Steuben County, Indiana

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Steuben County
Steuben County Courthouse in Angola (on the National Register of Historic Places).
Steuben County Courthouse in Angola (on the National Register of Historic Places).
Map of Indiana highlighting Steuben County
Location within the U.S. state of Indiana
Map of the United States highlighting Indiana
Indiana's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 41°38′N 85°00′W / 41.64°N 85°W / 41.64; -85
Country United States
State Indiana
Founded5 February 1836 (authorized)
1837 (organized)
Named forBaron Frederick von Steuben
SeatAngola
Largest cityAngola
Area
 • Total322.47 sq mi (835.2 km2)
 • Land308.94 sq mi (800.2 km2)
 • Water13.53 sq mi (35.0 km2)  4.20%%
Population
 • Estimate 
(2018)
34,586
 • Density112/sq mi (43/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district3rd
WebsiteOfficial County Website
Indiana county number 76

Steuben County is a county in the northeast corner of the U.S. state of Indiana. As of the 2010 United States Census the county population was 34,185.[1] The county seat (and only incorporated city) is Angola.[2] Steuben County comprises the Angola, IN Micropolitan Statistical Area.

History[edit]

After the American Revolutionary War established US sovereignty over the territory of the upper midwest, the new federal government defined the Northwest Territory in 1787 which included the area of present-day Indiana. In 1800, Congress separated Ohio from the Northwest Territory, designating the rest of the land as the Indiana Territory. President Thomas Jefferson chose William Henry Harrison as the governor of the territory, and Vincennes was established as the capital. After the Michigan Territory was separated and the Illinois Territory was formed, Indiana was reduced to its current size and geography. By December 1816 the Indiana Territory was admitted to the Union as a state.

This area was historically occupied by the Potawatomi people, one of the tribes in the Council of Three Fires. Typically they lived in highly decentralized bands. Treaties signed by some leaders with United States representatives ceded large areas of their territory to the US. Starting in 1794, Native American titles to Indiana lands were extinguished by usurpation, purchase, or war and treaty. The United States acquired land from the Native Americans in the 1809 treaty of Fort Wayne, by the treaty of St. Mary's in 1818, and in 1826 by the Treaty of Mississinewas, which included the future Steuben County.

The Indiana State Legislature passed an omnibus county bill[3] on 7 February 1835 that authorized the creation of thirteen counties in northeast Indiana, including Steuben.[4] In 1837 the county was organized. It was named for Baron Frederick von Steuben, an officer of the American Revolutionary War.[5] In 1840 the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from this area and neighboring territory in Michigan and Ohio to Indian Territory in Kansas.

A Potawatomi chief, Baw Beese, led a band that was based at what later became known as Baw Beese Lake nearby in Michigan. His daughter Winona married Negnaska and lived in what is now Indiana. She was executed in the 1830s by her husband's people after she killed Negnaska for selling her pony.[6] Winona's husband had pledged his rifle to Aaron B. Goodwin of Fremont for the use of a 5-gallon keg. The Indians had the keg filled with whiskey at Nichols' store in Jamestown, and he took all the money they had. Negnaska sold his wife Winona's pony in order to pawn his rifle. Winona owned the pony outright, either as a gift from her father or having bought it with her own money. She killed Negnaska in anger for selling what was hers. Winona was held by the tribe for a few hours until her husband's nearest relative arrived to execute her. As was their custom, he stabbed her to the heart as she had her husband.[7]

John D. Barnard and Sheldon Havens encountered the Potawatomi group after the execution; they helped them move the bodies to a nearby grave that had been dug. The Indians did not bury the bodies until after the white men were out of sight. But Dr. B.F. Sheldon found out about it and exhumed the bodies for dissection a few days later, outraging the mourning Potawatomi. About two weeks later some Potawatomi returned the keg to Goodwin and tried to retrieve Negnaska's rifle, but Goodwin pretended not to know the man had been killed and refused to release the rifle to his friends.[7]

Geography[edit]

The county's low rolling hills have been largely cleared and leveled for agricultural use, although the drainage areas are still wooded.[8] The highest point (1,200 feet/366 meters ASL) is a hillock one mile (1.6 km) east of Glen Eden.[9]

The county contains a state park and 105 lakes of various sizes. Some of the larger lakes are Lake James, Lake George, Clear Lake, Jimmerson Lake, Lake Gage, and Crooked Lake.

map with highways and lakes
Steuben County and its lakes

According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 322.47 square miles (835.2 km2), of which 308.94 square miles (800.2 km2) (or 95.80%) is land and 13.53 square miles (35.0 km2) (or 4.20%) is water.[10]

Adjacent counties[edit]

Steuben County touches the states of Michigan and Ohio.

Major highways[edit]

City and towns[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Townships[edit]

Protected areas[edit]

  • Cedar Lake Wetlands Conservation Area
  • Marsh Lake Wetlands State Fish and Wildlife Area[8]
  • Pokagon State Park

Climate and weather[edit]

Angola, Indiana
Climate chart (explanation)
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F
M
A
M
J
J
A
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29
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1.8
 
 
33
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25
 
 
3.4
 
 
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35
 
 
3.9
 
 
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3.9
 
 
78
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3.7
 
 
82
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4.1
 
 
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2.6
 
 
60
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3.1
 
 
46
30
 
 
2.8
 
 
34
20
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[11]

In recent years, average temperatures in Angola have ranged from a low of 14 °F (−10 °C) in January to a high of 82 °F (28 °C) in July, although a record low of −27 °F (−33 °C) was recorded in January 1981 and a record high of 106 °F (41 °C) was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.83 inches (46 mm) in February to 4.08 inches (104 mm) in August.[11]

Government[edit]

The county government is a constitutional body and is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, and by the Indiana Code.

County Council: The legislative branch of the county government; controls spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected to four-year terms from county districts. They set salaries, the annual budget, and special spending. The council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax that is subject to state level approval, excise taxes, and service taxes.[12][13]

Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county; commissioners are elected county-wide to staggered four-year terms. One commissioner serves as president. The commissioners execute acts legislated by the council, collect revenue, and manage the county government.[12][13]

Court: The county maintains a small claims court that handles civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable who is also elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court.[13]

County Officials: The county has other elected offices, including sheriff, coroner, auditor, treasurer, recorder, surveyor, and circuit court clerk. These officers are elected to four-year terms. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county.[13]

Steuben County is part of Indiana's 3rd congressional district.

Steuben County is very Republican at the presidential level. The only time it voted for a Democrat was for FDR in 1932 and that was close.

Presidential election results
Presidential elections results [14]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2020 70.0% 11,327 27.9% 4,513 2.1% 344
2016 69.6% 10,133 25.7% 3,744 4.7% 689
2012 62.4% 8,547 35.4% 4,853 2.2% 295
2008 54.1% 7,674 44.3% 6,284 1.6% 230
2004 65.4% 8,433 33.7% 4,345 1.0% 127
2000 61.7% 6,953 36.4% 4,103 2.0% 221
1996 49.5% 5,513 37.1% 4,124 13.4% 1,493
1992 42.4% 4,868 31.7% 3,630 25.9% 2,971
1988 68.6% 6,855 31.1% 3,114 0.3% 31
1984 72.0% 6,424 27.4% 2,441 0.6% 56
1980 62.9% 5,670 28.9% 2,606 8.1% 732
1976 59.2% 5,079 38.8% 3,323 2.0% 173
1972 69.8% 5,636 29.7% 2,401 0.5% 38
1968 62.5% 4,762 29.8% 2,268 7.7% 588
1964 50.3% 4,075 49.3% 3,999 0.4% 31
1960 67.6% 5,464 32.0% 2,588 0.3% 27
1956 71.6% 5,538 28.1% 2,171 0.4% 30
1952 73.0% 5,322 25.9% 1,886 1.1% 80
1948 67.3% 4,341 30.9% 1,996 1.8% 115
1944 71.6% 4,739 27.8% 1,837 0.6% 42
1940 66.4% 5,056 33.1% 2,524 0.5% 40
1936 53.0% 3,998 45.1% 3,402 1.9% 145
1932 48.4% 3,594 50.0% 3,717 1.6% 117
1928 71.4% 4,435 27.8% 1,730 0.8% 51
1924 68.5% 4,046 27.3% 1,610 4.2% 249
1920 72.5% 4,963 24.5% 1,676 3.1% 209
1916 50.7% 2,418 29.9% 1,427 19.3% 922
1912 32.3% 1,290 31.7% 1,266 35.9% 1,433[15]
1908 62.0% 2,704 33.3% 1,453 4.7% 204
1904 66.6% 2,864 29.3% 1,260 4.1% 177
1900 61.9% 2,715 34.7% 1,522 3.3% 146
1896 60.2% 2,655 37.9% 1,674 1.9% 84
1892 55.7% 2,100 33.6% 1,264 10.7% 404
1888 61.1% 2,352 35.0% 1,348 3.9% 148

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18402,578
18506,104136.8%
186010,37470.0%
187012,85423.9%
188014,64513.9%
189014,478−1.1%
190015,2195.1%
191014,274−6.2%
192013,360−6.4%
193013,3860.2%
194013,7402.6%
195017,08724.4%
196017,1840.6%
197020,15917.3%
198024,69422.5%
199027,44611.1%
200033,21421.0%
201034,1852.9%
2019 (est.)34,594[16]1.2%
US Decennial Census[17]
1790-1960[18] 1900-1990[19]
1990-2000[20] 2010-2013[1]

2010 Census[edit]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 34,185 people, 13,310 households, and 9,153 families in the county.[21] The population density was 110.7 inhabitants per square mile (42.7/km2). There were 19,377 housing units at an average density of 62.7 per square mile (24.2/km2).[10] The racial makeup of the county was 96.8% white, 0.5% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.9% from other races, and 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.9% of the population.[21] In terms of ancestry, 37.8% were German, 12.6% were English, 10.5% were Irish, and 8.2% were American.[22]

Of the 13,310 households, 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.2% were non-families, and 25.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age was 40.2 years.[21]

The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $57,154. Males had a median income of $40,833 versus $29,614 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,950. About 7.7% of families and 10.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.4% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over.[23]

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Fremont High School

School districts[edit]

  • Fremont Community Schools
  • Hamilton Community Schools
  • M S D of Steuben County
  • Prairie Heights Community School Corporation

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Steuben County QuickFacts". US Census Bureau. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  3. ^ John W Tyndall & OE Lesh, Standard history of Adams and Wells Counties, Indiana. pp. 284-6 (accessed 9 August 2020)
  4. ^ The counties are Dekalb, Fulton, Jasper, Jay, Kosciusko, Marshall, Newton, Porter, Pulaski, Stark, Steuben, Wells, and Whitley. Newton County was merged with Jasper County in 1839 and was re-authorized as a separate county in 1859.
  5. ^ De Witt Clinton Goodrich & Charles Richard Tuttle (1875). An Illustrated History of the State of Indiana. Indiana: R. S. Peale & co. pp. 573.
  6. ^ Fuller, George Newman and Beeson, LewisMichigan History Vol. 6 Lansing: Michigan State Historical Society, 1922. p. 582
  7. ^ a b History of Steuben County, Indiana, Chicago: Inter-state Publishing Company, 1885. pp. 550-551.
  8. ^ a b Steuben County IN (Google Maps, accessed 13 August 2020)
  9. ^ Tamarack Mountain/Steuben County, Indiana (PeakBagger.com, accessed 13 August 2020)
  10. ^ a b "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  11. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Angola IN". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
  12. ^ a b Indiana Code. "Title 36, Article 2, Section 3". IN.gov. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
  13. ^ a b c d Indiana Code. "Title 2, Article 10, Section 2" (PDF). IN.gov. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
  14. ^ Leip, David. "Atlas of US Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  15. ^ The leading "other" candidate, Progressive Theodore Roosevelt, received 1,210 votes, while Socialist candidate Eugene Debs received 177 votes, Prohibition candidate Eugene Chafin received 41 votes, and Socialist Labor candidate Arthur Reimer received 5 votes.
  16. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved July 26, 2019.
  17. ^ "US Decennial Census". US Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  18. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  19. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". US Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  20. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  21. ^ a b c "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  22. ^ "Selected Social Characteristics in the US – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  23. ^ "Selected Economic Characteristics – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  24. ^ See 1920 Federal Census, Richland Township, Steuben County, Indiana, page 5B, Enumeration District 161; and; Theory and Practice of Communism in 1972 (Southeast Asia), Part I. Hearings of the House Committee on Internal Security, May 25, 1972, on northeastern Laos. pp. 1-4, 7761-7817. Testimony of Edgar M. Buell.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 41°38′N 85°00′W / 41.64°N 85.00°W / 41.64; -85.00