|Motto: "Szczecin jest otwarty"
("Szczecin is open")
|• Mayor||Piotr Krzystek|
|• City||301 km2 (116 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,400/km2 (3,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code(s)||+48 91|
Szczecin (//; Polish pronunciation: [ˈʂt͡ʂɛt͡ɕin] ( listen); German: Stettin, known also by other alternative names) is the capital city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. In the vicinity of the Baltic Sea, it is the country's seventh-largest city and a major seaport in Poland. As of June 2011 the population was 407,811.
Szczecin is located on the Oder River, south of the Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin borders directly with the town of Police and is the urban center of the Szczecin agglomeration, that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The city's history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of today's castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the Griffin dynasty established themselves as local rulers, the population was converted to Christianity, and German settlers arrived from Western European states. The native Slavic population faced assimilation and discrimination in the following centuries. Between 1237 and 1243, the town was rebuilt, granted vast autonomy rights, and eventually joined the Hanseatic League.
After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire. It was fortified and remained a Swedish-controlled fortress until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and became capital of the Province of Pomerania, which after 1870 was part of the German Empire. In the late 19th century, Stettin became an industrial town, and vastly increased in size and population, serving as a major port for Berlin. During the Nazi era, opposition groups and minorities were persecuted and treated as enemies. By the end of World War II Stettin's status was in doubt, and the Soviet occupation authorities at first appointed officials from the city's almost entirely German pre-war population. In July 1945, however, Polish authorities were permitted to take power. Stettin was renamed Szczecin and became part of the newly established People's Republic of Poland, and from 1989 the Republic of Poland.
After the flight and expulsion of the German population and Polish settlement in the newly acquired territories, Szczecin became the administrative and industrial center of Polish Western Pomerania, the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University of Szczecin, West Pomeranian University of Technology and Art Academy of Szczecin, and the see of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Szczecin-Kamień.
- 1 Name and etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Architecture and urban planning
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Politics
- 6 Members of European Parliament (MEPs) from Szczecin
- 7 Economy
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Culture
- 10 Education and science
- 11 Sports
- 12 International relations
- 13 Famous residents
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Explanatory notes
- 17 External links
Name and etymology
In Etymological dictionary of geographical names of Poland, Maria Malec lists eleven theories regarding the origin of the name, including derivations from:
- a Slavic word for hill peak, (Polish: szczyt)
- the plant fuller's teasel (Polish: szczeć)
- the personal name Szczota
Other medieval names for the town are Burstaborg (in the Knytlinga saga) and Burstenburgh (in the Annales of Waldemar). These names, which literally mean "brush burgh", are likely derived from the translation of the city's Slavic name.
The history of Szczecin began in the 8th century, when West Slavs settled Pomerania and erected a new stronghold on the site of the modern castle. Since the 9th century, the stronghold was fortified and expanded toward the Oder bank. Mieszko I of Poland took control of Pomerania between 960 and 967 and the region with the city of Szczecin became part of Poland in 967. Subsequent Polish rulers, the Holy Roman Empire and the Liutician federation aimed at control of the territory.
After the decline of neighboring regional center Wolin in the 12th century, the city became one of the more important and powerful seaports of the Baltic Sea south coasts.
In a campaign in the winter of 1121–1122, Bolesław III Wrymouth, the Duke of Poland, gained control of the region as well the city of Szczecin and its stronghold. The inhabitants were converted to Christianity by two missions of bishop Otto of Bamberg in 1124 and 1128. At this time, the first Christian church of St. Peter and Paul was erected. Polish minted coins were commonly used in trade in this period. The population of the city at that time is estimated to be at around 5,000–9,000 people.
Polish rule ended with Boleslaw's death in 1138. During the Wendish Crusade in 1147, a contingent led by the German margrave Albert the Bear, an enemy of Slavic presence in the region, papal legat, bishop Anselm of Havelberg and Konrad of Meissen besieged the town. There, a Polish contingent supplied by Mieszko III the Old joined the crusaders. However the citizens had placed crosses around the fortifications, indicating they already had been Christianized. Ratibor I, Duke of Pomerania, negotiated the disbandement of the crusading forces.
After the Battle of Verchen in 1164, Szczecin duke Bogislaw I became a vassal of the Saxony's Henry the Lion. In 1173, Szczecin castellan Wartislaw II could not resist a Danish attack and became vassal of Denmark. In 1181, duke Bogislaw I of Szczecin became a vassal of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1185, Bogislaw again became a Danish vassal. Following a conflict between his heirs and king Canute VI, the settlement was destroyed in 1189, but the fortress was reconstructed and manned with a Danish force in 1190. While the empire restored her superiority over Pomerania in the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227, Szczecin was one of two bridgeheads remaining under Danish control (until 1235, Wolgast until 1241/43 or 1250).
In the second half of the 12th century, a group of German tradesmen ("multus populus Teutonicorum" from various parts of the Holy Roman Empire) settled in the city around St. Jacob's Church, which was donated in 1180 by Beringer, a trader from Bamberg, and consecrated in 1187. Hohenkrug (now in Szczecin-Struga) was the first village in the Duchy of Pomerania which was clearly recorded as German (villa teutonicorum) in 1173. Ostsiedlung accelerated in Pomerania during the 13th century. Duke Barnim I of Pomerania granted Szczecin a local government charter in 1237, separating the German settlement from the Slavic community settled around the St. Nicholas Church in the neighborhood of Kessin (Polish: Chyzin). In the charter, the Slavs were put under German jurisdiction.
When Barnim granted Szczecin Magdeburg rights in 1243, part of the Slavic settlement was reconstructed. The duke had to promise to level the burgh in 1249. Most Slavic inhabitants were resettled to two new suburbia north and south of the town. Last records of Slavs in Stettin are from the 14th century, when a Slavic bath (1350) and bakery are recorded, and within the walls, Slavs lived in a street named Schulzenstrasse.[inconsistent] By the end of the 14th century, the remaining Slavs had been assimilated.[inconsistent]
In 1249, Barnim I granted town law also the town of Damm (also Altdamm) on the eastern bank of the Oder, which only on 15 October 1939 was merged to neighboring Szczecin and is now the Dąbie, Szczecin neighborhood. This town had been built on the site of a former Pomeranian burg, "Vadam" or "Dambe", which Boleslaw had destroyed during his 1121 campaign.
On 2 December 1261, Barnim I allowed Jewish settlement in Szczecin according to Magdeburg law in a privilege renewed in 1308 and 1371. The Jewish Jordan family was granted citizenship in 1325, but none of the 22 Jews allowed to settle in the duchy in 1481 lived in the city, and in 1492, all Jews in the duchy were ordered to convert to Christianity or leave – this order remained effective throughout the rest of the Griffin era.
Stettin was part of the federation of Wendish towns, a predecessor of the Hanseatic League, in 1283. The city prospered due to the participation in the Baltic Sea trade, primarily with herrings, grain and timber; also craftmenship prospered and more than forty guilds were established in the city. The far-reaching autonomy from the House of Pomerania was in part reduced when the dukes reclaimed Stettin as their main residence in the late 15th century. The anti-Slavic policies of German merchants and craftsmen intensified in this period, resulting in bans on people of Slavic descent joining craft guilds, doubling customs tax for Slavic merchants, or bans against public usage of their native language. More prosperous Slavic citizens were forcefully stripped of their possessions which were awarded to Germans. In 1514, the guild of the tailors added a Wendenparagraph to its statutes, banning Slavs.
In 1570, during the reign of Pomeranian duke Johann Friedrich, a congress was held at Stettin ending the Northern Seven Years' War. During the war, Stettin had tended to side with Denmark, while Stralsund tended toward Sweden – as a whole, the Duchy of Pomerania however tried to maintain neutrality. Nevertheless, a Landtag that had met in Stettin in 1563 introduced a sixfold rise of real estate taxes to finance the raising of a mercenary army for the duchy's defense. Johann Friedrich also succeeded in elevating Stettin to one of only three places allowed to coin money in the Upper Saxon Circle of the Holy Roman Empire, the other two places were Leipzig and Berlin. Bogislaw XIV, who resided in Stettin since 1620, became the sole, and Griffin duke when Philipp Julius died in 1625. Before the Thirty Years' War reached Pomerania, the city as all of the duchy declined economically due to the sinking importance of the Hanseatic League and a conflict between Stettin and Frankfurt (Oder).
The 17th to 19th centuries
Following the Treaty of Stettin of 1630, the town (along with most of Pomerania) was allied to and occupied by the Swedish Empire, which managed to keep the western parts of Pomerania after the death of Bogislaw XIV in 1637 and the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 – despite the protests of Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg, who had a legal claim to inherit all of Pomerania. The exact partition of Pomerania between Sweden and Brandenburg was settled in Stettin in 1653.
Stettin was turned into a major Swedish fortress, which was repeatedly besieged in subsequent wars. It was on the path of Polish forces led by Stefan Czarniecki moving from Denmark; Czarniecki's sea based route which led his forces to the city is today mentioned in Polish anthem and numerous locations in the city honour his name. Wars inhibited the city's economical prosperity, which had undergone a deep crisis during the devastations of the Thirty Years' War and was further impeded by the new Swedish-Brandenburg-Prussian frontier, cutting Stettin off its traditional Farther Pomeranian hinterland. Due to the Black Death during the Great Northern War, the city's population dropped from 6,000 people in 1709 to 4,000 inhabitants in 1711. In 1720, after the Great Northern War, Sweden was forced to cede the city to King Frederick William I of Prussia. Stettin was made the capital city of the Brandenburg-Prussian Pomeranian province, since 1815 reorganized as Province of Pomerania. In 1816, the city had 26,000 inhabitants.
The Prussian administration deprived Stettin of her administrative autonomy rights, abolished guild privileges as well as its status as a staple town, and subsidized manufacturers. Also, colonists were settled in the city, primarily Huguenots.
In October 1806, during the War of the Fourth Coalition, believing he was facing a much larger force and after a threat to treat the city harshly, the Prussian commander Lieutenant General Friedrich von Romberg agreed to surrendered the city to the French led by General Lassalle. In fact Lassalle had only 800 men against von Romberg's 5,300 men. In March 1809, Romberg was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment for giving up Stettin without a fight.
From 1683 to 1812, one Jew was permitted to reside in Stettin, and an additional Jew was allowed to spend a night in the city in case of an "urgent business". These permissions were repeatedly withdrawn between 1691 and 1716, also between 1726 and 1730 although else the Swedish regulation was continued by the Brandenburg-Prussian administration. Only after the Prussian Edict of Emancipation of 11 March 1812, which granted Prussian citizenship to all Jews living in the kingdom, did a Jewish community emerge in Stettin, with the first Jews settling in the town in 1814. Construction of a synagogue started in 1834; the community also owned a religious and a secular school, an orphanage since 1855 and a retirement home since 1893. The Jewish community had between 1,000 and 1,200 members by 1873 and between 2,800 and 3,000 members by 1927/28. These numbers dropped to 2,701 in 1930 and to 2,322 in late 1934.
After the Franco Prussian war of 1870–1871, 1,700 French POWs were imprisoned there in deplorable conditions. As a result, 600 of them died; after the Second World War monuments in their memory were built by the Polish authorities.
Until 1873, Stettin remained a fortress. When part of the defensive structures were levelled, a new neighborhood, Neustadt ("New Town") as well as canalization, water pipes and gas works, were built to meet the demands of the growing population.
Stettin developed into a major Prussian port and became part of the German Empire in 1871. While most of the province retained an agrarian character, Stettin was industrialized and its population rose from 27,000 in 1813 to 210,000 in 1900 and 255,500 in 1925. Major industries prospering in Stettin since 1840 were shipbuilding, chemical and food industries and machinery construction. Starting in 1843, Stettin became connected to the major German and Pomeranian cities by railways, and the water connection to the Bay of Pomerania was enhanced by the construction of the Kaiserfahrt (now Piast) canal. The city was also a scientific center, e.g. a seat of Entomological Society of Stettin.
On 20 October 1890, some of the city's Poles created the Towarzystwo Robotników Polsko Katolickich (Society of Polish-Catholic Workers) in the city, one of the first Polish organisations. In 1897, the city's ship works began the construction of the pre-dreadnought battleship Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse. In 1914, before World War I, the Polish community in the city numbered over 3,000 people. These were primarily industrial workers and their families who came from the Poznań (Posen) area and a few local wealthy industrialists and merchants. Among them was Kazimierz Pruszak, director of the Gollnow industrial works and a Polish patriot, who predicted the eventual return of Szczecin to Poland.
During the interwar era, Stettin was Weimar Germany's largest port at the Baltic Sea, and her third-largest port after Hamburg and Bremen. Cars of the Stoewer automobile company were produced in Stettin from 1899 to 1945. By 1939, the Reichsautobahn Berlin-Stettin was completed.
In the March 1933 German elections to Reichstag, the Nazis and German nationalists from DNVP won most of the votes in the city, obtaining together 98,626 of 165,331 votes (59.3%), with the NSDAP getting 79,729 (47.9%) and the DNVP 18,897 (11.4%)
In 1935 the Wehrmacht made Stettin the headquarters for Wehrkreis II, which controlled the military units in all of Mecklenburg and Pomerania. It was also the Area Headquarters for units stationed at Stettin I and II; Swinemünde; Greifswald; and Stralsund.
In the interwar period the Polish minority numbered 2,000 people. A number of Poles were members of the Union of Poles in Germany (ZPN), which was active in the city since 1924. A Polish consulate was hosted in the city between 1925 and 1939. On initiative of the consulate and ZPN activist Maksymilian Golisz, a number of Polish institutions were established, e.g. a Polish Scout team and a Polish school. German historian Musekamp writes that "however, only very few Poles were active in these institutions, which for the most part were headed by employees of the [Polish] consulate." The withdrawal of the consulate from these institutions led to a general decline of these activities, which were in part upheld by Golisz and Aleksander Omieczyński. Intensified repressions by the Nazis, who exaggerated the Polish activities to propagate an infiltration, led to the closing of the school. In 1938 the head of Szczecin’s Union of Poles unit, Stanisław Borkowski, was imprisoned in Oranienburg. In 1939 all Polish organisations in Szczecin were disbanded by the German authorities. Golisz and Omieczyński were murdered during the war. According to Musekamp the role of the pre-war Polish community has been exaggerated for propagandistic purposes in post-war Poland which made "the numerically insignificant Polonia of Stettin... probably the best-researched social group" in the history of the city. After Nazi Germany was defeated, Golisz had a street named after him.
World War II
During the 1939 invasion of Poland, which started World War II in Europe, Stettin was the base for the German 2nd Motorized Infantry Division, which cut across the Polish Corridor and was later used in 1940 as an embarcation point for Operation Weserübung, Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway.
On 15 October 1939, neighbouring municipalities were amalgamated into Stettin, creating Groß-Stettin with about 380,000 inhabitants in 1940. The city had become the third-largest German city by area, after Berlin and Hamburg.
As the war started, the number of non-Germans in the city increased as slave workers were brought in. The first transports came in 1939 from Bydgoszcz, Toruń and Łódź. They were mainly used in a synthetic silk factory near Szczecin. The next wave of slave workers was brought in 1940, in addition to PoWs who were used for work in the agricultural industry. According to German police reports from 1940, 15,000 Polish slave workers lived within the city.
During the war, 135 forced labour camps for slave workers were established in the city. Most of the 25,000 slave workers were Poles, but Czechs, Italians, Frenchmen and Belgians, as well as Dutch citizens, were also enslaved in the camps.
In February 1940, the Jews of Stettin were deported to the Lublin reservation. International press reports emerged, describing how the Nazis forced Jews, regardless of age, condition and gender, to sign away all property and loaded them on to trains headed to the camp, escorted by members of the SA and SS. Due to publicity given to the event, German institutions ordered such future actions to be made in a way unlikely to attract public notice.
Allied air raids in 1944 and heavy fighting between the German and Soviet armies destroyed 65% of Stettin's buildings and almost all of the city centre, the seaport and local industries. Polish Home Army intelligence assisted in pinpointing targets for Allied bombing in the area of Stettin. The city itself was covered by the Home Army's "Bałtyk" structure and Polish resistance infiltrated Stettin's naval yards. Other activities of the resistance consisted of smuggling people to Sweden.
In April 1945, Nazi authorities of the city issued an order of evacuation and most of the city’s German population fled. The Soviet Red Army captured the city on 26 April. Stettin was virtually deserted when it fell, with only approx. 6,000 Germans in the city, when Polish authorities tried to gain control. In the following month the Polish administration was forced to leave again twice. Finally the permanent handover occurred on 5 July 1945. In the meantime, part of the German population had returned, believing it might become part of the Soviet occupation zone of Germany and the Soviet authorities had already appointed the German Communists Erich Spiegel and Erich Wiesner as mayors. Stettin is located mostly west of the Oder river, which was considered to become Poland's new western border, placing Stettin in East Germany. This would have been in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement between the victorious Allied Powers, which envisaged the new border to be in "a line running from the Baltic Sea immediately west of Swinemünde, and thence along the Oder River[...]". Because of the returnees, the German population of the town swelled to 84,000 again. The mortality rate was at 20%, primarily due to starvation. However, Stettin and the mouth of the Oder River (German: Stettiner Zipfel) became Polish on 5 July 1945, which had been decided in a treaty signed on 26 July 1944 between the Soviet Union and the Soviet-controlled Polish Committee of National Liberation (PKWN) (also known as "the Lublin Poles," as contrasted with the London-based Polish government-in-exile). On 4 October 1945, the decisive land border of Poland was established west of the 1945 line, but excluded the Police (Pölitz) area, the Oder river itself and the Szczecin port, which remained under Soviet administration. The Oder river was handed over to Polish administration in September 1946, and the port was subsequently handed over between February 1946 and May 1954.
After World War II the city was transferred to Poland. Szczecin was transformed from a German into a Polish city. As the flight and expulsion of the German population went on, the Poles expelled from the East were greeted by the new pro-Soviet regime as peasant-patriots. To ease the tensions between settlers from different regions, and help overcome fear caused by the continued presence of the Soviet troops, a special event was organized in April 1946 with 50,000 visitors in partly destroyed city-core. Settlers from Central Poland made up about 70% of Szczecin's new population. In addition to Poles also Ukrainians from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union settled there. In 1945 and 1946 the city was the starting point of the northern route used by the Jewish underground organization Brichah to channel Jewish DPs from Central and Eastern Europe to the American occupation zone.
Szczecin was rebuilt and the city's industry was expanded. At the same time, Szczecin became a major Polish industrial centre and an important seaport (particularly for Silesian coal) for Poland, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany. Cultural expansion was accompanied by a campaign resulting in the "removal of all German traces." In 1946 Winston Churchill prominently mentioned Szczecin in his Iron Curtain speech: "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent".
The 1962 Szczecin military parade led to a road traffic accident in which a tank of the Polish People's Army crushed bystanders, killing seven children and injuring many more. The resultant panic in the crowd led to further injuries in the rush to escape. The incident was covered up for many years by the Polish communist authorities.
The city witnessed anti-communist revolts in 1970. In 1980, one of the four August Agreements, which led to the first legalization of the trade union Solidarity, was signed in Szczecin. The introduction of martial law in December 1981 met with a strike by the dockworkers of Szczecin shipyard, joined by other factories and workplaces in a general strike. All these were suppressed by the authorities. Pope John Paul II visited the city on 11 June 1987. Another wave of strikes in Szczecin broke out in 1988 and 1989, which eventually led to the Round Table Agreement and first semi-free elections in Poland.
Since 1999 Szczecin is the capital of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship.
Architecture and urban planning
Szczecin's architectural style is due to trends popular in the last half of the 19th century and the first years of the 20th century, Academic art and Art Nouveau. In many areas built after 1945, especially in the city centre, which had been destroyed due to Allied bombing, social realism is prevalent.
The city has an abundance of green areas: parks and avenues – wide streets with trees planted in the island separating opposite traffic (where often tram tracks are laid); and roundabouts. In that manner, Szczecin's city plan resembles that of Paris, mostly because Szczecin was rebuilt in the 1880s according to a design by Georges-Eugène Haussmann, who had redesigned Paris under Napoléon III. This course of designing streets in Szczecin is still used, as many recently built (or modified) city areas include roundabouts and avenues.
During the city's reconstruction in the aftermath of World War II, the communist authorities of Poland wanted the city's architecture to reflect an old Polish Piast era. Since no buildings from the that time existed, instead Gothic as well as Renaissance buildings were picked as worthy of conservation.[need quotation to verify] The motivation behind this decision was that Renaissance architecture was used by the Griffin dynasty, who had Slavic roots and was viewed to be of Piast extraction by some historians[need quotation to verify] (later the Piast myth was replaced by a local Griffin myth, whereby the Slavic roots of the Griffin dynasty were to justify the post-war Polish presence in Pomerania). This view was manifested e.g. by erecting respective memorials, and the naming of streets and enterprises, while German traces were replaced by symbols of three main categories: Piasts, Martyrdom of Poles and gratitude to the Soviet and Polish armies which ended the Nazi German genocide of Polish people. The ruins of the former Griffin residence, initially renamed "Piast Palace", also played a central role in this concept and were reconstructed in Renaissance style, with all traces of later eras removed. In general, post-Renaissance buildings, especially from the 19th and early 20th centuries were deemed unworthy of conservation until the 1970s, and were in part used in the Bricks for Warsaw campaign (an effort to rebuild Warsaw after it had been systematically razed following the Warsaw Uprising): with 38 million bricks, Szczecin became Poland's largest brick supplier.
The Old Town was rebuilt in the late 1990s, consisting of new buildings, some of which were reconstructions of buildings destroyed in World War II.
A portion of the Szczecin Landscape Park, in the forest of Puszcza Bukowa, lies within Szczecin's boundaries.
The city is administratively divided into districts (Polish: dzielnica), which are further divided into smaller neighbourhoods. The governing bodies of the latter serve the role of auxiliary local government bodies called Neighborhood Councils (Polish: Rady Osiedla). Elections for Neighborhood Councils are held up to six months after each City Council elections. Attendance is rather low (on 20 May 2007 it ranged from 1.03% to 27.75% and was 3.78% on average). Councillors are responsible mostly for small infrastructure like trees, park benches, playgrounds, etc. Other functions are mostly advisory. Official list of districts
Other historical neighborhoods
Babin, Barnucin, Basen Górniczy, Błędów, Boleszyce, Bystrzyk, Cieszyce, Cieśnik, Dolina, Drzetowo, Dunikowo, Glinki, Grabowo, Jezierzyce, Kaliny, Kępa Barnicka, Kijewko, Kluczewko, Kłobucko, Kniewo, Kraśnica, Krzekoszów, Lotnisko, Łasztownia, Niemierzyn, Odolany, Oleszna, Podbórz, Port, os.Przyjaźni, Rogatka, Rudnik, Sienna, Skoki, Słowieńsko, Sosnówko, Starków, Stoki, Struga, Śmierdnica, os.Świerczewskie, Trzebusz, Urok, Widok, Zdunowo.
Up to the end of World War II the vast majority of the population of Stettin were German Lutheran Protestants.
- Number of inhabitants in years
- 1720: 6,081
- 1740: 12,360
- 1756: 13,533
- 1763: 12,483
- 1782: 15,372 (no Jews)
- 1794: 16,700 (no Jews)
- 1812: 21,255 incl. 476 Catholics and 5 Jews
- 1816: 21,528, incl. 742 Catholics and 74 Jews.
- 1831: 27,399, incl. 840 Catholics and 250 Jews
- 1852: 48,028, incl. 724 Catholics, 901 Jews and 2 Mennonites.
- 1861: 58,487, incl. 1,065 Catholics and 1,438 Jews, 6 Mennonites, 305 German Catholics and 3 other citizens.
- 1875: 80,972
- 1880 91,756
- 1885 99,543
- 1905: 224,119 (incl. the military), among them 209,152 Protestants, 8,635 Catholics and 3,010 Jews.
- 1933: 269,557, mostly Protestant inhabitants.
- 1939: 268,421 including 233,424 Protestants, 10,845 Catholics, and 1,102 Jews
- 2009: 406,427
Recently the city has favoured the centre right Civic Platform. Over two thirds (64.54%) of votes cast in the second round of the 2010 presidential election went to the Civic Platform's Bronisław Komorowski  and in the following year's Polish parliamentary election the party won 46.75% of the vote in the Szczecin constituency with Law and Justice second garnering 21.66% and Palikot's Movement third with 11.8%.
Members of European Parliament (MEPs) from Szczecin
- Sławomir Nitras, PO, former MP in the Polish lower house of Parliament.
- Bogusław Liberadzki, SLD-UP, economist, former Minister of Transport.
- Marek Gróbarczyk, PiS, engineer and manager, former Minister of Maritime Economy.
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Szczecin has three shipyards (Stocznia Remontowa Gryfia, Stocznia Pomerania, Stocznia Szczecińska). Stocznia Szczecińska is the biggest shipyard in Poland. It has a fishing industry and a steel mill. It is served by Szczecin-Goleniów "Solidarność" Airport and by the Port of Szczecin, third biggest port of Poland. It is also home to several major companies. Among them is the major food producer Drobimex, Polish Steamship Company, producer of construction materials Komfort, Cefarm pharmaceutical factory and Bosman Brewery. It also houses several of the new business and startup companies in the IT sector.
Szczecin is served by Szczecin-Goleniów "Solidarność" Airport which is 47 kilometres (29 miles) northeast of central Szczecin. It offers regular flights to cities in Poland (Warsaw, Kraków) and to international destinations (London, Liverpool, Dublin, Oslo, Edinburgh), as well as seasonal charter flights to other destinations.
There is also a grass airstrip within city limits, the Szczecin-Dąbie Airstrip.
Szczecin has a tram network comprising 12 tram lines serving 95 tram stops and measuring 110.77 kilometres in length. Tram transport is operated by the Tramwaje Szczecińskie (TS).
Szczecin's first horse tram opened in 1879, running from Gałczyńskiego Square to Staszica Street. In 1896 was opened the first line, which used electric traction. By 1900, the horse trams had been entirely replaced by electric trams.
Of all bus routes, 50 lines are designated as normal. At nighttime, Szczecin is served by a night bus network of 16 routes. There are also 7 fast bus lines, which don't serve all of stops on their route.
The A6 motorway (recently upgraded) serves as the southern bypass of the city, and connects to the German A11 autobahn (portions of which are currently undergoing upgrade), from where one can reach Berlin in about 90 minutes (about 150 km). Road connections with the rest of Poland are of lower quality (no motorways), though the S3 Expressway has improved the situation after its stretch from Szczecin to Gorzów Wielkopolski opened in 2010, and then another section connecting to A2 motorway opened in May, 2014. Construction of Express Roads S6 and S10 which are to run east from Szczecin has also started, though these roads will not be fully completed in the near future.
The main train station – Szczecin Główny railway station – is situated in the city centre (Kolumba Street). Szczecin has good railway connections with "Solidarity" Szczecin–Goleniów Airport and the rest of Poland, e.g. Świnoujście, Kołobrzeg, Poznań, Wrocław, Warsaw and Gdańsk. Szczecin is also connected with Germany (Berlin (Gesundbrunnen) and through Pasewalk to Neubrandenburg and Lübeck), but only by two single track, non-electrified lines (high quality double-track lines were degraded after 1945). Because of this, the rail connection between Berlin and Szczecin is much slower and less convenient than one would expect between two European cities of that size and proximity. Plans have been made to restore the double track on the Berlin-Szczecin main line with complete electrification and other upgrades to allow 160 km/h (99.42 mph) running, but these have not been funded yet.
The Port of Szczecin is the third largest port in Poland and handles almost 10 million tons of cargo annually (data from 2006).
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Major cultural events in Szczecin are:
- Days of the Sea (Polish: Dni Morza) held every June
- European Night of Museums (Polish: Europejska Noc Muzeów)
- Street Artists' Festival (Polish: Festiwal Artystów Ulicy) held every July
- Days of The Ukrainian Culture (Polish: Dni Kultury Ukraińskiej) held every May
- Air show on Dabie airport held every May
- InSPIRATIONS (Polish InSPIRACJE)
- West Pomeranian Science Festival (Polish: Zachodniopomorski Festiwal Nauki) held every September
Museums and galeries
- National Museum in Szczecin (Polish Muzeum Narodowe w Szczecinie) is the largest cultural institution in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. It has branches:
- The Main Building of Muzeum Narodowe w Szczecinie, Wały Chrobrego 3 Street.
- Szczecin's History Museum (Polish Muzeum Historii Szczecina) in the Old Town Hall, Szczecin, Księcia Mściwoja II Street.
- The Old Art Galery of Muzeum Narodowe w Szczecinie, Staromłyńska 27 Street.
- The Museum of Contemporary Art, Staromłyńska 1 Street.
- The Narrow Gauge Railway Exhibition in Gryfice
- Planned investments: Dialogue Center Breakthroughs (Polish Centrum Dialogu Przełomy) and Maritime Museum – Science Center (Polish Muzeum Morskie – Centrum Nauki).
- Literature Museum (Polish Muzeum Literatury)
- EUREKA – the miracles of science.
- The Castle Museum (Polish Muzeum Zamkowe) in the Pomeranian Dukes' Castle, Szczecin.
- Museum of Technique and Communication – Art Depot (Polish Muzeum Techniki i Komunikacji – Zajezdnia Sztuki).
Arts and entertainment
- The Pomeranian Dukes' Castle in Szczecin (Polish Zamek Książąt Pomorskich w Szczecinie)
- The Castle Cinema (Polish Kino Zamek)
- Pionier 1909 Cinema (Polish Kino Pionier 1909)
- Kana Theatre (Polish Teatr Kana)
- Modern Theatre (Polish Teatr Współczesny)
- Opera in the Castle (Polish Opera na Zamku)
- Polish Theatre (Polish Teatr Polski)
- The Cellar by the Vault Cabaret (Polish Kabaret Piwnica przy Krypcie)
- The Crypt Theatre (Polish Teatr Krypta)
- The Pleciuga Puppetry Theatre (Polish Teatr Lalek Pleciuga)
- The Niema Theatre (Polish Teatr Niema)
- Szczecin Philharmonic
- Bismarck tower Szczecin
- (ruins of) The Quistorp's Tower (Polish Wieża Quistorpa, German Quistorpturm)
Pasztecik szczeciński is a deep-fried yeast dough stuffed with meat or vegetarian filling, served in specialized bars as a fast food. The first bar serving pasztecik szczeciński, Bar "Pasztecik" founded in 1969, is located on Wojska Polskiego Avenue 46 in the center of Szczecin. Pasztecik szczeciński is usually served with clear barszcz.
Paprykarz szczeciński is a paste made by mixing fish paste (around 50%) with rice, onion, tomato concentrate, vegetable oil, salt and a mixture of spices including chili powder to put it on a sandwich. It is available in most grocery stores in the country.
The word szczeciński in both names, pasztecik szczeciński and paprykarz szczeciński, is an adjective from the name of the city of Szczecin, the place of its origin.
Education and science
- University of Szczecin (Polish: Uniwersytet Szczeciński) with 35.000 students, rector Waldemar Tarczyński
- West Pomeranian University of Technology (Polish: Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny)
- Pomeranian Medical University (Polish: Pomorski Uniwersytet Medyczny)
- Art Academy of Szczecin (Polish: Akademia Sztuki)
- Maritime University of Szczecin (Polish: Akademia Morska w Szczecinie)
- The West Pomeranian Business School (Polish: Zachodniopomorska Szkoła Biznesu)
- Higher School of Public Administration in Szczecin (Polish: Wyższa Szkoła Administracji Publicznej w Szczecinie)
- High Theological Seminary in Szczecin (Polish: Arcybiskupie Wyższe Seminarium Duchowne w Szczecinie)
- Higher School of Applied Arts (Polish: Wyższa Szkoła Sztuki Użytkowej)
- Academy of European Integration (Polish: Wyższa Szkoła Integracji Europejskiej)
- Wyższa Szkoła Ekonomiczno-Turystyczna
- Wyższa Szkoła Humanistyczna TWP
- Wyższa Szkoła Języków Obcych
- Wyższa Szkoła Techniczno-Ekonomiczna
- Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa- Collegium Balticum
- Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa "OECONOMICUS" PTE
- Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania
Scientific and regional organizations
- Western Pomeranian Institute (Polish: Instytut Zachodnio-Pomorski)
- Szczecin Scientific Society (Polish: Szczecińskie Towarzystwo Naukowe)
- local branches of Polish scientific societies in many discipines, including Polish Philosophical Society, Polish Historical Society, Polish Philological Society, Polish Mathematical Society, Polish Economic Society, Polish Geographical Society, Polish Copernicus Society of Naturalists, Polish Parasitological Society and many medical societies
- local branches of students' societies, e.g. AIESEC, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) and Polish Association of Dental Students
- local sites of British Council and Goethe-Institut
There are many popular professional sports teams in Szczecin area. The most popular sport today is probably football (thanks to Pogoń Szczecin being promoted to play in Ekstraklasa in the 2012/2013 season). Amateur sports are played by thousands of Szczecin citizens and also in schools of all levels (elementary, secondary, university).
- Pogoń Szczecin – football team (Ekstraklasa in the 2012/2013 season)
- STK Wilki Morskie Szczecin – basketball team
- Arkonia Szczecin – football team (5th league in the 2008/2009 season)
- Pogoń II Szczecin – 2nd Pogoń football team (regional 6th league in the 2008/2009 season)
- KS Stal Szczecin – 15 youth and junior teams, 1 senior, being in 4th regional league in the 2008/2009 season
- Pogoń '04 Szczecin – futsal team (1st league of Polish futsal in the 2008/2009 season)
- KS Piast Szczecin – women's volleyball team, (Seria A in the 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 seasons)
- Pogoń Handball Szczecin – handball men and women teams playing in 2nd Polish Handball League
- Wicher Warszewo – futsal team playing in Środowiskowa Liga Futsalu (Futsal League) – two regional Futsal League: 2nd place in 2006/2007 season – promotion in the first regional Futsal League
- Husaria Szczecin – American football team playing in Polish American Football League
- Szczecin Dukes - senior baseball team
- Halowa Amatorska Liga Pilkarska – Hall Amateur Football League
- Halowa Liga Pilki Noznej – Hall Football League
- Szczecinska Liga Amatorskiej Koszykowki – Szczecin Amateur Basketball League
- Szczecinska Amatorska Liga Pilki Siatkowej – Szczecin Amateur Volleyball League – women league, 1st, 2nd and 3rd men league
- Elita Professional Sport – Elita Hall Football League – 1st and 2nd league, futsal cup
- Kaskada Szczecin Rugby Club – club rugby – 7 and 15 league, rugby cup
Twin towns — Sister cities
Over the long course of its history Szczecin has been a place of birth and of residence for many famous individuals, including Empress Catherine the Great, composer Carl Loewe, writer Alfred Döblin, actress Dita Parlo, the mathematician Hermann Günther Grassmann, and the poet Konstanty Ildefons Gałczyński.
- Towns near Szczecin: Stargard Szczeciński, Police, Gryfino, Goleniów, Pyrzyce, Cedynia, Chojna, Mieszkowice, Moryń, Trzcińsko-Zdrój, Nowe Warpno, Penkun (Germany), Pasewalk (Germany), Eggesin (Germany), Gartz (Germany)
- Villages near Szczecin: Kolbacz, Przęsocin, Kołbaskowo
- Szczecin Lagoon
- Międzyodrze-Wyspa Pucka
- Wkrzanska Forest
- Central Cemetery in Szczecin
|This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (September 2015)|
- Spelling variants in medieval sources include:
- Stetin, recorded e.g. in 1133, 1159, 1177
- Stetyn, recorded e.g. in 1188, 1243
- Stetim, 1237
- Szcecin, 1273.
- Stetina, by Herbord
- Sthetynensibus or Sthetyn, 1287, in Anglicized medieval Latin. (The ending –ens–ibus means 'to the people of' in Latin.)
- Stetinum and Sedinum, still used in contemporary Latin language references
- Stitin, recorded e.g. in 1251, in the Annales Ryensis, in 1642
- Stitinum, by Saxo Grammaticus
- Stytin, in the Annales Colbacensis
- "Population of Szczecin, Poland". Population.mongabay.com. 2012-01-18. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- Białecki, Tadeusz (1992). Historia Szczecina. Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. pp. 9, 20–55, 92–95, 258–260, 300–306.
- Gerard Labuda, Władysław Filipowiak, Helena Chłopocka, Maciej Czarnecki, Tadeusz Białecki, Zygmunt Silski, Dzieje Szczecina 1-4, Państwowe Wydawn. Nauk., 1994, p.14, ISBN 83-01-04342-3
- Wojciech Lizak, "Jak wywodzono nazwę Szczecina?", , last accessed 4/2/2011
- Merians anmüthige Städte-Chronik, das ist historische und wahrhaffte Beschreibung und zugleich Künstliche Abcontrafeyung zwantzig vornehmbster und bekantester in unserm geliebten Vatterland gelegenen Stätte, 1642
- Słownik etymologiczny nazw geograficznych Polski Profesor Maria Malec PWN 2003
- Stanisław Rospond, Slawische Namenkunde Ausg. 1, Nr. 3, C. Winter, 1989, p.162
- Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p. 52, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 11, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1998, page 473 "In the 8th and 9th centuries Szczecin was a Slavic fishing and commercial settlement in later named Western Pomerania (Pomorze Zachodnie) During the 10th century, it was annexed to Poland by Mieszko
- The Origins of Polish state.Mieszko I and Bolesław Chrobry.Professor Henry Lang,Polish Academic Information Center, University at Buffalo. info-poland.buffalo.edu
- Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p. 36, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092
- Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp. 31,36,43 ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092: p. 31 (yrs 967-after 1000 AD):"[...] gelang es den polnischen Herrschern sicherlich nicht, Wollin und die Odermündung zu unterwerfen." p. 36: "Von 1119 bis 1122 eroberte er schließlich das pommersche Odergebiet mit Stettin, [...]" p. 43: "[...] während Rügen 1168 erobert und in den dänischen Staat einverleibt wurde."
- Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp. 100–101, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
- Norbert Buske, Pommern, Helms Schwerin 1997, pp. 11ff, ISBN 3-931185-07-9
- Kyra T. Inachin, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Hinstorff Rostock, 2008, pp. 15ff, ISBN 978-3-356-01044-2: pp. 14–15:"Die westslawischen Stämme der Obroditen, Lutizen und Pomoranen konnten sich lange der Eroberung widersetzen. Die militärisch überlegenen Mächte im Norden und Osten, im Süden und im Westen übten jedoch einen permanenten Druck auf den südlichen Ostseeraum aus. Dieser ging bis 1135 hauptsächlich von Polen aus. Der polnische Herzog Boleslaw III Krzywousty (Schiefmund) unterwarf in mehreren Feldzügen bis 1121 pomoranisches Stammland mit den Hauptburgen Cammin und Stettin und drang weiter gen Westen vor." p. 17: Das Interesse Waldemars richtete sich insbesondere auf das Siedlungsgebiet der Ranen, die nördlich des Ryck und auf Rügen siedelten und die sich bislang gegen Eroberer und Christianisierungsversuche gewehrt hatten. [...] und nahmen 1168 an König Waldemar I. Kriegszug gegen die Ranen teil. Arkona wurde erobert und zerstört. Die unterlegenen Ranen versprachen, das Christentum anzunehmen, die Oberhoheit des Dänenkönigs anzuerkennen und Tribut zu leisten."
- Malcolm Barber, "The two cities: medieval Europe, 1050–1320", Routledge, 2004, pg. 330 books.google.com
- An historical geography of Europe, 450 B.C.-A.D. 1330, Norman John Greville Pounds, Cambridge University Press 1973,page 241, "By 1121 Polish armies had penetrated its forests, captured its chief city of Szczecin"
- Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, pp. 36ff, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092
- Archeologia Polski, Volume 38, Instytut Historii Kultury Materialnej (Polska Akademia Nauk, page 309, Zakład im. Ossolińskich, 1993
- Kyra Inachim, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Hinstorff Rostock, 2008, p. 17, ISBN 978-3-356-01044-2: "Mit dem Tod Kaiser Lothars 1137 endete der sächsische Druck auf Wartislaw I., und mit dem Ableben Boleslaw III. auch die polnische Oberhoheit."
- Bernhard Schimmelpfennig, Könige und Fürsten, Kaiser und Papst nach dem Wormser Konkordat, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 1996, p. 16, ISBN 3-486-55034-9
- Horst Fuhrmann, Deutsche Geschichte im hohen Mittelalter: Von der Mitte des 11. Bis zum Ende des 12. Jahrhunderts, 4th edition, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2003, p. 147, ISBN 3-525-33589-X
- Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer, The Encyclopedia of world history, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001, pg 206, books.google.com
- Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-06-097468-0, p. 362
- Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p. 43, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092: Greater Polish continguents of Mieszko the Elder
- Heitz, Gerhard; Rischer, Henning (1995). Geschichte in Daten. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (in German). Münster-Berlin: Koehler&Amelang. p. 163. ISBN 3-7338-0195-4.
- Jean Richard, Jean Birrell, "The Crusades, c. 1071-c. 1291", Cambridge University Press, 1999, pg. 158, books.google.com
- Jonathan Riley-Smith, "The Crusades: A History", Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005, pg. 130, books.google.com
- Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p. 30, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
- Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p. 34, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
- Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p. 35, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
- Riis, Thomas (2003). Studien Zur Geschichte Des Ostseeraumes IV. Das Mittelalterliche Dänische Ostseeimperium. Ludwig. p. 48. ISBN 87-7838-615-2.
- Université de Caen. Centre de recherches archéologiques médiévales, Château-Gaillard: études de castellologie médiévale, XVIII : actes du colloque international tenu à Gilleleje, Danemark, 24–30 août 1996, CRAHM, 1998, p. 218, ISBN 978-2-902685-05-9
- Heitz, Gerhard; Rischer, Henning (1995). Geschichte in Daten. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (in German). Münster-Berlin: Koehler&Amelang. p. 168. ISBN 3-7338-0195-4.
- Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p. 43, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
- Jan Maria Piskorski, Slawen und Deutsche in Pommern im Mittelalter, in Klaus Herbers, Nikolas Jaspert, Grenzräume und Grenzüberschreitungen im Vergleich: der Osten und der Westen des mittelalterlichen Lateineuropa, Akademie Verlag, 2007, p. 85, ISBN 3-05-004155-2
- Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p. 43ff, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
- Jan Maria Piskorski, Slawen und Deutsche in Pommern im Mittelalter, in Klaus Herbers, Nikolas Jaspert, Grenzräume und Grenzüberschreitungen im Vergleich: der Osten und der Westen des mittelalterlichen Lateineuropa, Akademie Verlag, 2007, p. 86, ISBN 3-05-004155-2
- North, Michael (2008). Geschichte Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns (in German). Beck. p. 21. ISBN 3-406-57767-9.
- Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p. 83, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
- Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p. 84, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
- Jan Maria Piskorski, Slawen und Deutsche in Pommern im Mittelalter, in Klaus Herbers, Nikolas Jaspert, Grenzräume und Grenzüberschreitungen im Vergleich: der Osten und der Westen des mittelalterlichen Lateineuropa, Akademie Verlag, 2007, p. 87, ISBN 3-05-004155-2
- Jan Maria Piskorski, Slawen und Deutsche in Pommern im Mittelalter, in Klaus Herbers, Nikolas Jaspert, Grenzräume und Grenzüberschreitungen im Vergleich: der Osten und der Westen des mittelalterlichen Lateineuropa, Akademie Verlag, 2007, p. 88, ISBN 3-05-004155-2
- Roderich Schmidt, Pommern und Mecklenburg, Böhlau, 1981, p. 61, ISBN 3-412-06976-0
- Peter Johanek, Franz-Joseph Post, Städtebuch Hinterpommern 2–3, Kohlhammer, 2003, p. 277, ISBN 3-17-018152-1
- Johannes Hinz, Pommernlexikon, Kraft, 1994, p. 25, ISBN 3-8083-1164-9
- Heitmann, Margret (1995), "Synagoge und freie christliche Gemeinde in Stettin", in Heitmann, Margret; Schoeps, Julius, "Halte fern dem ganzen Lande jedes Verderben..". Geschichte und Kultur der Juden in Pommern (in German), Hildesheim/Zürich/New York: Olms, pp. 225–238; p. 225, ISBN 3-487-10074-6
- Wernicke, Horst (2007). "Die Hansestädte an der Oder". In Schlögel, Karl; Halicka, Beata. Oder-Odra. Blicke auf einen europäischen Strom (in German). Lang. pp. 137–48; here p. 142. ISBN 3-631-56149-0.
- Peter Oliver Loew, Staatsarchiv Stettin: Wegweiser durch die Bestände bis zum Jahr 1945, German translation of Radosław Gaziński, Paweł Gut, Maciej Szukała, Archiwum Państwowe w Szczecinie, Poland. Naczelna Dyrekcja Archiwów Państwowych, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2004, p. 344, ISBN 3-486-57641-0
- Ślaski, Kazimierz (1987). "Volkstumswandel in Pommern vom 12. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert". In Kirchhoff, Hans Georg. Beiträge zur Geschichte Pommerns und Pommerellens. Mit einem Geleitwort von Klaus Zernack (in German (translated from Polish)). Dortmund. pp. 94–109; p. 97. ISBN 3-923293-19-4.
- Hubertus Fischer, Klosterfrauen, Klosterhexen: Theodor Fontanes Sidonie von Borcke im kulturellen Kontext : Klosterseminar des Fontane-Kreises Hannover der Theodor-Fontane-Gesellschaft e.V. mit dem Konvent des Klosters St. Marienberg vom 14. bis 15. November 2003 in Helmstedt, Rübenberger Verlag Tania Weiss, 2005, p. 22, ISBN 3-936788-07-3
- Kyra Inachim, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Hinstorff Rostock, 2008, p. 62, ISBN 978-3-356-01044-2
- Joachim Krüger, Zwischen dem Reich und Schweden: die landesherrliche Münzprägung im Herzogtum Pommern und in Schwedisch-Pommern in der frühen Neuzeit (ca. 1580 bis 1715), LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster, 2006, pp. 53–55, ISBN 3-8258-9768-0
- Kyra Inachim, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Hinstorff Rostock, 2008, p. 65, ISBN 978-3-356-01044-2
- Peter Oliver Loew, Staatsarchiv Stettin: Wegweiser durch die Bestände bis zum Jahr 1945, German translation of Radosław Gaziński, Paweł Gut, Maciej Szukała, Archiwum Państwowe w Szczecinie, Poland. Naczelna Dyrekcja Archiwów Państwowych, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2004, p. 345, ISBN 3-486-57641-0
- Historia Szczecina: zarys dziejów miasta od czasów najdawniejszych Tadeusz Białecki – 1992 Nowa wojna polsko-szwedzka w połowie XVII w. nie ominęła i Szczecina. Oprócz zwiększonych podatków i zahamowania handlu w 1657 r. pod Szczecinem pojawiły się oddziały polskie Stefana Czarnieckiego
- Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p. 532, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
- Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p. 416, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
- Heitmann, Margret (1995), "Synagoge und freie christliche Gemeinde in Stettin", in Heitmann, Margret; Schoeps, Julius, "Halte fern dem ganzen Lande jedes Verderben..". Geschichte und Kultur der Juden in Pommern (in German), Hildesheim/Zürich/New York: Olms, pp. 225–238; p. 226, ISBN 3-487-10074-6
- Kultura i sztuka Szczecina w latach 1800–1945:materiały Seminarium Oddziału Szczecińskiego Stowarzyszenia Historyków Sztuki, 16–17 październik 1998 Stowarzyszenie Historyków Sztuki. Oddział Szczeciński. Seminarium, Maria Glińska
- Schmidt, Roderich (2009). Das historische Pommern. Personen, Orte, Ereignisse. Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Pommern (in German) 41 (2 ed.). Köln-Weimar: Böhlau. pp. 19–20. ISBN 3-412-20436-6.
- Dzieje Szczecina:1806–1945 page 450 Bogdan Frankiewicz 1994
- Musekamp, Jan (2009). Zwischen Stettin und Szczecin. Veröffentlichungen des Deutschen Polen-Instituts Darmstadt (in German) 27. Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 72. ISBN 3-447-06273-8.. Quote1: "[...] Polen, die sich bereits vor Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges in der Stadt befunden hatten. Es handelte sich bei ihnen zum einen um Industriearbeiter und ihre Angehörigen, die bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg meist aus der Gegend um Posen in das damals zum selben Staat gehörende Stettin gezogen waren [...]"
- Schmidt, Roderich (2009). Das historische Pommern. Personen, Orte, Ereignisse. Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Pommern (in German) 41 (2 ed.). Köln-Weimar: Böhlau. p. 20. ISBN 3-412-20436-6.
- "Deutsche Verwaltungsgeschichte Pommern, Kreis Stettin". Verwaltungsgeschichte.de. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
- Polonia szczecińska 1890–1939 Anna Poniatowska Bogusław Drewniak, Poznań 1961
- Historyczna droga do polskiego Szczecina:wybór dokumentów i opracowań. Kazimierz Kozłowski, Stanisław Krzywicki. Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza, page 79, 1988
- Musekamp, Jan (2009). Zwischen Stettin und Szczecin. Veröffentlichungen des Deutschen Polen-Instituts Darmstadt (in German) 27. Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 73. ISBN 3-447-06273-8.
- Musekamp, Jan (2009). Zwischen Stettin und Szczecin. Veröffentlichungen des Deutschen Polen-Instituts Darmstadt (in German) 27. Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 74. ISBN 3-447-06273-8.
- Skóra, Wojciech (2001). Konsulat Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej w Szczecinie w latach 1925–1939. Powstanie i działalność (in Polish). Pomorska Akademia Pedagogiczna w Słupsku. p. 139. ISBN 83-88731-15-7.
- Gilbert, M (1989) Second World War, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, P52
- Stolzenburg, Katrin (2002). "Hans Bernhard Reichow (1899–1974)". In Lichtnau, Bernfried. Architektur und Städtebau im südlichen Ostseeraum zwischen 1936 und 1980 (in German). Lukas Verlag. pp. 137–152; p. 140. ISBN 3-931836-74-6.
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- Wywiad Związku Walki Zbrojnej--Armii Krajowej, 1939–1945 Piotr Matusak 2002 page 166
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- Cudzoziemcy w polskim ruchu oporu: 1939–1945 Stanisław Okęcki 1975 page 49
- Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p.376, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092
- Grete Grewolls: Wer war wer in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern? Ein Personenlexikon. Edition Temmen, Bremen 1995, ISBN 3-86108-282-9, p. 467.
- Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p. 377, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092
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