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Steve Albini

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Steve Albini
A frowning man with glasses playing a black guitar, wearing a black t-shirt and ripped blue jeans.
Albini in 2007
Background information
Birth nameSteven Frank Albini[a]
Born(1962-07-22)July 22, 1962
Pasadena, California, U.S.
OriginMissoula, Montana, U.S.
DiedMay 7, 2024(2024-05-07) (aged 61)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
  • Singer-songwriter
  • musician
  • record producer
  • audio engineer
  • music journalist
  • Vocals
  • guitar
  • bass
  • drums
Years active1981–2024
LabelsTouch and Go
Formerly of

Steven Frank Albini (/ælˈbni/; July 22, 1962 – May 7, 2024) was an American musician and audio engineer. He founded and fronted the influential post-hardcore and noise rock bands Big Black (1981–1987), Rapeman (1987–1989) and Shellac (1992–2024), and engineered acclaimed albums like the Pixies' Surfer Rosa (1988), PJ Harvey's Rid of Me and Nirvana's In Utero (both 1993).

Albini was born in Pasadena, California, and raised in Missoula, Montana. After discovering the Ramones as a teenager, he immersed himself in punk rock and underground culture. He earned a degree in journalism at Northwestern University, Illinois, and wrote for local zines before moving to Chicago. He formed Big Black in 1981 and recruited Santiago Durango and Dave Riley. Big Black attracted a considerable following, releasing two albums, four EPs and several singles. In 1987 he formed the controversially named band Rapeman with David Wm. Sims and Rey Washam, releasing one album and one EP in 1988. He formed Shellac with Bob Weston and Todd Trainer in 1992, with whom he released several albums, including At Action Park (1994) and 1000 Hurts (2000); To All Trains was released ten days after his death.

After Big Black's dissolution, Albini became a highly sought after recording engineer, rejecting the term "record producer". He recorded several thousand records during his career, collaborating with notable acts such as the Breeders, the Jesus Lizard, Page and Plant, Godspeed You! Black Emperor, Joanna Newsom, Cheap Trick and Slint. He refused to take royalties on albums he worked on, operating on a fee-only basis. He founded the Chicago recording studio Electrical Audio in 1997, dedicated to recording a sharp live sound at a cheap price.

Noted for his outspoken and blunt opinions, Albini was critical of local punk scenes and the music industry, which he viewed as exploitative of artists. He was an adherent to analog recording, and praised the increasing independence in music resulted by the internet. He was also infamous for authoring transgressive art as a reaction to people taking artistic compromises; Albini expressed regret for this past mindset in his final years. He died of a heart attack in 2024.

Early life[edit]

Black-and-white headshot of a young man with medium-length middle-parted hair, wearing a collarless button-up shirt
Albini, age 16, c. 1978–79, at Hellgate High School in Missoula, Montana[1]

[O]ne thing that I discovered that I think is unusual is that I had no stage anxiety. Coincidentally, around the same time I also realised that other people's opinions of me had no power over me. As long as what I was doing was honourable in my own mind, then I could do it comfortably, and if other people didn't get it or didn't agree with it, that was okay—that didn't have any effect on me. That's carried through to this day, because I still don't give a shit if I get judged.

Albini on his early performing experiences[2]

Steven Frank Albini[a] was born in Pasadena, California, to Gina (née Martinelli) and Frank Addison Albini. His father was a wildfire researcher. He had two siblings.[6][7][8][9] In his youth, Albini's family moved often as a result of their father's profession,[10] before settling in the college town of Missoula, Montana, in 1974.[6] Albini was Italian American, and some of his family are from the Piedmont region of Northern Italy.[7]

Albini began playing bass guitar while in high school, and was introduced to the Ramones by a schoolmate when he was 14 or 15. He bought every Ramones recording available to him and credits his career to their first album.[6][11][12] He said, "I was baffled and thrilled by music like the Ramones, the Sex Pistols, Pere Ubu, Devo, and all those contemporaneous, inspirational punk bands without wanting to try to mimic them."[13]

During his teenage years, Albini played in bands including the Montana punk band Just Ducky, the Chicago band Small Irregular Pieces of Aluminum, and another band that record label Touch and Go Records explained "he is paying us not to mention".[14]

After graduating from Hellgate High School,[6] Albini moved to Evanston, Illinois, to attend college at the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University where he earned a degree in journalism.[15] He said that he studied painting in college with Ed Paschke, someone he calls a brilliant educator and "one of the only people in college who actually taught me anything".[16]

In the Chicago area, Albini was active as a writer in local zines including Matter, and later Boston's Forced Exposure, covering the then-nascent punk rock scene, and gained a reputation for the iconoclastic nature of his articles. About the same time, he began recording musicians and engineered his first album in 1981.[17] He co-managed Ruthless Records (Chicago) with John Kezdy of the Effigies and Jon Babbin (Criminal IQ Records). According to Albini, he maintained a "straight job" for five years until 1987, working in a photography studio as a photograph retouch artist.[18]

Performing career[edit]

Flyer on letter-sized paper with spray-painted black text over a yellow background.
A flyer designed by Albini for a show with Big Black, Urge Overkill, and Squirrel Bait at the Jockey Club in Newport, Kentucky on May 26, 1985

1981–1987: Big Black[edit]

Albini formed Big Black in 1981 while he was a student at Northwestern, and recorded their debut EP Lungs on Ruthless Records.[19] He played all of the instruments on Lungs except the saxophone, played by his friend John Bohnen. The Bulldozer (1983) EP followed on Ruthless and Fever Records.[14]

Jeff Pezzati and Santiago Durango, of Chicago band Naked Raygun,[20] and live drummer Pat Byrne joined shortly after, and the band—along with a Roland TR-606 drum machine — released the 1984 EP Racer-X after touring and signing a contract with the Homestead Records business. Pezzati was replaced on bass by Dave Riley, with whom the group recorded their debut full-length album Atomizer (1986). The band also released The Hammer Party while signed to Homestead, which was a compilation of the Lungs and Bulldozer EPs.[14]

Big Black signed to Touch and Go in late 1985/early 1986, and released the EP Headache and the 7-inch single Heartbeat.[14] Later that year they released the live album Sound of Impact on the British label Not/Blast First, a former imprint of Mute Records.[21][22] In 1987, Big Black released their second and final full-length album Songs About Fucking and the single "He's a Whore / The Model", both on Touch and Go.[14] They disbanded that year after a period of extensive touring.[14]

1987–1989: Rapeman[edit]

Albini formed Rapeman in 1987, with the name taken from a manga series. The band consisted of Albini on vocals and guitar, Rey Washam on drums and David Wm. Sims on bass. Both Washam and Sims were previously members of Scratch Acid. They broke up after the release of two 7-inch singles, the EP Budd and the album Two Nuns and a Pack Mule (both 1988).[citation needed] In 2023, Albini said he had become embarrassed by the name.[10]

1992–2024: Shellac[edit]

Black-and-white photo of three men posing lined up in crouched positions with their arms outstretched
Shellac in Shibuya, Japan, c. November 1993. Front to back: Weston, Albini, and Trainer.

Albini formed Shellac in 1992[23] with Bob Weston (formerly of Volcano Suns) and Todd Trainer (of Rifle Sport, Breaking Circus and Brick Layer Cake). They recorded five studio albums in his lifetime: At Action Park (1994), Terraform (1998), 1000 Hurts (2000), Excellent Italian Greyhound (2007) and Dude Incredible (2014). Albini died ten days before the release of their sixth album, To All Trains.[24]

Production career[edit]

Albini became widely known as a producer after recording the 1988 Pixies album Surfer Rosa.[25] According to the Rolling Stone journalist Rob Sheffield, Albini gave the album a "raw room-tone live crunch, especially the heavy drums and slashing guitars".[25] The journalist Michael Azerrad wrote: "The recordings were both very basic and very exacting: Albini used few special effects; got an aggressive, often violent guitar sound; and made sure the rhythm section slammed as one."[26]: 344 

Albini did not see himself as a record producer, which he defined as someone completely responsible for a recording session. Instead, he described himself as an audio engineer. He left creative decisions to the artist and saw it as his job to satisfy them.[27] Albini felt that putting producers in charge often destroyed records, and that the role of the recording engineer was to solve technical problems, not to threaten the artist's creative control.[17]

Albini did not request credit, and said that when he had been credited as a producer it had not been at his request.[27] When credited, Albini preferred the term "recording engineer".[28] He felt that his involvement in recording was unimportant and sometimes created public relations problems for acts, or could distract from the record.[27] He refused to accept royalties, preferring to charge a fixed fee. At the time of his death, Albini charged $900 a day, less than a quarter of the rate a producer of his experience would typically charge.[29] He would occasionally work unpaid if an act ran out of money, preferring not to leave work unfinished.[27]

Though Albini was a vocal critic of major labels and artists, he would work with anyone who requested his service, regardless of their style or ability.[30][27] He required no audition, only an expectation that the act would take their work seriously.[28] He said he was willing to work with "anyone who calls on the phone ... If someone rings because he wants to make a record, I say yes."[27] In The Vinyl District, Joseph Neff wrote: "When enlisted by the big leagues, Albini took his job just as seriously as when he was assisting on the debut recording from a bunch of aspiring unknowns."[31]

In 2004, Albini estimated that he had engineered 1,500 records.[17] By 2018, his estimate had increased to several thousand.[32] Artists that Albini worked with include Nirvana,[33] the Breeders, Godspeed You! Black Emperor,[34] Mogwai, the Jesus Lizard, Don Caballero, PJ Harvey, the Wedding Present, Joanna Newsom, Superchunk, Low, Dirty Three, Jawbreaker, Neurosis,[34] Cloud Nothings, Bush,[30] Chevelle,[35] Page and Plant,[36] Helmet,[37] Fred Schneider,[31] the Stooges,[38] Nina Nastasia,[39] Cheap Trick,[40] Motorpsycho,[41] Slint,[42] mclusky,[43] Labradford,[44] Veruca Salt,[45] and the Auteurs.[46]


Albini in 2008

Albini was influenced by the English producer and engineer John Loder, who recorded numerous early punk records quickly and cheaply.[27] Loder engineered a session with Big Black, and impressed Albini with his efficiency, knowledge of the equipment and "sensitivity to the band".[27]

Albini was an advocate for analog recording. He said it would be irresponsible to give clients digital files as masters, as he feared digital formats might become unusable in the future.[47] In 2005, Albini said he disliked recording with computers, finding that software unreliable and overcomplex. By comparison, "In the analogue domain you know what you're supposed to do, you plug something in, and it's done."[27] He said he had never felt limited by his equipment and had never had to tell an artist that something was impossible without computers.[27] He was skeptical of digital manipulation, saying: "I don't understand where the impulse comes from to make a record that doesn't have any relationship to the sound of the real band. That seems crazy to me."[27]

Albini preferred to record bands together in live takes where possible, rather than overdubbing, believing this created the most natural result.[27] He aimed to create a faithful document of the performance, and said "I would be very happy if my fingerprints weren't possible". However, he conceded that it was impossible to have an "objective perspective in the visible".[27] He used few effects and little compression, preferring to preserve dynamics and "hear the band rather than the machine".[27] In his 1993 essay "The Problem with Music", he said compression made "everything sound like a beer commercial" and said words such as "punchy" and "warm" were meaningless. He wrote that producers and engineers who raise the vocals in the mix to make the music "sound more like the Beatles" were pandering to commercial interests.[48][49]

According to The Guardian, Albini was "especially good at capturing the raw sound of a band, as though they were playing right in front of you".[10] Pitchfork wrote that Albini "captured the quiet and the loud all at once".[29] Bands would hire Albini in an attempt to "sound realer".[10] Stereogum described his recording sound as "open, dry, claustrophobic, brutally honest".[50] Steve Von Till of Neurosis, who recorded several albums with Albini, said in 2013: "He is the best damn engineer in the world, I believe. He's very traditional, there's no tricks, there's no fix it later. There's only an extremely high-fidelity approach towards capturing a natural performance in a room."[51] Albini would spend about a week on average recording an album, including mixing.[27]

Albini disputed his reputation for working with "hard-hitting grunge bands" and for imposing an "uncompromising sound", saying he had recorded hundreds of acoustic albums and that he did not impose his taste on his clients.[27] He said most artists wanted him to create an "organic" sound.[27] Albini said his opinion on the quality of a song or an arrangement was irrelevant, and that it would be inappropriate to tell a musician they were wrong about their music: "It's like saying, 'Here, let me show you how to fuck your wife. You're doing it all wrong.'"[27] He felt his musical preferences were obscure and that imposing them would "make a lot of freakish records that wouldn't flatter the band in any way, and no one would like them".[27]

Electrical Audio[edit]

Studio B in Electrical Audio

Albini bought Electrical Audio, a recording studio, in 1995.[27][52] Due to a lack of privacy for Albini and his wife he moved to the studio. Albini's former studio was in their house, eventually taking over almost all the rooms, with the exception of the bedroom.[52] Before Electrical Audio, Albini had a studio in the basement of another personal residence. Musician Robbie Fulks recalls the hassle of "running up two flights of stairs all the time from the tracking room" to communicate with Albini.[18]

During his first several years at Electrical Audio, Albini's unpopularity with the major labels in the wake of engineering Nirvana's In Utero (1993) made it difficult to secure consistent work.[2] Although he produced Bush's chart-topping 1996 album Razorblade Suitcase, Albini's refusal to take royalties meant that he saw little passive income from producing music.[29][53] To pay bills and keep the studio open, he was forced to sell off studio equipment, guitars, and vinyl records.[53] Albini's fortunes later changed when he engineered Page and Plant's 1998 album Walking into Clarksdale, winning his clients a Grammy Award and returning him to the labels' good graces.

Azerrad referred to Albini's rates in 2001 as among the most affordable for a world-class recording studio.[26] After the completion of the studio's construction, Albini initially charged only for his time, allowing his friends or musicians he respected—who were willing to engineer their own recording sessions and purchase their own magnetic tape—to use his studio for free.[26][page needed] In a 2004 lecture, Albini said that he answered the phone himself and dealt with bands directly at Electrical Audio.[17]


Albini has said that "anybody can play notes. There's no trick. What is a trick and a good one is to make a guitar do things that don't sound like a guitar at all. The point here is stretching the boundaries."[54]

He praised guitarists including Andy Gill of Gang of Four, Rowland S. Howard of the Birthday Party, John McKay of Siouxsie and the Banshees, Keith Levene of Public Image Ltd, Steve Diggle and Pete Shelley of Buzzcocks, Ron Asheton of the Stooges, Paul Fox of the Ruts, Greg Ginn of Black Flag, Lyle Preslar of Minor Threat, John McGeoch of Magazine and the Banshees, and Tom Verlaine of Television.[54]


Albini ... is a genuine punk rocker. Not because he plays music with distorted guitars or exudes contempt for pretentious establishment figures – though he has done plenty of that – but because throughout his career he, perhaps more than anyone else, has attempted to embody the righteous ideological tenets that once made punk rock feel like a true alternative to the tired mainstream.

Jeremy Gordon, The Guardian, 2023[10]

Transgressive character[edit]

Earlier in his career, Albini was noted for his abrasive and sometimes offensive music and writing.[10] The Guardian writer Jeremy Gordon wrote that Albini had "stood out for acting like the biggest jerk in a milieu that was not exactly inhospitable to jerks ... What might it mean if the most principled practitioner of the venerated punk ethos was a thoughtless provocateur at best, a hypocritical bigot at worst?"[10] In the 1980s, Albini's bluntness was regarded in the alternative rock scene as a sign of authenticity.[10] Music critic Robert Christgau gave Atomizer a positive review but described them as "hateful little twerps".[55] During performances of the Atomizer track "Jordan, Minnesota", about a child sex ring scandal, Albini would sometimes pretend to be a child being raped.[10] After Big Black's disbandment, Albini played in the shortlived band Run Nigger Run, the name taken from the tagline of a 1970s blaxploitation film, whose song titles included "Pray I Don't Kill You Faggot".[10]

Writing for local zines in the 1980s, Albini wrote fiercely critical reviews of other local bands and feuded with local acts and venues.[10] In 1994, after albums by Urge Overkill, the Smashing Pumpkins and Liz Phair brought new attention to the Chicago music scene, Albini wrote a letter to the Chicago Reader music critic Bill Wyman titled "Three Pandering Sluts and Their Music-Press Stooge".[56][57] In the letter, Albini described Phair as "a fucking chore to listen to", the Smashing Pumpkins as "ultimately insignificant" and Urger Overkill as "weiners in suits playing frat party rock".[10] In the independent music magazine Forced Exposure, Albini criticized bands he had worked with; of the Pixies, he wrote "never have I seen four cows more anxious to be led around by their nose rings", and of Poster Children he wrote "they had a really fruity drummer for a while, but I think he died of the syph".[56] He described the songwriter Courtney Love in print as a "psycho hose-beast".[10] Wyman wrote that Albini's fanzine contributions "display a remarkably clear expository style and a vituperative flair that I wish more mainstream writers possessed".[56] Albini's friend Kim Deal, who worked with Albini when recording with the Pixies and the Breeders, said she was shocked by Albini's past statements.[10]

Kim Deal (pictured 2009), a close friend of Albini, was a witness to his character evolution and said, "I could just break into tears, the human he's become."[10]

In his final years, Albini expressed regret about his behavior. In 2021, he wrote in a widely shared thread on Twitter that he was "overdue for a conversation about my role in inspiring 'edgelord' shit",[58] saying "a lot of things I said and did from an ignorant position of comfort and privilege are clearly awful and I regret them".[10] Albini said he made transgressive art in response to an urge in his peers to soften their art to make it palatable. He would deliberately do the opposite of bands he perceived were attempting to find commercial success, including the naming of Rapeman.[10] Instead, he wanted to create art "for its own sake" that was "unconcerned with conventions or acceptance". He cited the writing of his friend Peter Sotos, who wrote about subjects such as murder and child sexual abuse, as an influence and an example of art that was "shocking to your core in the way that the horrors of the reality of those things should be", rather than using shocking themes as a vehicle for profit.[58] Albini said he later became less interested in trying to create "extreme" art,[58] and was embarrassed by his earlier position.[10]

Albini added he had falsely assumed that many social problems, such as misogyny and homophobia, were already solved, especially as the underground musical communities he moved in were "broadly inclusive".[58] He did not take the threat of fascism and authoritarianism seriously in his younger years, treating them as a joke, and regretted that he did not foresee their coming resurgence.[58] He described discovering alternative rock musicians using abusive language with sincerity as "one of many wake-up moments", along with experiences with a more diverse collective of friends and influence from his wife Heather Whinna.[58][10] Albini said that many straight white men assumed that they were not contributing to social problems as long as they were not actively oppressing others,[58] realizing "It was all coming from a privileged position of someone who would never have to suffer any of the hatred that's embodied in any of that language."[10] He considered himself "responsible for accepting my role in the patriarchy, and in white supremacy, and in the subjugation and abuse of minorities of all kinds".[58] He said that Shellac deliberately enlisted musicians of different backgrounds on their tours.[58] He tweeted in regards to transgender people, "Life is hard on everybody and there's no excuse for making it harder. I've got the easiest job on earth, I'm a straight white dude, fuck me if I can't make space for everybody else."[10]

Music industry[edit]

In 2018, Albini said the reduction in the power of record labels over the preceding 25 years had reduced the prevalence of producers who are there only to exert artistic control over the recording. In contrast, he felt that digital recording created more freedom for people to do productive work as engineers.[32] Albini saw the increasing affordability of high-quality recording gear as a positive development, as it allowed bands greater freedom to record without studios.[47]

In 1993, Albini published a widely shared essay, "The Problem with Music", in The Baffler.[25] Albini argued that record companies exploit artists and illustrated how bands can remain in debt even after selling hundreds of thousands of albums.[25][48] He reaffirmed his stance in a 2004 presentation at Middle Tennessee State University.[17]

In November 2014, Albini delivered the keynote speech at the Face the Music conference in Melbourne, Australia, in which he discussed the evolution of the music industry over his career. He described the pre-internet corporate industry as "a system that ensured waste by rewarding the most profligate spendthrifts in a system specifically engineered to waste the band's money", which aimed to perpetuate its structures and business arrangements while preventing almost all but the biggest acts from earning a living. He contrasted it with the independent scene, which encouraged resourcefulness and established an alternative network of clubs, promoters, fanzines, DJs and labels, and whose greater efficiency allowed musicians to make a reasonable income.[59]

Albini (right) with Ani DiFranco and RZA at The New Yorker festival in September 2005

Asked about filesharing in June 2014, Albini said that while he did not believe it was the "best thing" for the music industry, he did not identify with the music industry. He considered "the community, the band, the musician" his peers, and was pleased that musicians can "get their music out to the world at no cost instantly".[46]

As part of the Face the Music speech, Albini noted that both the corporate and independent industry models had been damaged by filesharing. However, he praised the spread of free music as a "fantastic development", which allowed previously ignored music and bands to find an audience; the use of the internet as a distribution channel for music to be heard worldwide; and the increasing affordability of recording equipment, all of which allow bands to circumvent the traditional recording industry. Albini also argued that the increased availability of recorded music stimulates demand for live music, boosting artists' income.[59]


From 1983 to 1986, Albini wrote for the newly launched Chicago music magazine Matter.[60] He wrote in each issue a chronicle called "Tired of Ugly Fat?",[61] and contributed articles such as "Husker Du? Only Their Hairdresser Knows For Sure".[62]

While in Australia in November 2014, Albini spoke with national radio station Double J and stated that, while the state of the music industry is healthy in his view, the industry of music journalism is in crisis. Albini used the example of the media spotlight that he received after criticizing Amanda Palmer for not paying her musicians after receiving over $1 million on Kickstarter to release her 2012 album Theatre Is Evil, saying, "I don't think I was wrong but I also don't think that it was that big of a deal." He described the music media as "superficial" and composed of "copy-paste bullshit".[63]

Albini frequently expressed a general dislike for pop music, which he said was "for children and idiots".[64] He disliked electronic dance music (EDM) and the club scene.[65]

Personal life[edit]

Albini was married to the film director Heather Whinna. They lived in Chicago.[18] He avoided drugs and alcohol; his father was an alcoholic, which made him aware of his "own vulnerability to addiction".[66] Albini maintained a food blog, documenting meals he had cooked for his wife.[67] The Los Angeles Times described him as a "good food writer" with a "laconic, dry wit".[9] Albini appeared on the food show Anthony Bourdain: Parts Unknown.[29] From 1996, Albini and Whinna committed charity drives during the Christmas season, responding to letters in the Chicago post office. They experienced conflict in deliveries after a "policy change" by the Postal Service in 2009 over including personal details.[68][69]

Albini was an avid poker player, particularly in mixed games. He won two World Series of Poker bracelets: in 2018, Albini finished first in a $1,500 Stud event for $105,629; and won a $1,500 H.O.R.S.E. event in 2022 for $196,089. He described his relationship to the game in a 2022 PokerNews article: "Poker is one part of my life. So when I'm playing poker, I try to commit to it. I try to take it seriously. I try to make sure I devote the attention to it that it deserves as an occupation. But it's only part of my year. I only play tournaments at the World Series of Poker. I play cash games informally in Chicago. It's a part of my livelihood, but it's not my profession."[70]


Albini died from a heart attack at his home in Chicago, on May 7, 2024, at the age of 61.[71] Dave Grohl dedicated a performance of the Foo Fighters song "My Hero" in his memory, and Joanna Newsom did likewise with a performance of her song "Cosmia".[72]


Selected publications[edit]


  1. ^ a b His full name is typically given as Steven Frank Albini,[3][4] though he once claimed his birth certificate lists his middle name as "(None)" because his father refused to leave the field blank.[5]


  1. ^ Hellgate yearbook staff (1979). Halberd. Vol. 14. Missoula, Montana: Hellgate High School. Retrieved May 8, 2024 – via the Montana History Portal.
  2. ^ a b Brannigan, Paul (January 25, 2021). "Steve Albini: 'I realised that other people's opinions had no power over me… I still don't give a sh*t if I get judged'". Kerrang!. ISSN 0262-6624. Archived from the original on May 2, 2021. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  3. ^ Thompson, Ben (April 26, 2002). "Steve Albini: Alt.rocking all over the world". The Independent. London. pp. 20–21. ProQuest 312081726. Retrieved May 13, 2024.
  4. ^ "Falleció el guitarrista Steve Albini, quien sedujo con su ingenio y sonido estridente" [Guitarist Steve Albini, who seduced with his ingenuity and strident sound, has died]. La Jornada (in Mexican Spanish). Vol. 40, no. 14300. Mexico City: Desarrollo de Medios S.A. de C.V. May 9, 2024. p. 8. Retrieved May 13, 2024.
  5. ^ Jannot, Mark (April 5, 2019). "From 1994: Steve Albini and the Life of the Iconoclast". Chicago Magazine. Archived from the original on May 8, 2024. Retrieved December 4, 2023.
  6. ^ a b c d Thorn, Jesse (December 6, 2007). "Podcast: Live in Chicago: Steve Albini" (Podcast). Bullseye with Jesse Thorn. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2014.
  7. ^ a b Albini, Steve (May 30, 2011). "Strozzapreti-Gemelli with Tomato, Shallot and Mint". Mario Batali Voice. Archived from the original (Blog) on September 25, 2016. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
  8. ^ Kovacs Henderson, Andrea (2009). American men & women of science: a biographical directory of today's leaders in physical, biological, and related sciences (eBook) (26th ed.). Detroit: Gale. p. 71. ISBN 9781414457260. Archived from the original on May 8, 2024. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
  9. ^ a b Shatkin, Elina (January 24, 2012). "Steve Albini Has A Food Blog". LA Weekly. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Gordon, Jeremy (August 15, 2023). "The evolution of Steve Albini: 'If the dumbest person is on your side, you're on the wrong side'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  11. ^ "Looking for a Thrill: An Anthology of Inspiration". Thrill Jockey. Archived from the original on June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
  12. ^ "Steve Albini on The Ramones". [YouTube. April 20, 2010. Archived from the original on November 9, 2021. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  13. ^ Moores, JR (August 3, 2017). "A Very Selfish Enterprise: The Strange World Of... Shellac [Steve Albini recalls...]". The Quietus. Archived from the original on September 2, 2020. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
  14. ^ a b c d e f "Big Black". Touch and Go/Quarterstick Records. 2014. Archived from the original on January 8, 2010. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  15. ^ "Staff & Friends – Steve Albini". Electrical Audio. Archived from the original on March 31, 2016. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
  16. ^ Carlson, Jen (September 28, 2011). "Nirvana Producer Steve Albini Tells Us How He Really Feels About NYC". Gothamist. Archived from the original on March 9, 2017. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
  17. ^ a b c d e Young, Andrew (March 12, 2004). "Steve Albini". Lecture at Middle Tennessee State University. Archived from the original (Originally published in MTSU Sidelines, March 16, 2004. This is the unedited final draft of the story, with unpublished material.) on April 10, 2016. Retrieved January 11, 2014. Records became more and more produced, and more and more layers of more abstract sounds were added
  18. ^ a b c Margasak, Peter (January 6, 2014). "Artist on Artist: Robbie Fulks talks to Steve Albini". Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
  19. ^ Cress, Jim (January 1, 1983). "Big Black: No Grey". Dementlieu. Archived from the original (Matter (zine)) on September 27, 2007. Retrieved January 11, 2014. Taken from Matter, Vol. 1, No. 1, January 1983. Possibly the first print Big Black received?
  20. ^ Heller, Jason (July 30, 2014). "Steve Albini's 10 Best Records". Pitchfork. Retrieved May 25, 2024.
  21. ^ "The Sound Of Impact: Noise Rock In 1986". The Quietest. Retrieved 14 June 2024
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]