opera in the United States, where its rank as Number 1 in Opera America's list of the 20 most-performed operas in North America. This popularity only helps to perpetuate the notion of the dominant white male over the subjugated East Asian female who can be cast aside and treated as easily dispensable according to Sheridan Prasso in her book, The Asian Mystique: Dragon Ladies, Geisha Girls, & Our Fantasies of the Exotic Orient published in 2005.
A contemporary example would be Miss Saigon, a 1989 musical by Claude-Michel Schönberg and Alain Boublil, a modern adaptation of Giacomo Puccini's opera Madame Butterfly. This musical has been criticized for what some have perceived as racist or sexist overtones. Criticism has led to protests against the musical's portrayal of Asian men, Asian women, and women in general. It banked a record $25 million in advance ticket sales when it was opening on Broadway.
No Joy No Luck
According to artist and writer Jessica Hagedorn in "Asian Women in Film: No Joy, No Luck", Asian women in golden era Hollywood film were represented as sexually passive and compliant. According to Hagedorn, "good" Asian women are portrayed as being "childlike, submissive, silent, and eager for sex". For instance, in films like The World of Suzie Wong, the titular character is represented through a frame of white masculine heterosexual desire: Suzie is portrayed as an infantilized prostitute who thinks being beaten by a man is a sign of his passion. The stakes of these filmic representations are clear: such stereotypes can affect perceptions of and among Asian Americans, with potentially detrimental effects from stereotype internalization, self-concept, and stereotype endorsement. Furthermore, current sitcoms which posit "positive" Asian American stereotypes as the model minority are arguable still a form of negative stereotyping, as Asian Americans are still prescriptively stereotyped to represent passive compliance to assimilation in the white middle class American dream ideology.
In early 2011, the writer Amy Chua generated controversy with her book Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother, published in January 2011, was a memoir about her parenting journey using strict Confucianist child rearing techniques, which she describes as being typical for Chinese immigrant parents. Her book received a huge backlash and media attention and ignited global debate about different parenting techniques and cultural attitudes that foster such techniques. Furthermore, the book provoked uproar after the release where Chua received death threats, racial slurs, and calls for her arrest on child-abuse charges. The archetypal tiger mom (similar to the Jewish mother stereotype and the Japanese Kyoiku mama) refers to a strict or demanding mother who pushes her children to high levels of scholastic and academic achievement, using methods regarded as typical of childrearing in East Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia to the detriment of the child's social, physical, psychological and emotional well-being.
Physical attributes and traits
Darrell Y. Hamamoto argues that a pervasive racialized discourse exists throughout American society, especially as it is reproduced by network television and cinema. Critics argue that portrayals of East Asians in American media fixating on the epicanthic fold has the negative effect of caricature whether this ocular feature furnishes the basis for describing the Asiatic eye positively as "almond-shaped" or negatively as "slanted" or "slanty". Even worse, these critics contend, is the common portrayal of the East Asian population as having yellow or brown skin tones (which the critics reference as colorism). This colorist portrayal negatively contrasts "colored" Asian Americans with the white Europeans of North America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. East Asians are also stereotyped (or orientalized) as having straight dark (or shiny "blue") hair usually styled in a "bowl cut" (boys) or with straight overgrown bangs (girls). They are often homogenized as one indiscriminate monolithic conglomeration of cultures, languages, histories, and physiological and behavioral characteristics. Almost invariably, it is automatically assumed that a person of East Asian descent has genetic origins in China, Japan, Korea or Taiwan. Although it is a common assumption that people of East Asian descent are all of Taiwanese, Korean, Japanese, or Chinese descent, in reality the term "Asian American" refers to all people who descent from the far east, southeast Asia and India. Although people of Chinese, Japanese and Korean descent make up roughly 7 million of the roughly 18 million population of Asians in America, Filipinos, Vietnamese and Indians make up a larger portion of that number than Koreans and Japanese.
Cultural critics also point out that East Asians are often stereotyped as having inherent skill in martial arts; as having poor English language skills; and as being inherently bad drivers. East Asians are also stereotyped as lacking social skills, or as being asocial (to some Indo-European language speaking people like Westerners). They are also stereotyped as academic overachievers who are passive, submissive, intelligent, industrious, technologically savvy, self-disciplined, self-sufficient, and law-abiding. A 2010 study found that Asian Americans are most likely to be perceived as nerds. This stereotype may be socially damaging due to histories of Asian exclusion. One study has shown Asians as being perceived as less masculine than whites and blacks. East Asian women are often stereotyped as having tight vaginas. In instances of rape in pornography, it was found that most often the victims are young Asian women. This is believed to be because of their submissive representation in American media.
East Asian men meanwhile are stereotyped as having small penises. Such an idea fueled the phenomenon that being a bottom in a homosexual relationship for Asian men is more of a reflection of what is expected of them, than a desire. These racial mythologies create the perception that East Asian men are less sexually attractive compared to men of other races.
East Asians are stereotyped as being athletically inferior to other races. This stereotype has led to discrimination in the recruitment process for professional American sports teams where Asian American athletes are highly underrepresented. Such was the case with Taiwanese-American professional basketball player Jeremy Lin who believed that race was one of the reasons why no NBA teams drafted him in 2010. This belief has been reiterated by sports writer Sean Gregory of Time magazine and NBA commissioner David Stern. Although Asian Americans comprised 6% of the nation's population in 2012, Asian American athletes represented only 2% of the NFL, 1.9% of the MLB and less than 1% of the NBA.
A psychological experiment conducted by two researchers found that East Asians who do not conform to common stereotypes and who possess qualities such as dominance in the workplace are "unwelcome and unwanted by their co-workers" and can even elicit negative reactions and harassment from people of other races.
- Anti-Japanese sentiment in the United States
- Chinese Exclusion Act
- Ching chong
- Counterfeit consumer goods
- Covert racism
- Elderly martial arts master, a stock character
- Fresh off the boat
- Model minority
- Portrayal of East Asians in Hollywood/Yellowface
- Stereotypes of groups within the United States
- Race and sports
- Kashiwabara, Amy, Vanishing Son: The Appearance, Disappearance, and Assimilation of the Asian-American Man in American Mainstream Media, UC Berkeley Media Resources Center
- Felicia R. Lee, "'Model Minority' Label Taxes Asian Youths," New York Times, March 20, 1990, pages B1 & B4.
- Matthew Yi; et al. (April 27, 2001). "Asian Americans seen negatively". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved June 14, 2007.
- Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Vintage, 1978, pp. 1-2.
- Rosen, Steven L. "Japan as Other: Orientalism and Cultural Conflict".
- Wang, Oliver (July 3, 2009). "The Game-Changer: An Interview with John Cho". Asian Pacific Arts.
- "CONFERENCE INDORSES CHINESE EXCLUSION; Editor Poon Chu Says China Will... - Article Preview - The". New York Times. December 9, 1905. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- History World: Asian Americans
- "Office of Ethnic Affairs - Formal Apology To Chinese Community". Archives of Australian National University. February 12, 2002. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
- "Chinese Immigration Act 1885, c". Asian.ca. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- Frank H. Wu. "Asian Americans and the Perpetual Foreigner Syndrome". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2007.
- Lien, Pei-te; Mary Margaret Conway; Janelle Wong (2004). The politics of Asian Americans: diversity and community. Psychology Press. p. 7. ISBN 9780415934657. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
In addition, because of their perceived racial difference, rapid and continuous immigration from Asia, and on going detente with communist regimes in Asia, Asian Americans are construed as "perpetual foreigners" who cannot or will not adapt to the language, customs, religions, and politics of the American mainstream.
- Wu, Frank H. (2003). Yellow: race in America beyond black and white. Basic Books. p. 79. ISBN 9780465006403. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Neil Gotanda, "Exclusion and Inclusion: Immigration and American orientalism".
- Johnson, Kevin (1997), Racial Hieracrchy, Asian Americans and Latinos as Foreigners, and Social Change: Is Law the Way to Go, Oregon Law Rev., 76, pages 347-356
- "Loss of AsianWeek Increases Hole in Asian-American Coverage - NAM". News.ncmonline.com. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- Weiler, A.H. (October 6, 1961). "The Screen: Breakfast at Tiffany's: Audrey Hepburn Stars in Music Hall Comedy". New York Times. Retrieved September 24, 2011.
- Koch, John (April 1, 1990). "Quick Cuts and Stereotypes". The Boston Globe. Boston. Retrieved September 24, 2011.
- Yang, Jeff (17 July 2011). "'Breakfast at Tiffany's' protest is misguided: Let's deal openly with the film's Asian stereotypes". NY Daily News. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- Kerr, David. "Stereotypes in the Media". mrkerronline. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
- ASIAN-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS: Silent No Longer: 'Model Minority' Mobilizes - Lawler 290 (5494): 1072 - Science.
- "Racial Microaggressions and the Asian American Experience" (PDF).
- Stacey J. Lee, Unraveling the "Model Minority" Stereotypes: Listening to Asian American Youth, Teachers College Press, New York: 1996 ISBN 978-0-8077-3509-1.
- Bill Sing, "'Model Minority' Resentments Spawn Anti-Asian-American Insults and Violence," Los Angeles Times February 31, 1989, p. 12.
- Greg Toppo, "'Model' Asian student called a myth ; Middle-class status may be a better gauge of classroom success," USA Today, December 10, 2002, p. 11.
- Benjamin Pimentel, "Model minority image is a hurdle, Asian Americans feel left out of mainstream," San Francisco Chronicle, August 5, 2001, p. 25.
- "What 'Model Minority' Doesn't Tell," Chicago Tribune, January 3, 1998, p. 18.
- "Model Minority". Retrieved May 9, 2015.
- Woo, Deborah, "The Glass Ceiling and Asian Americans," Key Workplace Documents: Federal Publications, (1994) .
- "The Glass Ceiling for African, Hispanic (Latino), and Asian Americans," Ethnic Majority, The Glass Ceiling for African, Hispanic, and Asian Americans Archived September 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine..
- Constable, Pamela, "A 'Glass Ceiling' of Misperceptions," WashingtonPost, October 10, 1995, Page A01 Washingtonpost.com: A GLASS CEILING' OF MISPERCEPTIONS.
- Ronald Takaki, "The Harmful Myth of Asian Superiority," The New York Times, June 16, 1990, p. 21.
- Bhattacharyya, Srilata: From "Yellow Peril" to "Model Minority": The Transition of Asian Americans: Additional information about the document that does not fit in any of the other fields; not used after 2004. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (30th, Little Rock, AR, November 14–16, 2001): Full text available.
- "ERIC PDF Download". Eric.ed.gov. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- ARONSON J. (1) ; LUSTINA M. J. (1) ; GOOD C. (1) ; KEOUGH K. (1) ; STEELE C. M. (2) ; BROWN J. (2) ; When white men can't do math : Necessary and sufficient factors in stereotype threat, Journal of experimental social psychology vol. 35, no1, pp. 29-46 (1 p.3/4): Elsevier, San Diego 1999.
- Kim, Angela; Yeh, Christine J (2002), Stereotypes of Asian American Students, ERIC Educational Reports
- Yang, KaYing (2004), "Southeast Asian American Children: Not the Model Minority", The Future of Children, 14 No. 2: 127–133
- Flowers, Ronald B. (1990), Minorities and criminality, p. 190
- "Our big cultural heritage, our awful little secrets" Archived August 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine..
- "Some Korean Americans fearful of racial backlash" Archived January 9, 2009, at the Wayback Machine..
- "Sadly, Cho is Most Newsworthy APA of 2007 Archived January 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.." Asianweek. In Binghamton, NY there was a shooting spree by a naturalized Asian immigrant, when Jiverly Wang killed 14 people, and injured 3 at the local American Civic Association.January 1, 2008. Retrieved on December 21, 2009.
- Yellow Face: The documentary part 4 - Asian Americans do face racism, July 5, 2010, retrieved February 24, 2013
- Asians, Blacks, Stereotypes and the Media, July 5, 2010, retrieved February 24, 2013
- William F. Wu, The Yellow Peril: Chinese Americans in American Fiction, 1850-1940, Archon Press, 1982.
- Sax Rohmer, The Insidious Doctor Fu-Manchu (1913; reprint ed., New York: Pyramid, 1961), p. 17.
- Rohmer, Sax, The Hand of Fu-Manchu (1917; reprint ed., New York: Pyramid, 1962), p. 111.
- Yen Le Espiritu Asian American Panethnicity: Bridging Institutions and Identity Temple University Press, 1992, ISBN 978-0-87722-955-1, 222 pages.
- Internet Movie Database - list of Charlie Chan movies, IMDB
- Earl Derr Biggers, The House Without a Key (New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1925), p. 76.
- Kim (1982), 179.
- Frank Chin and Jeffery Chan, quoted in Kim (1982), 179.
- Chin and Chan, quoted in Kim (1982), 179.
- Biggers, Earl Derr, Charlie Chan Carries On (1930; reprint ed., New York: Bantam, 1975), p. 233.
- The Chinese Parrot, quoted in Chan (2007).
- Bernardi, Daniel (July 1, 1996). The Birth of Whiteness: Race and the Emergence of United States Cinema. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-2276-5. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- Venutolo, Anthony (March 8, 2008). "Cinema can't keep up with Hayakawa's strides". The Star-Ledger. Newark: nj.com. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- Lee, Juilia H (October 1, 2011). Interracial Encounters: Reciprocal Representations in African and Asian American Literatures, 1896-1937. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-5256-X.
- Sheridan Prasso, The Asian Mystique: dragon ladies, geisha girls, & our fantasies of the exotic orient, PublicAffairs, 2005.
- www.silentera.com Silent Era: People: Actors: Sessue Hayakawa
- Jose Antonio Vargas (May 25, 2007). "Asian Men: Slanted Screen". Washington Post. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- Chiung Hwang Chen. Feminization of Asian (American) Men in the U.S. Mass Media. Journal of Communication Inquiry. 1996 20:57-71
- H. Denis Wu. "The Submissive, the Calculated, and the American Dream" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 12, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- Espiritu, Y. E. (1997). Ideological Racism and Cultural Resistance: Constructing Our Own Images, Asian American Women and Men, Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.
- Frankenberg, R. (1993). White women, race matters: The social construction of whiteness., University of Minnesota Press.
- Rich, Adrienne. 1994 Blood, Bread and Poetry: Selected Prose 1979–1985. New York: Norton 1986: p. 212.
- Quinsaat, J. (1976). Asians in the media, The shadows in the spotlight. Counterpoint: Perspectives on Asian America (pp 264-269). University of California at Los Angeles, Asian American Studies Center.
- Chua, Peter; Fujino, Diane (1999). "Negotiating New Asian American Masculinities: Attitudes and Gender Expectations". Journal of Men's Studies. 7 (3): 391–413.
- Big American Misconceptions about Asians, GoldSea
- Come All Ye Asian American Writers of the Real and the Fake.
- Review: The Joy Luck Club.
- Biswas, Tulika; Kim, Taewoo; Lei, Wu; and Yang, Liuyan All Research "Asian Stereotypes Lost or Found in the Television Series Lost?"
- Geert Hofstede, Gender Stereotypes and Partner Preferences of Asian Women in Masculine and Feminine Cultures: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 27, No. 5, 533-546 (1996).
- Tajima, R. (1989). Lotus blossoms don't bleed: Images of Asian women., Asian Women United of California's Making waves: An anthology of writings by and about Asian American women, (pp 308-317), Beacon Press.
- Shimizu, Celine Parreñas (2007). "The Sexual Bonds of Racial Stardom". The hypersexuality of race. Duke University Press. p. 87. ISBN 9780822340331.
- Prasso, Sheridan (2006). "Hollywood, Burbank, and the Resulting Imaginings". The Asian Mystique: Dragon Ladies, Geisha Girls, and Our Fantasies of the Exotic Orient (Illustrated ed.). PublicAffairs. pp. 72–73. ISBN 9781586483944.
- Patton, Tracey Owens (November 2001). ""Ally McBeal" and Her Homies: The Reification of White Stereotypes of the Other". Journal of Black Studies. Sage Publications, Inc. 32 (2): 229–260. doi:10.1177/002193470103200205.
- Dow, Bonnie J. (2006). "Gender and Communication in Mediated Contexts". The SAGE handbook of gender and communication. Julia T. Wood. SAGE. pp. 302–303. ISBN 9781412904230.
- Comments (0) By Chisun Lee Tuesday, November 30, 1999 (November 30, 1999). "The Ling Thing - - News - New York". Village Voice. Archived from the original on April 12, 2011. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- Nadra Kareem Nittle. "Five Common Asian-American Stereotypes in TV and Film". About News.
- Sumi K. Cho. "Converging Stereotypes in Racialized Sexual Harassment: Where the Model Minority Meets Suzie Wong" in Richard Delgado, Jean Stefancic. Critical race theory: the cutting edge. p. 535. (calls Suzie Wong the "Hong Kong hooker with a heart of gold"); Asian Stereotypes in Film History (/www.associatedcontent.com/article/43815/asian_stereotypes_in_film_history.html); "Hong Kong as City/Imaginary in The World of Suzie Wong, Love is a Many Splendored Thing, and Chinese Box", by Thomas Y. T. Luk, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Asian American Cinema : Representations and Stereotypes; Staci Ford and Geetanjali Singh Chanda. Portrayals of Gender and Generation,East and West: Suzie Wong in the Noble House. University of Hong Kong.
- Kim, Elaine (1984). "Asian American writers: A bibliographical review". American Studies International. 22 (2): 41–78.
- "Controversy About the Opera". The New York Times.[dead link]
- "Film Listings". AustinChronicle.com. November 29, 1996. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- "Puccini opera is 'racist': News24: Entertainment: International". News24. February 15, 2007. Archived from the original on September 3, 2012. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- "Cornerstones". Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
- "Puccini's masterpiece transcends its age | The Japan Times Online". Search.japantimes.co.jp. July 3, 2005. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- Steinberg, Avi. "Group targets Asian stereotypes in hit musical," Boston Globe, January 2005. Retrieved on 2007-December 15.
- RICHARD CORLISS;Janice C. Simpson/New York (August 20, 1990). "Theater: Will Broadway Miss Saigon?". TIME. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- Hagedorn, Jessica (January–February 1994). "Asian Women in Film: No Joy, No Luck". Ms. Magazine.
- Hodson, Heather (January 15, 2011). "Amy Chua: 'I'm going to take all your stuffed animals and burn them!'". The Guardian. London.
- Emily Rauhala (August 14, 2014) 'Tiger Mother': Are Chinese Moms Really So Different? Time. Retrieved March 8, 2014
- Kira Cochrane (February 7, 2014). "The truth about the Tiger Mother's family". The Guardian. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
- Darrell Y. Hamamoto, Monitored peril: Asian Americans and the politics of TV representation University of Minnesota Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-8166-2368-6, 311 pages.
- Jung Heum Whang (September 2007). Body Politics of the Asian American Woman: From Orientalist Stereotype to the Hybrid Body. ISBN 9780549173045. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Lisa Lowe (1996). Immigrant Acts: On Asian American Cultural Politics. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822318644. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- "The Rise of Asian Americans". pewsocialtrends.org. Pew Research Center. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
- "Long Duk Dong: Last of the Hollywood Stereotypes?". NPR. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- "Hollywood Discovers Korea's Talented Actors". Newsweek.com. November 16, 2009. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- Maslin, Janet (May 4, 1984). "Review: Sixteen Candles". The New York Times. Retrieved May 31, 2010.
- Asian American Psychology:Asians Bad Drivers False. Google. September 17, 2008. ISBN 9781841697499. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- "Perceptions of Asian American Students: Stereotypes and Effects". Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- Qin Zhang. “Asian Americans Beyond the Model Minority Stereotype: The Nerdy and the Left Out”. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, Vol 3, Issue 1 (2010), pp. 20-37.
- "Racial Stereotypes and Interracial Attraction: Phenotypic Prototypicality and Perceived Attractiveness of Asians" (PDF). Washington.edu. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- Mayall, Alice, and Diana EH Russell. "Racism in pornography." Feminism & Psychology 3.2 (1993): 275-281.
- Park, Hijin. "Interracial Violence, Western Racialized Masculinities, and the Geopolitics of Violence Against Women." Social & Legal Studies 21.4 (2012): 491-509. Web.
- Drummond, Murray JN, and Shaun M. Filiault. "The long and the short of it: Gay men’s perceptions of penis size." Gay and lesbian issues and psychology review 3.2 (2007): 121-129.
- Hoppe, Trevor. "Circuits of Power, Circuits of Pleasure: Sexual Scripting in Gay Men’s Bottom Narratives.
- "Pg. 130, 142 "Being an Asian American Male is Really Hard Actually": Cultural Psychology.." Retrieved 2013-07-13.
- "Asians are inferior at sports compared to the rest of the world". Sports. Complex Sports. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- Samer Kalaf. "Asian population critically underrepresented in NFL". Sports. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- Michelle Banh. "Hey American Sports! Where are all the Asians at?". Sports. Archived from the original on September 15, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- Barron, David (April 5, 2013). "Lin tells "60 Minutes" his ethnicity played a role in him going undrafted". Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013.
- Gregory, Sean (December 31, 2009). "Harvard's Hoops Star Is Asian. Why's That a Problem?". Time. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved November 8, 2010.
"I've heard it at most of the Ivies if not all of them," he says. Lin is reluctant to mention the specific nature of such insults, but according to Harvard teammate Oliver McNally, another Ivy League player called him a C word that rhymes with ink during a game last season.
- "The Lack of Asians and Asian-American Athletes in Professional Sports". Sports. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- "Dominant East Asians face workplace harassment, says study". psychology. University of Toronto, Rotman School of Management. Retrieved September 14, 2013.