Sternorrhyncha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Sternorrhyncha
Temporal range: Permian–Recent
Aphididae (aka).jpg
An aphid.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
Superfamilies

Aleyrodoidea
Aphidoidea
Coccoidea
Phylloxeroidea
Psylloidea
Dinglidae

The Sternorrhyncha[1][2][3] suborder of the Hemiptera contains the aphids, whiteflies, and scale insects, groups which were traditionally included in the now-obsolete order "Homoptera". "Sternorrhyncha" refers to the rearward position of the mouthparts relative to the head.

Distributed worldwide, all members of this group are plant-feeders, many considered pests feeding on major crops and ornamental plants.

Many exhibit modified morphology and/or life cycles, including phenomena such as flightless morphs, parthenogenesis, sexual dimorphism, and eusociality.

Phylogeny[edit]

The phylogeny of the extant Sternorrhyncha, inferred from analysis of small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA, is shown in the cladogram.[4]

Sternorrhyncha

Psylloidea (jumping plant lice, etc.) Psyllia pyricola.png

Aleyrodoidea (whiteflies) Neomaskellia bergii from CSIRO.jpg

Coccoidea (scale insects) HEMI Margarodidae Coelostomidia wairoensis m.png

Aphidomorpha

Phylloxeroidea (phylloxera bugs) Daktulosphaira vitifoliae from CSIRO.jpg

Aphididae (aphids) Aphid icon.png

The evolutionary position of several fossil taxa are unclear. A suggested phylogeny is:[5][6]

Boreoscytidae

Pincombeidae

Simulaphididae

Coccidomorpha

Dracaphididae

Naibiidae

Sinojuraphididae

Aphidomorpha

Protopsyllidioidea

Dinglomorpha

Aleyrodomorpha

Liadopsyllidae

Psylloidea

Groups[edit]

Well-known groups in the Sternorrhyncha include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ITIS standard report - Sternorrhyncha". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
  2. ^ Grimaldi & Engel (2005) Evolution of the Insects 289-303.
  3. ^ Paraneoptera Species File (Version 5.0/5.0)
  4. ^ "Phylogeny of Insects". What-When-How. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  5. ^ Drohojowska, Jowita; Szwedo, Jacek; Żyła, Dagmara; Huang, Di-Ying; Müller, Patrick (2020). "Fossils reshape the Sternorrhyncha evolutionary tree (Insecta, Hemiptera)". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 11390. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-68220-x. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 7347605. PMID 32647332.
  6. ^ Szwedo, Jacek (2016). "The unity, diversity and conformity of bugs (Hemiptera) through time". Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 107 (2–3): 109–128. doi:10.1017/S175569101700038X. ISSN 1755-6910. S2CID 134243346.

External links[edit]