Sting in March 2015
|Birth name||Steve Borden|
March 20, 1959 |
|Residence||Dallas, Texas, United States|
|Alma mater||University of California, Los Angeles|
|Spouse(s)||Sue Borden (m. 1986; div. 2010)
Sabine Glenn (m. 2015)
|Professional wrestling career|
|Ring name(s)||Blade Runner Flash
Blade Runner Sting
|Billed height||6 ft 2 in (1.88 m)|
|Billed weight||250 lb (110 kg)|
|Billed from||Every Man's Nightmare
Venice Beach, California
|Trained by||Red Bastien
|Debut||November 28, 1985|
|Retired||April 2, 2016|
Steve Borden (born March 20, 1959), better known by the ring name Sting, is an American retired professional wrestler, actor, author and former bodybuilder, who was recently signed to WWE under a Legends contract.
Sting is known for his time spent as the public face of two major professional wrestling promotions: the now-defunct World Championship Wrestling (WCW), which displaced the World Wrestling Federation (WWF, now WWE) as the leading professional wrestling organization in the United States from 1995 to 1998; and Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA). Borden is regarded as one of the greatest professional wrestlers of all time, having cultivated a legacy over a career spanning more than three decades in which he held 15 world championships.
Sting's 14-year tenure with WCW and its predecessor, Jim Crockett Promotions (JCP), began in 1987. Dubbed "The Franchise of WCW", he held a total of 15 championships in the promotion – including the WCW World Heavyweight Championship on six occasions, the WCW International World Heavyweight Championship on two occasions and the NWA World Heavyweight Championship on one occasion – and made more pay-per-view (PPV) appearances for the company than any other wrestler. Sting has been described as the WCW counterpart to the WWF's Hulk Hogan. Against Hogan, Sting headlined the highest-grossing PPV event in WCW history at Starrcade in December 1997. Upon the acquisition of WCW by the WWF in March 2001, Sting and his long-term rival Ric Flair were chosen to perform in the main event of the final episode of Nitro.
Following the expiration of his contract with WCW's parent company, AOL Time Warner, in March 2002, Borden held talks with the WWF, but ultimately did not join the promotion and instead touring internationally with World Wrestling All-Stars (WWA) – winning the WWA World Heavyweight Championship – before joining the then-upstart TNA in 2003. Over the following 11 years, he won the NWA World Heavyweight Championship on one further occasion and the TNA World Heavyweight Championship four times, as well as being the inaugural inductee into the TNA Hall of Fame in 2012. He is the only man to hold the NWA, WCW (WWA and WCW international additionally) and TNA world championships in a career. Previously described by WWE as the greatest wrestler never to have performed for that promotion, Sting finally joined the company in 2014, making his first appearance at Survivor Series and having his debut match at WrestleMania 31 the following year. His last ever bout at Night of Champions in September 2015, marked his sole WWE pay-per-view main event and WWE World Heavyweight Championship contest for the organization. Sting headlined the WWE Hall of Fame class of 2016 on April 2, where he announced his retirement. His induction renders him the first performer to be inducted into both the WWE and TNA Hall of Fame, as well as the second man to be inducted while an active WWE wrestler after Ric Flair.
Sting held 25 total championships throughout his career, including 21 between WCW and TNA. Readers of Pro Wrestling Illustrated named him "Most Popular Wrestler of the Year" on four occasions, a record he shares with John Cena. In 2016, Sting was inducted into the Wrestling Observer Newsletter Hall of Fame. Slam! Sports wrote that he holds "a lofty level of prestige that few will ever touch".
- 1 Early life
- 2 Professional wrestling career
- 2.1 Continental Wrestling Association (1985–1986)
- 2.2 Universal Wrestling Federation (1986–1987)
- 2.3 Jim Crockett Promotions/World Championship Wrestling
- 2.3.1 Rise to stardom (1987–1989)
- 2.3.2 Feud with The Four Horsemen (1990–1991)
- 2.3.3 WCW World Heavyweight Champion (1991–1993)
- 2.3.4 WCW International World Heavyweight Champion (1994–1995)
- 2.3.5 Feud with the New World Order (1996–1998)
- 2.3.6 The Wolfpac (1998–1999)
- 2.3.7 Final world title reigns (1999–2000)
- 2.3.8 Last feuds and contract expiration (2000–2002)
- 2.4 World Wrestling All-Stars (2002–2003)
- 2.5 Total Nonstop Action Wrestling
- 2.6 WWE
- 3 Legacy and influence
- 4 Other media
- 5 Personal life
- 6 In wrestling
- 7 Championships and accomplishments
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Borden was born in Omaha, Nebraska and raised in Southern California. He played competitive football and basketball in high school and later embarked on a career in bodybuilding, once co-owning a Gold's Gym health club. Borden is a graduate of the University of California, Los Angeles and had no interest in professional wrestling and no television access to it within his home community, but decided to pursue a career in the industry after being taken to an "incredible" World Wrestling Federation (WWF) event in Los Angeles where he saw Hulk Hogan, The Iron Sheik, The British Bulldogs, André the Giant and others perform.
Professional wrestling career
Continental Wrestling Association (1985–1986)
Borden, originally wrestling under the ring name Flash, teamed with Jim "Justice" Hellwig as two members of Power Team USA in independent All-California Championship Wrestling. Power Team USA was a four-man unit also featuring Garland "Glory" Donahoe and Mark "Commando" Miller, plus manager Rick Bassman. Hellwig and Borden later moved to the Continental Wrestling Association, a wrestling company based in Memphis, Tennessee and became known as the Freedom Fighters. Fans were slow to respond to the lumbering hulks, so the team turned heel. The Freedom Fighters left the CWA after an uneventful run, the highlight of which was an angle in which they broke the leg of veteran wrestler Phil Hickerson.
Universal Wrestling Federation (1986–1987)
The duo surfaced in the Universal Wrestling Federation, an organization run by Bill Watts and based in Shreveport, Louisiana where they were known as the Blade Runners. Borden changed his ring name from Flash to Sting, while Hellwig became known as Rock. They soon joined Hotstuff & Hyatt International, a heel stable headed by "Hot Stuff" Eddie Gilbert and Missy Hyatt. Together with "Russian" wrestler Kortsia Korchenko, the Blade Runners became henchmen in Gilbert's on-screen feud with Watts. Hellwig, who would later become The Ultimate Warrior in the World Wrestling Federation (WWF, now WWE), left the promotion in mid-1986, leaving Sting without a partner. Sting won the UWF World Tag Team Championship twice with Gilbert in 1986 and a third time with Rick Steiner in 1987.
Following a match against Terry Taylor in mid-1987, Gilbert interfered on Taylor's behalf, costing Sting the match. Taylor and Gilbert ganged up on Sting until Gentleman Chris Adams came to Sting's aid. Adams cleared the ring and then asked Sting if he was with him or against him in his feud with Taylor and Gilbert. Sting turned face by declaring his allegiance to Adams.
Behind the scenes, Gilbert endorsed Borden by telling a dirt sheet that Sting would be a megastar in the future. Later that year, Sting was tabbed to win the UWF Television Championship, then held by Gilbert, until Jim Crockett of the National Wrestling Alliance bought the company from Watts. Crockett's booker, Dusty Rhodes, decided to put the Television title on Taylor to set up a feud between Taylor and NWA Television Champion Nikita Koloff to unify the two titles. Rhodes used then-unknown Shane Douglas as the transitional champion from Gilbert to Taylor because Rhodes did not want to diminish Sting's growing stardom with a brief title run.
Jim Crockett Promotions/World Championship Wrestling
Rise to stardom (1987–1989)
Sometime after Sting's arrival to the NWA in July 1987, Dusty Rhodes used the opening bout of Crockett's first foray into pay-per-view, Starrcade '87, to showcase the young superstar. Sting partnered with Michael P.S. Hayes and Jimmy Garvin in a six-man tag team match against Gilbert, Steiner, and Larry Zbyszko that ended in a 15-minute time-limit draw.
Having established himself as a rising star, Sting was one of the few UWF alumni to be pushed in the NWA. At the inaugural Clash of the Champions in March 1988, Sting challenged Ric Flair for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. The match ended in a draw after the 45-minute time limit expired and the ringside judges could not declare a winner. Sting lost to Flair in several non-televised rematches following the Clash and, later that year, battled other members of Flair's stable, the Four Horsemen. Sting teamed with Koloff at The Great American Bash in July 1988 to challenge Horsemen Tully Blanchard and Arn Anderson for the NWA World Tag Team Championship; Blanchard and Anderson retained the titles when the match ended in a 20-minute time-limit draw.
Rhodes continued to book Sting in title matches throughout the year against both NWA United States Champion Barry Windham and NWA Television Champion Mike Rotunda. In the fall of 1988, Sting was attacked by Hawk and Animal of The Road Warriors after a televised match. Rhodes, as booker, identified Sting as the face who was most over with the fans, despite knowing that turning the Road Warriors heel would be no easy task. Rhodes himself teamed with Sting to challenge the Road Warriors for the tag team championship at Starrcade '88 that December. Rhodes and Sting got the win by disqualification, allowing the Road Warriors to retain the titles.
Sting returned to singles matches in 1989, starting the year off by wrestling Flair to a one-hour draw in Atlanta's Omni on New Year's Day. He would also have his first experience in Japan with a brief tour in All Japan Pro Wrestling, with his most notable match in AJPW against Dan Spivey on January 25. After a long push, Sting won his first title in the NWA when he defeated Rotundo for the NWA Television Championship at a live event in March. Sting defended the Television title actively but tended to face sub-par challengers such as The Iron Sheik. In mid-1989, The Great Muta challenged Sting at The Great American Bash. The match was booked with a classic, controversial Dusty finish even though Rhodes (the namesake of the technique) had been fired months earlier. Sting got the three-count and was announced as the winner, but a replay showed Muta's shoulder was up at the count of two. The NWA decided to declare the title vacant. Sting and Muta battled in many rematches for the vacant Television title, but they always ended in disqualification, giving neither man the championship. Eventually, Muta won a No Disqualification match against Sting at a live event in September by using a blackjack to get the win and the title.
In the main event of that year's Great American Bash, Flair defended the NWA World Heavyweight Championship against Terry Funk, who was a member of Gary Hart's J-Tex Corporation. After Flair got the victory, he was attacked by Funk's stablemate, Muta. Sting came to the aid of his old rival Flair, and the two feuded with Muta and Funk for the rest of the summer and fall, culminating in a Thunderdome Cage match between the two teams, which Flair and Sting won, at Halloween Havoc '89. The alliance with Flair resulted in Sting joining the newly reformed and now-face Four Horsemen along with the Andersons, Arn and Ole. Sting finished out the year by winning a four-man round-robin Iron Man tournament at Starrcade '89. In the final match of the night, Sting defeated Flair to accumulate the necessary points to win the tournament. The victory made Sting the number one contender for Flair's NWA World title, leading to tension within the Four Horsemen.
Feud with The Four Horsemen (1990–1991)
Sting was summarily dismissed from The Four Horsemen on February 6, 1990, at Clash of the Champions X: Texas Shootout after refusing to relinquish his title shot against Flair, thus restarting their rivalry. Later that evening, Borden suffered a legitimate knee injury while interfering in a steel cage match featuring the Horsemen. Borden's injury forced the bookers of World Championship Wrestling (WCW), the dominant promotion in the NWA, to find a new opponent for Flair for the forthcoming WrestleWar pay-per-view event.
Lex Luger was chosen to challenge Flair at WrestleWar. During the match between Flair and Luger, Sting came down to motivate Luger to come back and beat Flair. Before this Sting and Luger had been at odds. When Luger was close to winning Sting was attacked by Ole Anderson. Luger opted to save the already injured Sting and ended up losing the match by countout while assisting his friend. Behind the scenes, WCW officials had wanted Flair to drop the title to Luger at WrestleWar, but Flair refused, saying he had promised Borden he would hold the title until Borden could return to the ring. Despite the injury, Sting was still utilized on television and pay per views when necessary.
At the Capital Combat event in May, Sting was accosted by the Four Horsemen and thrown into a metal cage at ringside. In a promotional crossover, Sting was rescued by his buddy RoboCop. After Borden's recovery, Sting finally defeated Flair for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship on July 7, 1990, at The Great American Bash. Sting went on to feud with title contenders Flair and Sid Vicious. Vicious appeared to defeat Sting in a title match at the 1990 Halloween Havoc, but the "Sting" that Vicious pinned was revealed to be an impostor played by Horseman Barry Windham. The real Sting appeared soon after and pinned Vicious to retain his title after the match was restarted.
During Sting's title run, a masked man known as The Black Scorpion would taunt and attack Sting on many occasions. This feud culminated in a final showdown between Sting and The Black Scorpion at Starrcade: Collision Course in December. The cage match ended with Sting pinning and unmasking the Scorpion, who turned out to be Flair in disguise.
WCW World Heavyweight Champion (1991–1993)
Sting's first world championship reign ended January 11, 1991, when Flair defeated him in a rematch from Starrcade. In the same month, WCW seceded from the National Wrestling Alliance, in the process recognizing a WCW World Heavyweight Championship and a WCW World Tag Team Championship. Sting then took part in what many consider to be one of the best matches of 1991, teaming with Luger to face The Steiner Brothers at the first SuperBrawl pay-per-view. The Steiners won by pinfall after Koloff, who had been feuding with Luger, interfered in the match by swinging a chain at Luger but hitting Sting instead. Consequently, Sting feuded with Koloff throughout the summer of 1991. In August 1991, Sting defeated Steve Austin to win a tournament for the vacated WCW United States Heavyweight Championship. Sting held the title for 86 days before losing it to Rick Rude at Clash of the Champions XVII.
At Starrcade '91, Sting won the first-ever Battlebowl battle royal, for which he received a Battlebowl championship ring. Sting then became embroiled in a feud with the Dangerous Alliance, headed by manager Paul E. Dangerously. The stable targeted Sting because he was the so-called "franchise" of WCW, and the Alliance vowed to destroy both Sting and the promotion he was the face of. At the same time, Sting was being targeted by Luger, who had once again turned heel and, as WCW Champion, viewed Sting as a threat. Sting engaged in many matches with Dangerous Alliance members, especially Rude, who was the group's biggest star. It was during this feud that Sting won the first of his six WCW World Heavyweight Championships, defeating Luger on February 29, 1992, at SuperBrawl II. The feud ended when Sting formed Sting's Squadron, consisting of allies Ricky Steamboat, Dustin Rhodes, Windham, and Koloff, and defeated the Alliance (Rude, Austin, Arn Anderson, Zbyszko, and Bobby Eaton) in a WarGames match at WrestleWar in May 1992. Dave Meltzer awarded the match his highest rating of five stars.
Near the end of Sting's battles with the Dangerous Alliance, the seeds were sown for what became arguably one of the most famous feuds of Sting's career. Sting defended his WCW World title on April 12, 1992, at The Omni in Atlanta against the 450-pound Big Van Vader. During the match, Vader splashed Sting, cracking three of Sting's ribs and rupturing his spleen. Sting recovered and defended his title on July 12 against Vader at The Great American Bash, dropping the belt to Big Van Vader after missing a Stinger Splash, hitting his head on the ringpost, and receiving a powerbomb. After beating Cactus Jack in a Falls Count Anywhere Match at Beach Blast and WCW newcomer Jake Roberts in a Coal Miner's Glove match at Halloween Havoc, Sting defeated Vader, who had lost the WCW World Heavyweight Championship in August, in the "King of Cable" tournament final at Starrcade.
The Sting-Vader feud continued into 1993, with Vader, who was again WCW World Heavyweight Champion, defeating Sting in a bloody Strap match at SuperBrawl III. Sting exacted revenge by beating Vader for the WCW World Heavyweight Championship on March 11 in London, England, but lost it back to Vader six days later in Dublin, Ireland. Sting then teamed with WCW newcomer Davey Boy Smith to beat the team of Vader and Vicious at Beach Blast in a match that was set up by a mini-movie in which an evil midget blew up Sting's boat. At the end of 1993, Sting was one of the first people to congratulate Flair, who had just returned from the World Wrestling Federation, after his WCW World Heavyweight Title victory over Vader at Starrcade.
WCW International World Heavyweight Champion (1994–1995)
Sting feuded with Vader and Rude through the first half of 1994. Sting won the WCW International World Heavyweight Championship from Rude in April. Rude recaptured the title on May 1 at Wrestling Dontaku 1994 in Japan, but the decision was reversed because Rude had allegedly hit Sting with the title belt during the match; this was to cover for a real-life back injury Rude sustained in the match that forced Rude into retirement. Sting refused to have the title handed to him and instead defeated Vader for the vacant WCW International World Heavyweight Championship at Slamboree. Soon afterward, Flair turned heel and defeated Sting in a title unification match at Clash of the Champions XXVII. Sting spent the second half of 1994 and most of 1995 teaming with new arrival Hulk Hogan in his battles against Kevin Sullivan's Three Faces of Fear and its successor stable, The Dungeon of Doom.
At The Great American Bash 1995, Sting defeated Meng to win another tournament for the WCW United States Championship. Sting defeated Meng in a rematch for the title at Bash at the Beach 1995. Sting was on the first ever Monday Nitro in a match where Flair defeated Sting by disqualification as a result of a run-in by Arn Anderson to attack Flair. At Fall Brawl, Sting teamed with Hogan, Luger, and Randy Savage to defeat the Dungeon of Doom, consisting of Kamala, Zodiac, Shark and Meng, in the event's WarGames match. In October 1995, Flair convinced Sting to team with him in a match against Anderson and Brian Pillman at Halloween Havoc. Anderson and Pillman had attacked Flair earlier in the night, rendering Flair unable to come out for the first part of the match. Sting fended off his opponents until Flair emerged. Later in the match, Flair turned on Sting and reformed the Four Horsemen with Anderson and Pillman, later adding Chris Benoit to fill out the group.
Sting defeated Flair on a subsequent Nitro with the Scorpion Deathlock, refusing to let go until Luger persuaded him to do so. Sting defeated Flair again at the World War 3 pay-per-view. Later in the night, Sting competed in the World War 3 battle royal for the WCW World Heavyweight Championship, which was won by Savage. Sting's alliances with Hogan and Savage led the Horsemen to attack them as well. Sting's second U.S. title reign lasted until November 13, when he was defeated by Kensuke Sasaki in Japan. At Starrcade, Sting defeated Sasaki, representing New Japan Pro Wrestling, in a non-title match to win the World Cup of Wrestling for WCW. In the next match that night, Sting lost a Triangle match involving Flair and Luger; Flair won by countout to become number one contender for the WCW World Heavyweight Championship, which Flair won from Savage in the next match.
Feud with the New World Order (1996–1998)
Early in 1996, Sting's appearance started to change: he grew longer, darker hair, replacing his blond flattop haircut, and he often wore black tights with a multi-colored scorpion, although he occasionally wore his colorful ones and maintained his colorful face paint. Sting teamed with his old friend Luger, who had returned to WCW from WWF in September 1995, despite Luger's standing as a heel. The duo beat Harlem Heat for the WCW World Tag Team Championship on the January 22 edition of Nitro. The team often retained the championship as a result of Luger's cheating tactics, to which Sting remained oblivious. When Luger was temporarily unavailable for WCW Uncensored in March, Harlem Heat member Booker T teamed up with Sting to successfully prevent the title from changing hands. Sting and Booker T developed a mutual respect that showed itself when Sting and Luger granted Harlem Heat a rematch. During the Tag title run, Sting received a World title shot against The Giant at Slamboree in May, but lost after accidental interference from Luger. Harlem Heat eventually won the titles back on the June 24 edition of Nitro.
In the summer of 1996, Sting was the first to stand up to The Outsiders: Kevin Nash and Scott Hall, who had recently competed in the WWF and whose alliances and agenda were unclear, had been infiltrating and causing chaos at WCW events. Sting teamed with Luger and Savage to defend WCW against Hall, Nash, and a mysterious third Outsider to be revealed at the Bash at the Beach. Hall and Nash started the bout without their third partner, but the WCW's temporary three-on-two advantage was short-lived: Luger left the match after he was accidentally injured by a mistimed Stinger Splash. The two-on-two match continued while Hogan, who had been a fan favorite for over two decades, emerged at ringside. Hogan appeared ready to back up the WCW wrestlers until he attacked Savage with his leg drop finisher in one of wrestling's most famous swerves. The match was ruled a no-contest, and Hall, Nash, and Hogan declared a new world order in professional wrestling. The name stuck and Sting became one of WCW's stalwarts against the New World Order, or nWo for short.
As part of this, Sting and Luger went up to rivals and Four Horsemen members Ric Flair and Arn Anderson some time after Bash at the Beach and asked them to team with him, saying that they needed to put aside their differences for the good of WCW. Flair and Anderson agreed and the four wrestlers composed Team WCW for the annual WarGames match at Fall Brawl in September 1996. They would be facing the nWo's team of Hall, Nash, Hogan, and a fourth member yet to be determined. On the Nitro prior to the event, however, the nWo played a trick on WCW claiming that Sting was joining their side. A vignette was shown where the nWo had a recording of Sting's voice playing in its limousine as Luger was being lured into the parking lot. Once he was there a man dressed as Sting, played by Jeff Farmer, attacked him and the crowd at home was led to believe that Sting had joined up with the nWo and would be their fourth man against what was now a three-man WCW team. Sting, however, was not at that edition of Nitro and showed up at Fall Brawl just as his teammates declared that they would face the nWo by themselves. Sting told Luger that he did not attack him, but Luger refused to believe him. Later, during the match, Sting entered as the fourth and final man for Team WCW, after the impostor Sting had entered for the nWo. Once in the ring, Sting immediately took out all four members of the nWo. He then stopped, turned to Luger, and angrily said to him, "Is that good enough for you right there? Is that proof enough?" Sting then gave Luger an obscene gesture and walked out of the match, leaving Team WCW at a four-on-three disadvantage which they did not overcome. The next night on Nitro, Sting came out unannounced during the middle of the show with no music or entrance pyrotechnics. He entered the ring and, with his back turned to the camera side of the audience, launched into an angry tirade about what had transpired over the last week:
|“||I want a chance to explain something that happened last Monday night at Nitro. Last Monday night I was on an airplane flying from L.A. to Atlanta. When I got to Atlanta, I tuned in the TV to Nitro. And I thought I was watching a rerun! It was a very convincing film. Often imitated, but never duplicated though! And what else did I see? I saw people, I saw wrestlers, I saw commentators, and I saw best friends DOUBT... the Stinger. That's right, doubted the Stinger! So I heard Lex Luger say 'I know where he lives, I know where he works out, I'm gonna go get him.' So I said to myself, I'll just go into seclusion. I'll wait and see what happens on Saturday Night, and I tuned in Saturday night, and what'd I see? More of the same... more DOUBT. Which brings me to Fall Brawl. I knew I had to get to Fall Brawl and get face to face with the Total Package to let him know that it wasn't me. And what I got out of that was, 'No Sting... I DON'T BELIEVE YOU STING!' Well, all I gotta say is I have been mediator, I have been babysitter for Lex Luger, and I've given him the benefit of the doubt about a thousand times in the last twelve months! And I've carried the WCW banner, and I have given my blood, my sweat, and my tears for WCW! So for all of those fans out there and all those wrestlers and people that never doubted the Stinger, I'll stand by you if you stand by me! But for all of the people, all of the commentators, all of the wrestlers, and all of the best friends who did doubt me, you can stick it! From now on I consider myself a free agent.||”|
After declaring he would be "popping in from time to time" afterwards, Sting threw the microphone down and left the ring. Days after the infamous promo, he was booked for shows in New Japan Pro Wrestling, to take part in the Japan/U.S. Superstars Tournament, where he defeated Masahiro Chono in the first round, but was eliminated in the second round by Shiro Koshinaka. His last match of 1996 took place on September 23 at the Yokohama Arena, where he and Lex Luger teamed up to defeat Arn Anderson and Steven Regal. It would end up being his last tour of Japan. On the October 21, 1996, edition of Nitro, Sting returned for the first time since the night after Fall Brawl. In a match where the impostor Sting was wrestling Mr. JL, Sting emerged wearing a trench coat and white face paint with black marks around his eyes. He went in the ring and attacked nWo Sting (who was still imitating Sting's old mannerisms at this point) with his new finisher, the Scorpion Death Drop inverted DDT, two jumping elbow drops, a Stinger Splash and a Scorpion Deathlock while the rest of the nWo came to ringside. Rather than intervene, they simply stood by and watched. After Sting was done, Ted DiBiase and Kevin Nash came into the ring and made Sting an offer to join the nWo and get back at WCW for betraying him. Sting, after a pause, first called out the nWo Sting as a "cheap imitation," before telling the nWo, "the real Sting may or may not be in your price range," and then concluded by saying "the only thing that's for sure about Sting is that nothing's for sure". With that, Sting left the ring and would not speak (on mic) on WCW programming again for over a year. After this a silent, almost ghostly Sting, carrying a baseball bat as a weapon, began appearing in the rafters at WCW events and began painting his entire face with black and white corpse paint. Sting's new gimmick was inspired by the 1994 film The Crow. In retaliation, nWo Sting, who was still imitating Borden, began painting his face this way as well. While appearing on a WCW/nWo merchandise special on QVC Sports in late 1999, Borden admitted that Scott Hall had initially suggested the idea of painting his face like the character of Eric Draven from The Crow. Sting maintains aspects of his "Crow" persona to date, occasionally with different designs and use of color of the face paint.
In a series of unusual loyalty tests over the next months, Sting would confront a WCW wrestler in the ring and shove the wrestler several times with his bat until the wrestler was provoked enough to advance on him. Then Sting would draw the weapon back as if he were going to assault him, causing the wrestler to stop. Sting would hand the bat to the offended wrestler and turn his back, offering the wrestler a chance at retaliation. When the wrestler hesitated or declined, Sting would nod, retrieve the bat and leave the ring. In January 1997, a "blackballed" Randy Savage returned to WCW for the first time since Halloween Havoc and aligned himself with Sting as a "free agent" as he refused to join the nWo although WCW Vice President Eric Bischoff, also one of the leaders of the nWo, declared he would not be allowed back in WCW if he didn't. For the next few weeks the two were seen in the rafters together and coming to the ring together. This story, however, petered out at SuperBrawl in February; Sting and Savage had come to the ring together to watch Roddy Piper face Hogan in a match for the WCW world title. As Sting left, Savage went to the ring and helped Hogan win the match, thus going back on his word and joining the nWo. Over the next couple weeks, Sting would accompany the nWo, indicating that he too joined the group. However, at WCW Uncensored in March 1997, as the nWo celebrated a victory in the main event battle royal which guaranteed them title shots whenever they desired with their newest recruit, Chicago Bulls NBA star Dennis Rodman, Sting rappelled from the roof of the arena on a vertical zip-line. When Hall and Nash went to approach him, Sting attacked them and Randy Savage when he tried to intervene, revealing his allegiance to WCW.
In subsequent weeks, Sting frequently rappelled from the rafters or came up through the ring to attack unsuspecting nWo members, came to the aid of wrestlers once subjected to his loyalty test as they battled the nWo, and employed decoy "Stings" to play mind games with the nWo during the closing segments of Nitro. Sting's appearances to fight the nWo at the end of almost every Nitro helped WCW keep and widen its television ratings advantage over the WWF's Monday Night Raw throughout the summer. On-screen WCW commissioner James J. Dillon tried many times to get Sting to return to wrestling by making contracts to fight various nWo members. Sting, however, did not accept any of the contracts, often tearing them up in Dillon's face. A confused Dillon then asked Sting who he wanted on one edition of Nitro, and Sting went out to ringside, picked up a fan's sign, and pointed out one name on it: Hogan. Eventually Sting got his wish and he and Hogan finally met in December at Starrcade for the WCW World Heavyweight Championship. The finish of the match was supposed to echo the Montreal Screwjob finish that the WWF had used to double cross Bret Hart just one month earlier at their annual Survivor Series event. Nick Patrick, the referee for the contest, was supposed to execute a fast count on Sting while Hart, whose signing with WCW was the linchpin for the Montreal Screwjob, would come out to protest the decision and, since he had already served as the guest referee for the match between Larry Zbyszko and Eric Bischoff earlier that evening, order the match to be restarted and Sting would emerge victorious by forcing Hogan to submit to the Scorpion Death Lock. However, Patrick did not do his part properly and instead counted the pin at normal speed, which added an unintentional level of controversy to the finish.
The next night on Nitro, Hogan protested the decision claiming that Patrick's decision should have been considered final and a rematch was granted. The match ran over Nitro's allotted time slot and the finish was aired later in the week on the inaugural episode of Thunder. Similar to the Starrcade result, two different referees declared the two different men as the winner. Later that night, Dillon vacated the WCW World Heavyweight Championship, forcing Sting to surrender the belt. Sting responded with his first words (on mic) since October 1996 when he told Dillon, "You've got no guts!" Sting turned to Hogan and said, "And you... You're a dead man!".
The Wolfpac (1998–1999)
As 1998 began, the nWo began to splinter. Sting recaptured the vacant WCW World Heavyweight Championship in February at SuperBrawl VIII with the help of Savage, who was beginning to split from the nWo. Sting went on to successfully defend the title against the likes of Hall, Nash, and Diamond Dallas Page (DDP). Like Savage, Nash began to pull away from the Hogan-dominated nWo, and Nash helped Savage beat Sting for the championship at Spring Stampede in April. Nash and Savage officially split from the original nWo on May 4, forming the face group nWo Wolfpac, while Hogan's heel faction became identified as nWo Hollywood. The two nWo factions vied for Sting's allegiance, with Sting's friends The Giant joining nWo Hollywood and Luger joining nWo Wolfpac. Sting seemed to have joined nWo Hollywood when he appeared wearing a black and white nWo shirt, but he soon tore off the shirt to reveal the red and black of the nWo Wolfpac. Sting began wearing red and black face paint and tights as a member of nWo Wolfpac.
Sting and The Giant won the WCW World Tag Team Championship at Slamboree in May when Hall turned on his teammate Nash. Sting and The Giant also split, and the team was forced to vacate the title 18 days later. Sting then defeated The Giant at The Great American Bash in June to take control of the Tag Team titles and chose Nash as his partner. Throughout the summer, Sting and fellow nWo Wolfpac members Nash, Luger, and Konnan feuded with Hogan and nWo Hollywood. Sting also got involved in a feud with Bret Hart over their similar finishing holds, the Sharpshooter and the Scorpion Deathlock. Hart cost Sting and Nash the Tag titles by interfering in their match with Hall and The Giant on the July 20 Nitro. Sting and Hart squared off at Halloween Havoc, where Hart, the United States Champion, attacked Sting with a baseball bat, putting Sting out of action for several months.
Sting returned to Nitro in March 1999, sporting the black and white Crow-inspired attire he debuted in 1996 and began to participate in more mic work. By this time, the nWo storyline had faded, and Sting was not aligned with any of its factions. Sting competed in the main event of April's Spring Stampede, a Four Corners match for the World Championship, against Hogan, DDP, and champion Flair. Savage served as special guest referee and delivered a diving elbow drop to help DDP win the match and the title.
Final world title reigns (1999–2000)
Sting defeated Page on the April 26 edition of Nitro to win the WCW World Heavyweight Championship for the fifth time. Later that night, Sting defended the title in a four-way match featuring DDP, Goldberg, and a returning Nash. DDP pinned Nash, allowing DDP to win the title without directly beating Sting. Sting's 90-minute reign was only the second shortest WCW World Heavyweight Championship reign in WCW history, behind Chris Jericho's, which lasted for just 13 minutes and 30 seconds when he unified it with the WWF Championship at Vengeance 2001. Sting lost to Rick Steiner in a Falls Count Anywhere match at The Great American Bash after he was attacked by Steiner's three pet dogs backstage and Steiner forced the referee to prematurely declare himself the victor, claiming his dogs had pinned Sting for him.
Over the next several months, Sting feuded with Goldberg, Rick Steiner, Vicious, and Savage. Sting teamed with WCW World Heavyweight Champion Nash at the Bash at the Beach in July to take on Vicious and Savage of Team Madness. Savage pinned Nash and won the World title as a result. Hogan returned from injury on July 12 as a face to win the WCW World Heavyweight Championship. Sting defeated Flair on the July 19 edition of Nitro to become the on-screen president of WCW. Later that night, Nash turned heel by attacking Hogan during a title defense against Vicious. Sting remained president for just one week and used his power to book a main event pitting Hogan and himself against Nash and Vicious. Sting vacated the presidency the following week because he only wanted Flair out of the position rather than wanting the power for himself. Along with Goldberg, Sting and Hogan feuded with Nash, Vicious and Rick Steiner for the next month.
Sting began to question Hogan's trustworthiness and credibility in the weeks leading up to Fall Brawl. At the September pay-per-view, Luger brought a baseball bat to the ring and Sting used it to beat Hogan for his sixth and final WCW World Heavyweight Championship, turning heel for the first time in WCW. Sting's heel turn and subsequent attitude change did not resonate with the WCW fans. They still cheered Sting despite the fact he was supposed to be the villain (reminiscent of The Road Warriors' heel turn in late 1988). At Halloween Havoc, Sting retained the title against Hogan after Hogan entered the ring in street clothes and laid down for Sting to pin him. After the match, Sting sounded his disdain of the result and issued an open challenge for later tonight. Later that night, Sting lost an unsanctioned match to Goldberg, who accepted his open challenge and then attacked referee Charles Robinson. Sting was stripped of the title the next night for attacking the official.
Sting entered the 32-man tournament that was set up to award the vacant WCW World Heavyweight Championship. Sting defeated Brian Knobs, Meng, and Luger to reach the semi-finals to be held at WCW Mayhem. At the November event, Sting lost to Hart, the eventual winner of the tournament. After the match, Sting shook hands with Hart in a sign of respect, turning face again. Sting sought revenge against Luger the next month at Starrcade. Sting won by disqualification when Luger and Elizabeth assaulted Sting with a steel chair and baseball bat, putting Sting out of action for some time. Sting ended his feud with Luger by defeating him in a Lumberjacks with Casts match at Uncensored 2000 the following March.
Last feuds and contract expiration (2000–2002)
WCW officials Vince Russo and Eric Bischoff, in an attempt to save the fading company, rebooted the storylines on April 10, 2000, and declared all titles vacant. At Spring Stampede 2000 the following week, Sting advanced to the finals of the United States Championship tournament by defeating Booker T and Vampiro in the first two rounds. Vampiro cost Sting the championship in the finals against Scott Steiner, leading to an intense feud between Sting and Vampiro. Sting pinned Vampiro at Slamboree 2000 in May, and Vampiro beat Sting in a Human Torch match at The Great American Bash the next month; for the climax of the match, Borden switched with a stuntman, who was set on fire and thrown off the top of the frame of the stage's entrance video screen. At Bash at the Beach 2000, he returned wearing another Sting mask as men wearing cloaks and Sting masks carried him in a casket, and then he attacked Vampiro.
Sting went on to feud with Jeff Jarrett and then Scott Steiner. Steiner attacked and injured Sting in November 2000. Sting stayed off WCW programming until the final episode of Nitro on March 26, 2001. WCW had been purchased by the World Wrestling Federation, and the final match in WCW history pitted Sting against his longtime rival Flair; the two had also competed on the very first edition of Nitro on September 4, 1995. Sting defeated Flair and the two embraced at the end of the contest.
After the WWF did not buy out Sting's contract with AOL Time Warner, he rejected a buyout offer of 50 cents on the dollar from AOL Time Warner, instead waiting until his contract expired in March 2002 (he announced a short-lived retirement in February of that year). Borden then entered into contract negotiations with the WWF, but ultimately did not join the promotion.
World Wrestling All-Stars (2002–2003)
In 2002, after over a year and a half in hiatus, Borden toured Europe with the World Wrestling All-Stars (WWA) promotion throughout November and December. His first match in the WWA took place on November 28, 2002, in Dublin, Ireland, where he reunited with Lex Luger to defeat Buff Bagwell and Malice. At The Retribution on December 6, 2002 in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom, Sting lost to Luger in a bout for the vacant WWA World Heavyweight Championship. Sting defeated Luger to claim the WWA World Heavyweight Championship in Zurich, Switzerland, on December 13.
Sting embarked on a second tour with WWA in May 2003, successfully defending his championship against Rick Steiner, Shane Douglas, and Disco Inferno. The WWA held its final show, The Reckoning, on May 25 in Auckland, New Zealand, where NWA World Heavyweight Champion Jeff Jarrett defeated Sting for the WWA World Heavyweight Championship, unifying the two championships.
Total Nonstop Action Wrestling
Sporadic appearances (2003–2004)
In 2003, Sting signed a contract committing him to four appearances with the Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA) promotion. He debuted in TNA on the June 18 one year anniversary show, teaming with Jeff Jarrett to defeat A.J. Styles and Syxx Pac. Following this, Borden engaged in a comprehensive series of sitdown interviews with Mike Tenay, discussing his career and his faith. Sting returned to TNA on November 5, 2003, defeating Jarrett by disqualification in a match for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. On November 12, Sting teamed with A.J. Styles to defeat Jarrett and Lex Luger. He made his final TNA appearance of 2003 on December 17, defeating Jarrett in a non-title match. On March 24, 2004, Borden was interviewed once again by Mike Tenay as part of the promotion for his direct-to-video biographical film, Sting: Moment of Truth, and on March 31, he returned to the company for one night only as the special guest enforcer for the main-event, a four way match between Abyss, A.J. Styles, Raven, and Ron Killings, which Raven won.
Feud with Jeff Jarrett (2005–2006)
On December 11, 2005, at Turning Point, as Jeff Jarrett stood in the ring celebrating his victory, the lights in the arena went out as images of a scorpion—Sting's symbol— appeared on the arena screens, along with the date "January 15, 2006". Spotlights then illuminated the ring, revealing a chair bearing Sting's signature trench coat, boots, and a black baseball bat in the center of the ring. His return to TNA was officially announced one minute after midnight on the January 1, 2006 episode of Impact!. On January 15 at Final Resolution, Sting and Christian Cage defeated NWA World Heavyweight Champion Jeff Jarrett and Monty Brown in a tag team match after Sting pinned Jarrett following the Scorpion Death Drop. His heavily promoted return was greeted with chants of "welcome back" and "you've still got it" by the Orlando, Florida audience. TNA later revealed that Final Resolution was "by far the most-purchased TNA pay-per-view event in company history, breaking all previous numbers". On the January 28, 2006 episode of Impact!, Sting made his Spike TV debut and first appearance on national television in almost five years, coming to the ring at the end of the show to make a "major announcement". Sting noted that he had never had a chance to properly say goodbye to his fans. He then announced that Final Resolution had been "his goodbye", before thanking the TNA management and the fans. Sting then dropped his bat, with a spotlight appearing over it, and left the ring, shaking hands with various TNA wrestlers on his way up the ramp.
With Sting gone, the storyline continued with Jeff Jarrett and Eric Young worrying that Sting had not actually retired and sending Alex Shelley to California to videotape Sting at home. Sting discovered Shelley filming, then walked up to Shelley's car and told him that he was going to show up at Destination X and confront Jeff Jarrett as Steve Borden. Clad in "street clothes" and without face paint Borden returned on March 12 at Destination X, saving Christian Cage and Rhino as they were attacked by Jarrett's Army. He placed Jarrett in the Scorpion Deathlock, but was attacked by the debuting Scott Steiner shortly thereafter. In his first cable television match in five years, Sting defeated Eric Young on the April 13, 2006 episode of Impact!. After being attacked by Jarrett, Steiner, and America's Most Wanted (Chris Harris and James Storm), Sting was saved by A.J. Styles, Ron Killings, and Rhino, who he announced as his teammates in his Lethal Lockdown match against Jarrett's Army. On April 23 at Lockdown, "Sting's Warriors" (Sting, A.J. Styles, Ron Killings, and Rhino) defeated Jarrett, Steiner, and America's Most Wanted after Sting made Chris Harris tap out to the Scorpion Death Lock. Following Lockdown, Sting proceeded to seek out partners to help him defeat Jeff Jarrett and Scott Steiner for good. After bringing out Lex Luger, Buff Bagwell, and Rick Steiner as options, he settled on Samoa Joe. On May 14 at Sacrifice, Sting and Joe defeated Jarrett and Steiner after Joe pinned Jarrett with a Muscle Buster. Still having proven unsuccessful at putting Jarrett away, Sting defeated Scott Steiner by disqualification to earn a spot in the King of the Mountain match at Slammiversary on June 18. Due to a confrontation with Christian Cage during the match, Sting was distracted, which allowed crooked referee Earl Hebner to knock over the ladder both were on, sending both men to the floor and allow Jarrett to pick up the victory.
On July 16 at Victory Road, a four-way number one contenders match was held for a shot at Jeff Jarrett for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. During the match, Jeff Jarrett, disguised as a cameraman, came into the ring with a bottle of gasoline and squirted it into Sting's eyes. Sting was taken by security into the back and as a result, taken out of the running for the number one contender match. As the match continued as a three-way, Sting returned to the ring with his head wrapped in bandages, performed the Scorpion Death Drop on Scott Steiner, and Sting pinned him to become number one contender. After the match, Sting had a confrontation with Christian Cage in the ring that ended with them shaking hands, and Cage showing respect for Sting. Sting received his title shot on August 13 at Hard Justice, but failed to capture the NWA World Heavyweight Championship from Jeff Jarrett after Christian Cage turned heel and hit Sting with Jarrett's guitar. On the following edition of Impact!, Sting stated that he wanted a rematch with Jarrett at Bound for Glory, TNA's biggest pay-per view of the year. Jarrett accepted the match, with the implication that Sting put his career on the line, a stipulation Sting accepted. Sting then retreated to train for what could have been his final match. Meanwhile, Impact! began showing videos of Sting going through a so-called transformation with many biblical references. On October 22, 2006, in the Title vs. Career match at the Bound for Glory PPV, Sting returned debuting his new look, a hybrid of his surfer, Crow, and nWo Wolfpac styles, looking much leaner physically. He went on to claim his second NWA World Heavyweight title when he made Jarrett submit to the Scorpion Deathlock marking the first major championship title Sting had won since 1999. With that victory, Sting became the oldest NWA World Heavyweight Champion of the TNA era, as well as the only person to ever win the title both before and after the inception of TNA. This would also go on to make Sting the longest superstar to recapture his second NWA title from 1990 to 2006 (16 years).
Sting lost the title to "The Monster" Abyss on November 19 at Genesis by disqualification after pushing aside the referee and pushing Abyss into a stack of tables covered in barbed wire. In the weeks following Genesis, Sting's feud with Abyss continued as he tried to get in Abyss' head by telling him he was being used by his satanic manager James Mitchell. Abyss was visibly affected by this, but remained by Mitchell's side. Sting's former friend Christian Cage and his bodyguard Tomko were also thrown in the mix, with Cage claiming he knew a dark secret in Abyss' past. The three finally met in a three-way match for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship on December 10 at Turning Point, where Abyss retained the title. After Turning Point, Sting continued to try to convince Abyss he was nothing but a machine for Mitchell, and he got so far into Abyss that Abyss grabbed Mitchell by the throat, almost chokeslamming him on an edition of Impact!, but ultimately convinced himself not to.
TNA World Heavyweight Champion (2007–2008)
As 2007 came along, Sting continued his feud with Abyss while trying to recapture the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. On January 14 at Final Resolution, Sting faced Abyss and Christian Cage in three-way elimination match for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship but failed regain the championship after he was eliminated last by Cage. On the January 24, 2007 edition of Impact!, Sting revealed after going through public records that Abyss shot his own father three times in the back, sending him into a coma. During the ensuing brawl throughout the Impact! Zone between Sting and Abyss, James Mitchell burned Sting's face with a fireball, sending Sting to the hospital. Sting returned to defeat Abyss in a "Prison Yard" match on February 11 at Against All Odds and again in a "Last Rites" match on March 11 at Destination X. On the March 22 edition of Impact!, Sting teamed with his enemy Abyss to face Christian Cage and A.J. Styles. During the match, Mitchell returned with a woman who Abyss recognized and Abyss left the match with Mitchell and the woman, leaving Sting alone to fight Cage and Styles. The following week on Impact!, during a meeting between Sting and James Mitchell, it was revealed that the woman was Abyss' mother, and that she was the one who had actually shot Abyss' father, but Abyss took the blame to protect his mother. Later in the night, it was announced Abyss was added to the Lethal Lockdown match at Lockdown as part of Team Cage while Sting ended up joining Team Angle. At Lockdown, Sting, with the help of Jeff Jarrett, pinned Abyss to win the match for his team and end their bitter rivalry.
Due to his win, he was supposed to be facing Christian Cage for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship at Sacrifice, but the next week on Impact!, Kurt Angle challenged Sting for his number one contendership. After Team Cage interfered in the match, it was revealed that at Sacrifice there would be a three way match for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship between Sting, Kurt Angle, and Christian Cage. The day of the PPV, the National Wrestling Alliance (NWA), the owners of the NWA World Heavyweight and the NWA World Tag Team Championships, stripped Cage of the title and Team 3D of the tag team title. NWA Executive Director Robert K. Trobich stated the reason was that Cage refused to defend the NWA Title at NWA live events. At the event, Cage, still holding the physical NWA Championship belt, defended what was billed as the "World Heavyweight Championship" against Sting and Angle. Angle was the victor of said contest by making Sting submit, who had technically just pinned Cage, and was announced as the new "TNA World Heavyweight Champion". The Impact! following the event, the title was labelled as the "TNA World Heavyweight Championship" and was vacated due to the controversial finish of the match. A tournament was then held for the title which culminated in a King of the Mountain match at Slammiversary. Sting lost his qualifying match with Samoa Joe after Christopher Daniels interfered. Sting instead faced Daniels on June 17 at Slammiversary, which he ultimately won.
After his feud with Daniels, Sting began teaming up with his former enemy, Abyss who had recently turned face. Together, the two went on to defeat A.J. Styles and Tomko on July 15 at Victory Road. While trying to help Abyss to win a match against A.J. Styles, Sting and Abyss were attacked by Christian's Coalition. Abyss was pulled under the ring and Sting was slammed into broken glass by Tomko, before Abyss emerged bleeding badly and was slammed into the broken glass and thumbtacks. The following week, Sting and Abyss got revenge by defeating Christian Cage and A.J. Styles in a ladder match, in the process earning a contract that allowed them to pick the type of match between Abyss and Christian at Hard Justice. It was announced via TNA mobile that Abyss had selected "Doomsday Chamber of Blood" match. Sting's team won, with Abyss pinning A.J. Styles to become the number one contender for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship.
On the August 30 edition of Impact!, Sting defeated A.J. Styles, Christian Cage, and Samoa Joe in a four-way match to become the co-holder of the TNA World Tag Team Championship with Kurt Angle. Yet after only thirteen days, Sting and Angle lost the titles to Adam "Pacman" Jones and Ron "The Truth" Killings at No Surrender. During the match, Karen Angle claimed that Sting had slapped her, which led to a falling out between Sting and Kurt Angle and on the first two-hour edition of Impact!, Kurt Angle was shown via satellite (kayfabe) stalking and assaulting Sting's son Garrett. It was announced that Sting would face Kurt Angle for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship at Bound for Glory. The match was billed as return to his roots for Sting, who enjoyed enormous popularity and success in the Atlanta-based World Championship Wrestling earlier in his career. On October 14 at Bound for Glory, Sting overcame interference by both Karen Angle and Kevin Nash to defeat Angle and win the TNA World Heavyweight Championship. On October 16, at the tapings of the October 25 episode of Impact!, Sting lost the championship back to Angle after Kevin Nash interfered on Angle's behalf. Sting then challenged Angle to a tag team rematch at Genesis. Angle was forced to Kevin Nash as his partner, while Sting's partner was a mystery until during the event where his partner was revealed to be Booker T. In the match, whoever scored the pinfall would win the TNA World Championship, which Angle won after pinning Sting to retain the TNA World Heavyweight Championship. This would be the final TNA appearance of Sting in 2007 as he would take some time off to be with his family.
On the March 20 edition of Impact!, after a brawl between members of both Team Cage and Team Tomko, a promo aired at the end of the show indicating that Sting would return the next week on the first-ever live Impact! episode. Sting then made his official return on March 27, announcing that he would be a part of Team Cage for the Lethal Lockdown match at Lockdown. Later on the show, he teamed with members of Team Cage (Christian Cage, Kevin Nash, Rhino, and Matt Morgan) and defeated Team Tomko (Tomko, A.J. Styles, James Storm, and Team 3D) in a 5-man tag team match. Morgan was added when James Storm attacked Sting with a glass bottle after the match. Sting, however, later gained revenge by defeating Storm when Morgan threw him his baseball bat. Morgan then ripped off his referee shirt and revealed a Team Cage shirt, thus becoming the fifth member. At Lockdown, Team Cage defeated Team Tomko when Rhino gored Storm to get the pinfall. After the tag titles were vacated, Jim Cornette held a Deuces Wild Tag Team Tournament to determine new champs. Four teams were already in the Sacrifice finals, while Cornette named eight wrestlers as the "Egotistical 8". Sting's partner was James Storm and on May 11 at Sacrifice, they came up short due their inability get along, and towards the end, Sting attacked Storm and walked out. Sting was not seen after that except in an interview which talked about his career and his eventual retirement.
On July 13 at Victory Road, Booker T faced Samoa Joe for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship. During the match, Sting tried to talk sense into Joe, as he was brutally beating Booker T, and was potentially heading towards a disqualification. Joe rebuked him, and Sting struck him with his trademark black baseball bat. Over the coming weeks, the feud between Joe and Booker intensified, with episodes ending with Booker T or Sharmell striking Samoa Joe with Sting's trademark bat as Impact! went off the air, leading to a question of whether Sting had turned on Samoa Joe and became a heel. Although still receiving a face reaction from the fans, Sting sided with Booker T. On August 10 at Hard Justice, Sting attacked A.J. Styles after he and Kurt Angle wrestled a Last Man Standing match. Sting later announced why he attacked Joe and Styles by saying that the younger generation needed to learn about respecting veterans like Angle, Booker, and himself. He declared that he wouldn't retire until he had accomplished this mission. This led to mixed fan reactions, and sparked a feud between him and TNA World Heavyweight Champion Samoa Joe, as well as Jeff Jarrett who arrived to aid Samoa Joe and A.J. Styles by giving them his guitar as Sting had done with his bat.
The Main Event Mafia (2008–2009)
On October 12 at Bound for Glory IV, Sting challenged Samoa Joe for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship and was successful in claiming the title, after Kevin Nash returned and hit Joe with Sting's baseball bat. On October 23, Sting joined The Main Event Mafia (Kurt Angle, Booker T, Sharmell, Kevin Nash, Scott Steiner, and himself) and by doing so, he fully turned heel for the first time in years, although Sting did not participate in sneak attacks and was cheered by the crowd, making him more a tweener (neutral character). Sting went on to successfully defend the title against AJ Styles on November 9 at Turning Point, The TNA Front Line in an eight-man tag team match with the Main Event Mafia on December 7 at Final Resolution, Rhino on January 11 Genesis, Kurt Angle and both members of Team 3D in a four-way match on February 8 at Against All Odds, and against Angle on March 15 at Destination X. At Lockdown 2009, Sting lost the World Heavyweight Championship to Mick Foley inside the Six Sides of Steel, ending his reign at 189 days (his longest world title reign for any organization). On May 24 at Sacrifice, Sting defeated Kurt Angle to become the new Godfather of the Main Event Mafia. On June 21 at Slammiversary, Sting defeated Matt Morgan in a singles match, thus preventing Morgan from joining the Main Event Mafia. On the following episode of Impact!, Sting's fellow Main Event Mafia members attacked him, removed him from the group, and Kurt Angle reclaimed his role as Godfather. The following week, Sting took his revenge upon the Mafia, when he attacked every member of the group and stole Angle's world heavyweight championship belt, becoming a fully fledged face as a result. On July 19 at Victory Road, Sting was defeated by new Main Event Mafia member Samoa Joe in a singles match after the debuting Taz interfered on Joe's behalf. On August 16 at Hard Justice, Sting unsuccessfully challenged Angle for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship in a triple threat match, which also included Matt Morgan. On September 20 at No Surrender, Sting lost a five-way match for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship that also included A.J. Styles, Hernandez, Kurt Angle, and Matt Morgan. Instead of pinning Angle, he opted to attack Morgan, to allow Styles to pin Angle and become the new World Heavyweight Champion. As a token of gratitude, Styles offered to give him a title shot at the following month's PPV Bound for Glory in a match billed as possibly being Sting's retirement match. At the PPV, Styles defeated Sting to retain his title, ending Sting's undefeated streak at Bound for Glory. After the match he announced that he didn't know whether he would continue his career or not, Saying that "the way you fans are reacting right now, makes me wanna stay forever!" At the end of the year the match was voted the match of the year by the fans of TNA.
Feud with Immortal (2010–2011)
On the January 4, 2010, live-three-hour, Monday night edition of Impact! Sting returned to the Impact! Zone appearing in the rafters of the arena. Sting reappeared two months later on March 8, appearing as he was going to help a bloodied Hulk Hogan and Abyss during a match at the beginning of the show against A.J. Styles and Ric Flair. Instead he swung his baseball bat on Hogan and Abyss, turning heel as a result. He was later defeated by the debuting Rob Van Dam. Sting would continuously attack Van Dam with his bat after the match, completing his heel turn by attacking security guards and Hulk Hogan. On the March 22 edition of Impact! Sting was announced as the captain of Team Flair in the annual Lethal Lockdown match, where they would meet Team Hogan, captained by Abyss. At Lockdown Team Flair (Sting, Desmond Wolfe, Robert Roode and James Storm) were defeated by Team Hogan (Abyss, Jeff Jarrett, Rob Van Dam and Jeff Hardy). On May 3, Sting explained his actions to Hogan and was later attacked from behind by Jeff Jarrett. At Sacrifice Sting assaulted Jarrett prior to their match and then dragged him in to the ring, where he managed to score a pinfall in seconds over his bloodied opponent, leaving him injured. On the following edition of Impact! the TNA Championship Committee ranked Sting number one in the rankings and as a result he was granted a shot at Rob Van Dam's World Heavyweight Championship at Slammiversary VIII. Sting then attacked Eric Bischoff with his baseball bat, biting the hand that fed him. Sting later promised that he would reveal the motives behind his actions after winning the World Heavyweight Championship. At Slammiversary VIII Jeff Jarrett made his return and cost Sting his title match against Rob Van Dam.
After assaulting Jarrett from behind on the June 24 edition of Impact!, TNA president Dixie Carter suspended Sting for 30 days without pay the following week. Sting returned from his suspension on the August 5 edition of Impact!, wearing his nWo Wolfpac red face paint, and helping Kevin Nash, who had backed him up during his suspension, beat down Jarrett, Eric Bischoff and Hulk Hogan. On the September 2 edition of Impact! Sting defeated Jarrett in a singles match, after an interference from Nash. After the match Samoa Joe aligned himself with Jarrett and Hogan and drove Sting and Nash away. At No Surrender Joe and Jarrett defeated Sting and Nash in a tag team match, after Jarrett hit Sting with his own baseball bat. On the September 16 edition of Reaction, Sting and Nash were joined by D'Angelo Dinero, who claimed to have gotten inside information from Bischoff's secretary Miss Tessmacher, that would suggest that Sting and Nash were right about Hogan and Bischoff being up to something. At Bound for Glory Sting, Nash and Dinero faced Jeff Jarrett and Samoa Joe in a handicap match, after Hulk Hogan, who was slated to team with Jarrett and Joe, was forced to pull out due to a back surgery. At the end of the match Jarrett abandoned Joe, and Sting, Nash, and Dinero tried to tell Joe this was what they were saying all along. Joe fought them anyway and ended up pinned by Nash. At the end of the event it was revealed that Sting had been right about Hogan and Bischoff all along, as they turned heel with Jarrett and Jeff Hardy as Abyss's "they", and in the process turned Sting, Nash and Dinero back to being faces. On the following edition of Impact!, Sting and Nash refused to join Hogan, Bischoff and their new group, Immortal, and walked out on TNA and Dixie Carter, noting that they had tried to warn her that Hogan and Bischoff would try to take over the company for their own gain, but she hadn't listened, meaning Sting was never a true villain his entire heel run. After Impact!, Sting took hiatus from TNA television, as Borden's TNA contract had expired at the end of 2010.
After a four-month hiatus, Sting returned to TNA on February 24, 2011 at the tapings of the March 3 edition of Impact!, where he appeared as a surprise challenger and defeated Jeff Hardy to win the TNA World Heavyweight Championship for the third time. On March 13 at Victory Road, Sting successfully defended the title against Hardy in a No Disqualification rematch that lasted ninety seconds. According to word from backstage, the match was planned to last longer, but Sting, believing that Jeff was in no shape to perform from looking at him, deliberately ended the match early, and was later heard agreeing with a fan's claim that the match was "bullshit". The following month at Lockdown, Sting successfully defended the title against Mr. Anderson and Rob Van Dam in a three-way steel cage match. In May, Sting was allowed to pick his number one contender and chose Van Dam, whom he went on to defeat at Sacrifice. The following month at Slammiversary IX, Sting lost the TNA World Heavyweight Championship to Mr. Anderson, following outside interference from Eric Bischoff.
Over the next few weeks, Sting displayed a more maniacal character similar in look and style to Heath Ledger's portrayal of the Joker from the 2008 film The Dark Knight. On the July 14 edition of Impact Wrestling, Sting, now dubbed as the "Insane Icon", regained the TNA World Heavyweight Championship from Mr. Anderson, after Fortune and Kurt Angle, disguised as his clown minions, attacked each member of Immortal, preventing them from interfering in the match. He would go on to lose the title to Kurt Angle on August 7 at Hardcore Justice, after Angle hit him with a chair brought to the ring by Hulk Hogan. Sting continued tormenting head members of Immortal with his strange new personality, and on the August 18 edition of Impact Wrestling, his longtime rival Ric Flair made his return to TNA and challenged him to a match. Sting agreed to put his career on the line in the match in exchange for Flair promising to deliver him his long-awaited match with Hogan, should he be able to defeat him. On the September 1 edition of Impact Wrestling, Sting received a rematch against Angle for the World Heavyweight Championship, but was defeated following interference from special enforcer Hulk Hogan and the rest of Immortal. On September 11 at No Surrender, Hogan once again cost Sting the TNA World Heavyweight Championship in a three-way match, which also included Mr. Anderson. On the September 15 edition of Impact Wrestling, Sting defeated longtime rival Ric Flair to earn the right to face Hogan at Bound for Glory. On the October 6 edition of Impact Wrestling, after being exposed for his false claim of retiring and his secret ridicule of the fans, a furious Hogan impulsively agreed to hand TNA back to Dixie Carter, should Sting manage to defeat him at the pay-per-view. On October 16 at Bound for Glory, Sting defeated Hogan to bring Dixie Carter back to power. After the match, Hogan turned on Immortal and helped Sting overcome the odds in his battle with the stable. On the following edition of Impact Wrestling, Carter placed Sting in charge of the program. Sting returned to the ring on the December 22 and February 9, 2012, editions of Impact Wrestling, where he teamed up with Jeff Hardy to defeat TNA World Heavyweight Champion Bobby Roode and Bully Ray both times.
Final feuds and departure (2012–2014)
On March 18 at Victory Road, Sting was defeated by Roode in a non-title No Holds Barred match. On the following edition of Impact Wrestling, Sting announced his resignation from the general manager position, and handed the position over to Hulk Hogan. He later stated that he believe that Hogan could properly run TNA without the influence of Bischoff. On March 29, Dixie Carter announced that Borden had signed another contract extension with TNA. Sting returned to TNA on the May 24 episode of Impact Wrestling, attacking Bobby Roode. The following week, Sting defeated Roode in a non-title lumberjack match to earn a shot at his TNA World Heavyweight Championship. On June 10 at Slammiversary, Sting was announced as the first person inducted into the TNA Hall of Fame the following October. Later, in the main event of the evening, Sting unsuccessfully challenged Roode for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship, after being hit with a beer bottle. Afterwards, Sting attacked Roode and dropped him on the entrance ramp with a Scorpion Death Drop.
On the June 14 episode of Impact Wrestling, Sting's speech about the events of Slammiversary was interrupted, when he was attacked by three masked assailants. Sting returned four weeks later, but this time both he and Hulk Hogan were attacked by the same group of masked men, who had dubbed themselves the "Aces & Eights". While Hogan was recovering from his storyline injuries suffered in the attack, and a legitimate back surgery, Sting reclaimed the role of interim general manager. On October 13, Sting was officially inducted into the TNA Hall of Fame. The following day at Bound for Glory, Sting teamed with Bully Ray in a tag team match, where they were defeated by the Aces & Eights, following interference from a man who was afterwards unmasked as Ray's longtime partner, the returning Devon. As a result of their win, the Aces & Eights earned full access to TNA. On the following episode of Impact Wrestling, Sting defeated Devon via disqualification, following interference from the Aces & Eights. On the November 8 episode of Impact Wrestling, Sting was sidelined with a storyline injury, after being put through a table and beaten with a ball-peen hammer by DOC, a member of Aces & Eights.
Sting returned on the January 3, 2013, episode of Impact Wrestling, saving Kurt Angle and Samoa Joe from Aces & Eights before beating the group down with a baseball bat. Sting wrestled his return match the following week, defeating Aces & Eights member Mike Knox after he injured Kurt Angle. Three days later at Genesis, Sting gained his revenge on DOC by defeating him in a singles match. On the February 7 episode of Impact Wrestling, Sting teamed up with Bully Ray to defeat Devon and DOC in a Tables match. On March 10 at Lockdown, Team TNA, consisting of Sting, Eric Young, James Storm, Magnus, and Samoa Joe defeated Aces & Eights, consisting of Devon, DOC, Garett Bischoff, Mike Knox, and Mr. Anderson in a Lethal Lockdown match. After Bully Ray won the World Heavyweight Championship and revealed himself as the leader of Aces & Eights later that night, Hulk Hogan blamed Sting as he had encouraged Hogan to give Ray the title shot while also encouraging Hogan to support Ray's marriage with his daughter Brooke. Sting proceeded to walk out on Hogan. Sting returned on the April 25 Impact Wrestling, saving Hogan from an attack by the Aces & Eights. The following week, Sting reconciled with Hogan and became the number one contender to the TNA World Heavyweight Championship later that night after defeating Matt Morgan. On June 2 at Slammiversary XI, Sting unsuccessfully challenged Bully Ray for the World Heavyweight Championship in a No Holds Barred Match after an interference by Aces & Eights. Per stipulation, Sting would never get another World title opportunity again.
On the June 13 episode of Impact Wrestling, Sting noted that nobody in the back helped him during his title match, but he would form a New Main Event Mafia to battle the Aces & Eights. In the following weeks, Sting would recruit Kurt Angle, Samoa Joe, Magnus, and Rampage Jackson as members of the New Main Event Mafia. Before Bound for Glory, MEM member Magnus complained to Sting because his losses. Magnus told to Sting he had Flair to put him in the map, but he had nobody, so Sting challenged him to a match at Bound for Glory. At Bound for Glory, Sting was defeated by Magnus. On the October 31 episode of Impact Wrestling, Dixie Carter offered to lift the lifetime ban so Sting can get another World title opportunity again by entering him first in a Battle Royal Gauntlet match, which was won by Magnus as Sting attempted to eliminate Kazarian, and Magnus eliminated the both of them. Sting disbanded The Main Event Mafia after Aces & Eights disbanded, and while other members began to chase their World Heavyweight Title dreams, Sting started a feud against Ethan Carter III and Dixie Carter after they began humiliating TNA Legends, like Curry Man and Earl Hebner by Carter. On the December 12 episode of Impact, Carter was confronted by Sting, and was issued an option, either face Sting immediately, or enter the Feast or Fired match. Carter entered the Feast or Fired match, and grabbed one of the briefcases. On the December 19 episode of Impact Wrestling, the Feast or Fired briefcase revealed to contain a future World Tag Team Championship match, and also led to the firing of Chavo Guerrero. On the January 16, 2014 edition of Impact Wrestling: Genesis, Sting lost a match to Ethan Carter III due an interference from the World Champion Magnus and subsequently challenged Magnus to a Title vs. Career match for the January 23, 2014 episode of Impact Wrestling-Genesis. Sting lost, and his TNA contract was terminated as a result.
Pre-debut appearances (2014)
Veteran professional wrestling journalist Bill Apter chronicled Sting's career in a piece for WWE.com on February 19, 2014, wherein he stated that Sting's "best days may still be yet to come". Amid speculation about a contract offer from the company, Sting appeared in a WWE Network production on April 15, 2014, sharing a story of his former tag team partner The Ultimate Warrior, who had recently died. This marked Sting's first non-archive appearance on a WWE-branded show. Sting was a prominent contributor to the documentary film Warrior: The Ultimate Legend, which aired on the WWE Network on April 17. The following day, online retailer Zavvi announced the WWE Home Video DVD and Blu-ray The Best of Sting, which was released on September 23, 2014. On July 14, Sting appeared in a vignette on Raw to promote the video game WWE 2K15, in which he was featured as a pre-order bonus character in both his 'Crow' and 'Surfer' (pre-1996) incarnations. That same day, WWE began selling official Sting merchandise. On July 24, Borden made his first public appearance for WWE, in full Sting garb, as a surprise guest at the 2014 San Diego Comic-Con International. The event was held to announce WWE's upcoming line of Mattel action figures, in which the company's first ever Sting figure would appear. Prior to that appearance, Sting gave his first interview with WWE.com, which was released later that day. On August 4, WWE announced Sting as a guest on the WWE 2K15 "Roster Reveal" panel, which took place on August 16 in Los Angeles.
Feud with The Authority (2014–2015)
On November 23, during the main event of Survivor Series, Sting made his first-ever appearance in a WWE ring by attacking Triple H with a Scorpion Death Drop and also costing Team Authority the match. On January 19, 2015, Sting made his live Raw debut by appearing backstage during the main event, then walking to the stage, causing a distraction and costing Authority members Big Show, Kane and Seth Rollins their handicap match against John Cena; this win gave the recently fired Dolph Ziggler, Ryback and Erick Rowan their jobs back. Triple H challenged Sting to a face-to-face confrontation on the January 26 episode of Raw. Sting accepted this challenge on the February 16 episode of Raw by sending a Sting doppelganger into the ring to scare Triple H, after airing a vignette on the big screen accepting Triple H's challenge. Sting and Triple H had a confrontation at Fastlane on February 22. Following physicality between the two, Sting pointed to the WrestleMania 31 sign with his baseball bat, issuing a challenge for the event that was accepted by Triple H. On the March 16 episode of Raw, Sting made a surprise appearance and helped Randy Orton fight off the Authority. Immediately following on the WWE Network, Sting spoke for the first time in-ring. He lost at WrestleMania 31 in a match involving interference from D-Generation X and New World Order members, but shook hands with Triple H afterward.
Sting returned on the August 24 episode of Raw, interrupting WWE World Heavyweight Champion Seth Rollins's statue unveiling ceremony by attacking Rollins before challenging Rollins for the title by raising the belt over his head. Triple H then announced on the WWE Network that Sting would face Rollins for the title at Night of Champions. Sting appeared on the tron throughout the September 7 Raw, defacing and ultimately destroying Rollins's statue by pushing it into a garbage truck. The following week, Sting defeated Big Show by disqualification in his debut Raw match, as a consequence of Rollins attacking Sting. John Cena then came to Sting's aid, which prompted Triple H to book a tag team contest involving the four wrestlers: Sting and Cena won after Sting made Rollins tap out to the Scorpion Deathlock. Sting suffered a legit neck injury during his championship match against Rollins at Night of Champions, but was able to complete the bout in a losing effort.
WWE Hall of Fame and retirement (2015–2016)
Sting said on the December 9 edition of Ric Flair's WOOOOO! Nation podcast that he required surgery to correct cervical spinal stenosis, and is "lucky that a catastrophe didn't happen" in his match with Rollins at Night of Champions.
It was announced on the January 11, 2016 episode of Raw that Sting would be the first member of the WWE Hall of Fame Class of 2016. He was the second active WWE wrestler to be inducted – the first being his inductor, Ric Flair. Sting ultimately reneged on having surgery; on March 22, 2016 he explained that he felt "completely normal" and had none of the side effects associated with cervical spinal stenosis. On April 2, during his WWE Hall of Fame induction speech, Sting announced his retirement from professional wrestling. He appeared at WrestleMania 32, alongside his fellow 2016 inductees, the following night.
In August 2016, Sting appeared on the WWE Network show Legends with JBL and talked about his career. He also stated that he has not undergone surgery as that would definitively be the end of his career, as he still holds hope for a match with The Undertaker, claiming that to be his "unfinished business" in wrestling.
Legacy and influence
Sting is widely regarded as the greatest performer in WCW history. Former rival Hulk Hogan asserted that Sting should be mentioned in any conversation regarding the top 10 greatest pro wrestlers of all time; numerous outlets have placed him in such listings.[a] Sting also garnered one of the largest and most loyal fanbases in the industry; he was voted by Pro Wrestling Illustrated readers as "Most Popular Wrestler of the Year" four times (a record shared with John Cena), for the years 1991, 1992, 1994 and 1997. Digital Spy writer Mayer Nissim commended Sting's ability to constantly evolve his gimmick while fellow franchise players Hulk Hogan and John Cena largely failed to do so, in order to maintain spectator interest. Borden is known for his charity work, once regarding his involvement with the Make-A-Wish and Starlight Children's Foundations as his "most fulfilling activity". His young supporters are known as the "Little Stingers".
Prior to his signing with WWE, Sting's legacy was perpetuated by the organization. It hailed him as "one of sports-entertainment's elite", and ranked him at number one in listings of the greatest wrestlers to never perform in WWE, and the greatest stars in WCW history. In 2013, the company named Sting's WCW World Heavyweight Championship contest against Diamond Dallas Page, on April 26, 1999, as the greatest match ever aired on WCW's flagship Monday Nitro program. At Night of Champions 2013, WWE organized a viewer poll to determine the greatest United States Champion of all time: Sting, a two-time champion, beat out the other four contenders – all WWE Hall of Famers – in a landslide victory with 53% of the overall vote. In regard to Sting's creative handling after he signed with WWE, PWInsider editor Dave Scherer wrote that "he really represented WCW so he was never going to get that [legend] treatment".
Sting was the inaugural inductee into the TNA Hall of Fame. TNA president Dixie Carter credits Sting with being the major wrestling superstar that TNA needed to establish itself. The company describes him as having had an "unparalleled career" and as being a legend who surpasses time.
Sting was regarded by colleagues in WCW as a professional and well-respected locker room leader. Prominent adversary Big Van Vader felt that Sting had unsurpassed athletic prowess within the business, and "ranks right up at the top" as an in-ring performer. Ric Flair called Sting his greatest opponent. Former rival Diamond Dallas Page, commenting on Sting's entry into WWE in 2014, said: "Everyone there grew up watching him... No one did it better than Sting, nobody". John Cena mimicked Sting's hairstyle in his youth and recalled, "he was my guy"; Cody Rhodes and Shelton Benjamin have also named him as their favorite childhood wrestler. Tyson Kidd professed to being a "huge Sting fan" as a child, and Seth Rollins would dress up as Sting in his youth. He was also a prominent influence on industry veterans Kurt Angle, Bill Goldberg, Jeff Hardy, Kane, A.J. Styles and Goldust. Bray Wyatt has stressed that he "really would like to take on" Sting, adding: "I have to have [that] before I die; I don't care if it happens outside a Waffle House, somewhere."
Sting was the only WCW World Heavyweight Champion to wear face paint.
Sting's drawing ability has been disputed. Journalist Dave Scherer of PWInsider wrote: "Sting is an all timer for sure, but the fact is that when he was the man in WCW, even before the NWO came in, he didn't draw huge". Pro wrestling historian Dave Meltzer also reported that Sting was not a formidable draw. Fin Martin of Power Slam felt that while Sting did not make "essential improvements" nor "grow into the champion's role" during his first NWA World Heavyweight Championship reign from 1990 to 1991, he suffered from a weak line-up of potential opponents and poor creative handling. Martin said that Sting never truly established himself as 'The Man'.
On the other hand, Steve Austin has taken exception to the notion that Sting was not a profitable wrestler. Reflecting on Sting in the early 1990s, veteran wrestler Kevin Nash said: "There weren't many draws in WCW at that point, but he was one of them". Former WCW booker Mike Graham asserted that Sting was a television ratings success during the Monday Night Wars, while fellow booker Kevin Sullivan said of Sting's rivalry with Ric Flair: "If I needed to draw a rating, Sting and Flair always drew. It was like [Muhammad] Ali and [Joe] Frazier". The inaugural Clash of the Champions event in 1988, which aired opposite the WWF's WrestleMania IV and was headlined by Sting vs. Flair, generated a record-setting 5.6 rating on TBS. The pair also main-evented The Great American Bash in 1990, which was the NWA's biggest pay-per-view success up to that point.
Sting was a major attraction in 1997, being WCW's top merchandise seller (second only to the WWF's Steve Austin overall) and, versus Hollywood Hogan, headlining the biggest-grossing pay-per-view event in the company's history at that year's Starrcade. Sting went on to join the nWo Wolfpac stable, which dominated WCW's merchandise sales at events in mid 1998. Discussing Sting in WWE, Kevin Nash said that he is "so valuable to the company as a trademark".
Resistance to signing with WWE
Prior to his signing with WWE, Sting was widely considered the greatest wrestler never to perform for the company. He had "really good conversations" with the promotion during his career, but did not appear there until 2014, at the age of 55. His loyalty to WCW, even in its dying days, has been noted. That organization was purchased by the WWF (now WWE) in 2001, and Sting's contract with its parent company AOL Time Warner expired in 2002, but he still refused to make the jump, alternately attributing this to the WWF's creative usage of former WCW talents and negative dealings with attorneys. The company's onerous live schedule and the content of its programming were also factors. Sting has, however, downplayed rumors of a difficult relationship with WWE.
Rather than sign with the WWF in 2002, Sting performed for smaller promotions, becoming the centerpiece of TNA by the mid 2000s. David Shoemaker of Grantland felt that while he had "some good moments" with that company, it was a "lost decade" since WWE essentially dictates the history of pro wrestling. Nonetheless, his pre-WWE career included "dream" matches against former WWF stars Hulk Hogan and Bret Hart in WCW, as well as bouts opposite names such as Ric Flair, Randy Savage, Kurt Angle and Mick Foley. Sting often wrestled Steve Austin in WCW; he had positive negotiations with WWE in 2003, with his proposed debut angle being a confrontation with Austin at the conclusion of WrestleMania XIX. He was also "very, very close" to making a deal with the company in 2011, which would potentially have involved a match against The Undertaker at WrestleMania XXVII. Although Sting twice wrestled Mark Calaway in his pre-Undertaker character, Mark Callous, at WCW live events in 1990, WWE viewers clamored for a televised Sting versus Undertaker match.
Borden appeared in the music video for the song "Fire in the Hole" by Lȧȧz Rockit in 1989.
Borden appeared in the syndicated TV show Super Force as Hallor / ... (3 episodes, 1991-1992)
He starred in a pay-per-view only film titled The Real Reason (Men Commit Crimes) (1998).
Borden was featured in a Sprite commercial in 1999. He also appeared in three episodes of the action-adventure series and Hulk Hogan vehicle Thunder in Paradise as the character Adam "Hammerhead" McCall. Borden made a guest appearance on Walker, Texas Ranger as biker and drug dealer Grangus in the episode "Unsafe Speed". He also appeared in Ready to Rumble (2000) as Sting.
He also appeared in the Christian film, The Encounter (2010) and was featured as the lead actor in the TV movie Shutterspeed. He makes a cameo appearance as Sting on an episode of Upright Citizens Brigade. Borden played an outlaw biker in the film Revelation Road (2013).
In October 2015, WWE released a second Sting DVD titled Sting: Into the Light. The three-disc set features a behind-the-scenes documentary with Sting himself as he prepares to step into a WWE ring for the first time ever at WrestleMania 31.
Borden was an anabolic steroid user in the 1980s. He became a born-again Christian in August 1998, after confessing his adultery, and substance and alcohol abuse to his then-wife. He and Sue divorced in 2010. Borden has two sons, Garrett Lee and Steve, Jr. and a daughter named Gracie, who was born in 2000. His elder son Garrett attends Azusa Pacific University, where he plays college football as a running back. Steven attended Kilgore College, where he played tight end; on December 19, 2012, he committed to attend the University of Kentucky. After the 2015 NFL Draft, Steven was invited by the Kansas City Chiefs to try out for the team at their rookie mini-camp. Borden married his second wife Sabine in 2015, shortly after WrestleMania 31. He also has a step-daughter, Jessica.
- Finishing moves
- Signature moves
- Diving clothesline
- Diving DDT
- Diving splash
- Inverted atomic drop
- Knife edge chop
- Military press slam
- One-handed bulldog
- Running leaping elbow drop
- Slingshot crossbody
- Sleeper hold
- Stinger Splash – innovated
- Tombstone piledriver
- Vertical suplex, sometimes from the top rope
- Entrance themes
- Universal Wrestling Federation
- Jim Crockett Promotions/World Championship Wrestling
- "Rattlesnake Whip" (1987–1989)
- "Turbo Charged" (1989–1992)
- "Man Called Sting" (1993–1996)
- "Crow/Sting" by Jimmy Hart (1996–1999, early 2000)
- "Wolfpac Theme" by C-Murder and Jimmy Hart (1998; used while a member of the nWo Wolfpac)
- "Seek & Destroy" (Live at Woodstock 1999) by Metallica (1999–2001)
- Total Nonstop Action Wrestling
Championships and accomplishments
- Jim Crockett Promotions/World Championship Wrestling
- NWA World Television Championship (1 time)
- NWA World Heavyweight Championship (1 time)1
- WCW International World Heavyweight Championship (2 times)
- WCW United States Heavyweight Championship (2 times)
- WCW World Heavyweight Championship (6 times)
- WCW World Tag Team Championship (3 times) – with Lex Luger (1), The Giant (1), and Kevin Nash (1)
- Jim Crockett, Sr. Memorial Cup (1988) – with Lex Luger
- Iron Man Tournament (1989)
- London Lethal Lottery Tag Team Tournament (2000) – with Scott Steiner
- King of Cable Tournament (1992)
- European Cup (1994, 2000)
- WCW United States Championship Tournament (1991)
- WCW United States Championship Tournament (1995)
- Battlebowl Battle Royal (1991)
- Third WCW Triple Crown Champion
- Pro Wrestling Illustrated
- Comeback of the Year (2006, 2011, 2014)
- Match of the Year (1991) with Lex Luger vs. the Steiner Brothers at SuperBrawl
- Most Improved Wrestler of the Year (1988)
- Most Inspirational Wrestler of the Year (1990)
- Most Popular Wrestler of the Year (1991, 1992, 1994, 1997)
- Wrestler of the Year (1990)
- Ranked No. 1 of the top 500 singles wrestlers in the PWI 500 in 1992
- Ranked No. 15 of the top 500 singles wrestlers of the PWI Years in 2003
- Ranked No. 52 of the top 100 tag teams of the PWI Years with Lex Luger in 2003
- Total Nonstop Action Wrestling
- NWA World Heavyweight Championship (1 time)2
- TNA World Heavyweight Championship (4 times)
- TNA World Tag Team Championship (1 time) – with Kurt Angle
- Inspirational Superstar of the Year (2007)
- TNA Match of the Year (2007) vs. Kurt Angle at Bound for Glory, October 14, 2007
- TNA Match of the Year (2009) vs. A.J. Styles at Bound for Glory, October 18, 2009
- TNA Hall of Fame (Class of 2012)
- Universal Wrestling Federation
- World Wrestling All-Stars
- Wrestling Observer Newsletter
- Match of the Year (1988) vs. Ric Flair at Clash of the Champions I
- Most Charismatic (1988, 1992)
- Most Improved (1988)
- Most Unimproved (1990)
- 5 Star Match (1991) with Brian Pillman, Rick Steiner, and Scott Steiner vs. Ric Flair, Larry Zbyszko, Barry Windham, and Sid Vicious (February 24, WarGames match, WrestleWar)
- 5 Star Match (1992) with Nikita Koloff, Ricky Steamboat, Barry Windham, and Dustin Rhodes vs. Arn Anderson, Rick Rude, Steve Austin, Bobby Eaton, and Larry Zbyszko (May 17, WarGames match, WrestleWar)
- Best Babyface (1992)
- Worst Worked Match of the Year (1995) vs. Tony Palmore at Battle 7
- Worst Worked Match of the Year (2011) vs. Jeff Hardy at Victory Road
- Wrestling Observer Newsletter Hall of Fame (Class of 2016)
1 Won while the NWA World Heavyweight Championship was defended in World Championship Wrestling when WCW was part of the National Wrestling Alliance. The same goes for any other NWA championship or honor won after November 1988.
2 Won while TNA obtained the sole rights to use the NWA World Heavyweight Championship through an agreement with the NWA.
Luchas de Apuestas
|Winner (wager)||Loser (wager)||Location||Event||Date||Notes|
|Sting (career)||Jeff Jarrett (championship)||Plymouth Township, Michigan||Bound for Glory||October 22, 2006||Kurt Angle served as the special outside enforcer.|
|Magnus (championship)||Sting (career)||Huntsville, Alabama||Genesis||January 16, 2014||Aired January 23, 2014. This was a no disqualification and no countout match.|
- "Sting". Canoe.ca. Quebecor Media. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
- "Sting". WCW.com (via Wayback Machine). World Championship Wrestling. 2000. Archived from the original on November 10, 2000. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
- "Wrestling Timeline: Sting". The Wrestler/Inside Wrestling. Kappa Publications. June 2007. pp. 66–71. Volume 15, 2007.
- Meltzer, Dave (February 7, 2011). "Feb. 7 Observer Newsletter: Royal Rumble 2011, Road to Mania, Mistico to WWE, Goldsmith done, more". Wrestling Observer Newsletter. Campbell, CA: 3. ISSN 1083-9593.
Regarding Sting, he didn't sign with TNA. I guess because it was on Raw, and built to a date for a live Raw in Fresno (which people thought was only a few hours from where Sting lives, but Sting actually moved from Santa Clarita, CA to Dallas last year) and people saw Nash and Booker, they came up with the idea the videos were to introduce Sting.
- "Sting". WWE.com. WWE. 2014. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
- Wrestling Legend Sting on How it all Began and Turning Down the WWE. Sportsvibe.co.uk. April 21, 2011; retrieved December 19, 2014.
- Martin, Damon (April 3, 2016). "Sting announces his retirement during WWE Hall of Fame induction". Fox Sports. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
- Marvez, Alex (March 23, 2001). "Wrestling's Death Match Is Over — WWF The Champ". Sun-Sentinel. Tribune Publishing. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
- Herzog, Kenny (September 16, 2015). "Sting Speaks: Wrestling Icon on Joining WWE, Feuding With Seth Rollins". Rolling Stone. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
- Icasiano, Nissi (April 3, 2016). "Wrestling legend Sting officially retires". Rappler. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- Artus, Matthew (September 13, 2015). "6 surprising facts about Sting (page 2)". WWE. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- "Top 50 Wrestlers of All Time". IGN. November 2, 2012. Archived from the original on September 23, 2016. Retrieved 2015-05-21.
- Hoops, Brian (January 7, 2008). "Nostalgia: Starrcade '97". PWTorch. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Peltz, Jamie (February 11, 2003). "Radio Review: Sting says he'd love to wrestle Triple H, Austin, Taker". PWTorch.com. Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
- Schramm, Chris (January 12, 2006). "Sting ready for one more run". Canoe.ca. Quebecor Media. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
After his WCW/Time Warner/AOL contract expired in March 2002, Sting was not completely away from pro wrestling. He was a major part of the World Wrestling All-Stars tour in Europe in 2002-03.
- "Sting official TNA profile". Total Nonstop Action Wrestling. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
- Linder, Zach and Finkel, Howard (June 5, 2013). "10 greatest wrestlers to never wrestle in WWE: #1 Sting". WWE.com. WWE. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
- Howell, Nolan (May 31, 2013). "Bully Ray focused and ready for Sting at Slammiversary". Slam! Sports. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- PWI Centrefold: Sting, Pro Wrestling Illustrated May 1988
- PWI Centrefold: The Ultimate Warrior, Pro Wrestling Illustrated October 1988
- Molinaro, page 196.
- Molinaro, page 197.
- "Robocop – Or Should that be RoboCrap?". Robocoparchive.com. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- Foley, Mick. Have a Nice Day: A Tale of Blood and Sweatsocks (p.223)
- "nWo Original Profile". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
- "New World Order History". Wrestling Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
- "Fall Brawl 1996 results". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
- Kevin Sullivan (31 March 2014). WWE 50. DK Publishing. pp. 165–. ISBN 978-0-241-00675-7.
- Martin, Adam (December 11, 2005). "Turning Point PPV results – 12/11/05 (Sting sends a message & more)". WrestleView. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- Brady, Hicks. "2006: The year in wrestling". 2007 Wrestling Almanac and book of facts. Kappa Publications. p. 16. 2007 Edition.
- "Lockdown 2006". Pro Wrestling History. Retrieved 2011-09-03.
- "Slammiversary 2006". Pro Wrestling History. Retrieved 2011-08-30.
- "TNA Lockdown results". Pro Wrestling History.com. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
- Martin, Adam (May 3, 2007). "Impact! results – 5/3/07 ('Sacrifice' main event announced and more)". WrestleView.com. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
- "NWA/Trobich strips TNA/Cage/Team 3D of NWA branded Championships". National Wrestling Alliance. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
- Sokol, Chris (May 14, 2007). "World title picture muddied after good Sacrifice". SLAM! Sports: Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
- Caldwell, James (May 18, 2007). "Caldwell's TNA Impact report 5/17: Angle-Rhino, Daniels-Raven, blood, Gore, and Stomper". PW Torch.com. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
The fans chanted for Christian and Angle said he is the new TNA champion.
- "Slammiversary 2007 Results". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved July 14, 2007.
- "Victory Road 2007 Results". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved September 3, 2007.
- Cygy, Marcus (July 27, 2007). "iMPACT! Results – 7/26/07 (Styles vs. Abyss – Roode vs. Sting & more)". WrestleView. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
- Sokol, Chris (August 13, 2007). "Bad booking mars Hard Justice". SLAM! Wrestling. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
- Sokol, Chris (September 10, 2007). "No Surrender delivers on Angles and a new TV deal". Slam! Sports. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
- Sokol, Chris (October 15, 2007). "Angle gets stung at Bound For Glory". Slam! Sports. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
- Sokol, Chris (October 26, 2007). "Impact: Crowning a new old champion". Slam! Sports. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
- Caldwell, James (November 11, 2007). "Caldwell's TNA PPV report 11/11: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- Sokol, Chris (April 18, 2008). "TNA Lockdown:Joe captures gold". Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2008-07-09.
- Caldwell, James (May 11, 2008). "Caldwell's TNA Sacrifice PPV report 5/11: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- Meltzer, Dave. "TNA Victory Road PPV report". Wrestling Observer/Figure Four Online. Retrieved 2008-08-13.
- "Hard Justice Pay-Per-View Results". TNAWrestling.com. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
- "Bound for Glory IV". Pro Wrestling History. Retrieved 2008-10-19.
- "Against All Odds at Pro Wrestling History.com". Pro Wrestling History.com. Archived from the original on January 16, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-24.
- Caldwell, James (November 9, 2008). "Caldwell's TNA Turning Point PPV 11/9: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2009-10-24.
- "TNA Genesis". prowrestlinghistory.com. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
- "Destination X 2009 at Pro Wrestling History.com". Pro Wrestling History.com. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- "Lockdown at Pro Wrestling History.com". Pro Wrestling History.com. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- Caldwell, James (May 24, 2009). "Caldwell's TNA Sacrifice PPV Report 5/24: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Sting vs. Foley vs. Jarrett vs. Angle". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2009-05-25.
- Caldwell, James (June 21, 2009). "Caldwell's TNA Slammiversary PPV Report 6/21: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of King of the Mountain PPV". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2009-06-22.
- "Victory Road 2009". Pro Wrestling History. Retrieved 2009-09-19.
- "Hard Justice 2009". Pro Wrestling History. Retrieved 2009-09-30.
- Caldwell, James (September 20, 2009). "Caldwell's TNA No Surrender PPV Report 9/20: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Kurt Angle vs. Sting vs. Matt Morgan vs. A.J. Styles". PWTorch. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "Impact: Bound for Glory takes shape". SLAM! Sports. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- Caldwell, James (October 20, 2009). "Caldwell's TNA Bound for Glory PPV Report 10/18: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of the second-half of the show with Styles vs. Sting". PWTorch. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- Boutwell, Josh (January 1, 2010). "Impact Results – 12/31/09". WrestleView. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- Keller, Wade (January 4, 2009). "Keller's TNA Impact Live Report 1/4: Jeff Hardy, NWO reunion, Hulk Hogan, TNA Knockout Title match, more surprises – ongoing coverage". PWTorch. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
- Keller, Wade (March 8, 2010). "TNA IMPACT RESULTS 3/8: Keller's live ongoing report covering the historic beginning of Monday Night War II". PWTorch. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (October 22, 2009). "WILKENFELD'S TNA IMPACT REPORT 3/22: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV broadcast". PWTorch. Retrieved 2009-10-23.
- Caldwell, James (April 18, 2010). "Caldwell's TNA Lockdown Results 4/18: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of PPV – Styles vs. The Pope, Team Hogan vs. Team Flair, Angle vs. Anderson". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
- Keller, Wade (May 3, 2010). "TNA Impact Results 5/3: Keller's ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live show from Orlando". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- Caldwell, James (May 16, 2010). "Caldwell's TNA Sacrifice results 5/16: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of PPV – RVD vs. Styles, Jeff Hardy vs. Mr. Anderson". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- Keller, Wade (May 20, 2010). "TNA Impact results 5/20: Keller's ongoing "virtual time" coverage of show on Spike TV including Top Ten Contenders revealed". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-05-21.
- Caldwell, James (June 13, 2010). "Caldwell's TNA Slammiversary results 6/13: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV – RVD vs. Sting, Hardy & Anderson, "nice surprise"". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (June 24, 2010). "Wilkenfeld's TNA Impact report 6/24: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV broadcast". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-07-02.
- Keller, Wade (July 1, 2010). "TNA Impact results 7/1: Keller's ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV show – Abyss vs. Hardy, RVD refs". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-07-02.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (August 5, 2010). "Wilkenfeld's TNA Impact report 8/5: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV broadcast". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-08-05.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (September 2, 2010). "Wilkenfeld's TNA Impact report 9/02: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV broadcast (updated)". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-09-03.
- Caldwell, James (September 5, 2010). "Caldwell's TNA No Surrender PPV results 9/5: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV – Angle vs. Hardy, Pope vs. Anderson". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- Caldwell, James (September 16, 2010). "Caldwell's TNA Reaction TV report 9/16: Complete "virtual time" coverage of show following Impact". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-09-17.
- Boutwell, Josh (September 24, 2010). "Impact Results – 9/23/10". WrestleView. Archived from the original on September 26, 2012. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
- Caldwell, James (October 10, 2010). "Caldwell's TNA Bound for Glory PPV results 10–10–10: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV – Angle vs. Anderson vs. Hardy, "they" reveal". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (October 14, 2010). "Wilkenfeld's TNA Impact report 10/14: Complete "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV's live broadcast". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-10-15.
- Meltzer, Dave (January 17, 2011). "Jan 17 Observer Newsletter: Lesnar TUF season, Genesis and DGUSA, HBK Hall of Fame, Gage arrest, etc". Wrestling Observer Newsletter. Campbell, CA: 31. ISSN 1083-9593.
Eric Bischoff on the Monday Night Mayhem radio show said he doesn't know what is up regarding Sting other than saying that Sting has told him it has gotten harder, to physically perform at the level he would like to. Sting turns 52 in March. His contract expired at the end of the year.
- Martin, Adam (February 24, 2011). "Spoiler: Title change at Impact taping for March 3". WrestleView. Archived from the original on March 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
- Caldwell, James (March 3, 2011). "Caldwell's TNA Impact report 3/3: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of Impact on Spike TV – Hogan, wedding, 3/3/11 reveal, Tag Title match, retirement match, celebrities". Pro Wrestling Torch. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
- Caldwell, James (March 13, 2011). "Caldwell's TNA Victory Road PPV results 3/13: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV – Sting vs. Hardy TNA Title match". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- Caldwell, James (April 17, 2011). "Caldwell's TNA Lockdown PPV results 4/17: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live all-cage match PPV – Sting vs. Anderson vs. RVD, Angle vs. Jarrett". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
- Caldwell, James (May 15, 2011). "Caldwell's TNA Sacrifice PPV results 5/15: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV – Sting vs. RVD, four title matches, Chyna PPV return". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-05-15.
- Caldwell, James (June 12, 2011). "Caldwell's TNA Slammiversary PPV results 6/12: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV – Sting vs. Anderson, Angle vs. Jarrett blow-off". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
- Boutwell, Josh (June 24, 2011). "Impact Wrestling Results – 6/23/11". WrestleView. Archived from the original on July 2, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- Baxendell, Matt (June 30, 2011). "Bax's TNA Impact Wrestling report 6/30: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of Impact with 'Limited Commercial Interruption'". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- Martin, Adam (July 11, 2011). "Spoiler: Big spoiler for Impact Wrestling". WrestleView. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-11.
- Keller, Wade (July 14, 2011). "Keller's TNA Impact report: Ongoing live coverage of Destination X fallout, Mr. Anderson vs. Sting". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
- Caldwell, James (August 7, 2011). "Caldwell's TNA Hardcore Justice PPV results 8/7: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV – Sting vs. Angle, five title matches, BFG Series matches". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-08-07.
- Bishop, Matt (August 18, 2011). "Impact: Flair finally returns to show". Slam! Sports. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- Bishop, Matt (September 2, 2011). "Impact: Sting looks to regain title in rematch with Angle". Slam! Sports. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2011-09-06.
- Caldwell, James (September 11, 2011). "Caldwell's TNA No Surrender PPV results 9/11: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV – three-way TNA Title match, BFG Series finals". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-09-11.
- "Impact spoiler – double main event at Bound for Glory". Pro Wrestling Torch. September 13, 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
- Caldwell, James (September 15, 2011). "Caldwell's TNA Impact Wrestling report – Flair vs. Sting 9/15: Blog on this week's TV main event". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- Keller, Wade (October 6, 2011). "Keller's TNA Impact Wrestling report 10/6: Hulk Hogan's "retirement" ceremony, Storm vs. Roode, Kaz vs. Gunner in Knoxville". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-10-06.
- Caldwell, James (October 16, 2011). "Caldwell's TNA Bound for Glory PPV results 10/16: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV – Angle-Roode, Hogan-Sting". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- Caldwell, James (October 20, 2011). "Caldwell's TNA Impact Wrestling report 10/20: Complete "virtual-time" coverage Bound for Glory fall-out, TNA World Title match". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
- Keller, Wade (December 27, 2011). "Keller's TNA Impact Wrestling report 12/22: Hardy & Sting team against Roode & Ray, plus Angle visits Storm's favorite bar". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- Turner, Scott (February 10, 2012). "Turner's TNA Impact report 2/9: Alt. perspective review of TNA in London Week 2, final PPV hype". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
- Caldwell, James (March 18, 2012). "Caldwell's TNA Victory Road PPV results 3/18: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV – Sting-Roode main event, Angle-Hardy, Storm-Ray". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-03-18.
- Turner, Scott (March 23, 2012). "Turner's TNA Impact Wrestling results 3/22: Victory Road fall-out, Dixie & Sting & Hogan close the show, three title matches". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- Caldwell, James (March 29, 2012). "Sting re-signs with TNA". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-03-29.
- Boutwell, Josh (May 16, 2012). "Impact Results – 5/24/12". WrestleView. Archived from the original on May 28, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
- Caldwell, James (May 31, 2012). "Caldwell's TNA Impact Wrestling results 5/31: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of live Impact in new timeslot – Roode vs. Sting". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-05-31.
- Caldwell, James (June 10, 2012). "Caldwell's TNA Slammiversary PPV results 6/10: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV – Roode vs. Sting headlines 10th Anniv. PPV". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
- Caldwell, James (June 14, 2012). "Caldwell's TNA Impact Wrestling results 6/14: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of live Impact – TNA World Title match, Ultimate X starts the show". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- Caldwell, James (July 12, 2012). "Caldwell's TNA Impact Wrestling results 7/12: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of live Impact – Aries's first show as champ, BFG Series matches". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
- Caldwell, James (July 26, 2012). "Caldwell's TNA Impact Wrestling results 7/26: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of live Impact – BFG Series matches, interim GM". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
- Bojorquez, Efren (October 14, 2012). "TNA Hall of Fame report". PWTorch. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
- Caldwell, James (October 14, 2012). "Caldwell's TNA Bound for Glory PPV results 10/14: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV – Aries vs. Hardy, Storm vs. Roode". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- Caldwell, James (October 18, 2012). "Caldwell's TNA Impact results 10/18: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of live BFG PPV fall-out". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-10-18.
- Caldwell, James (November 8, 2012). "Caldwell's TNA Impact results 11/8: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of live Impact – final PPV hype, Ladder War conclusion". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 1/3: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of live show – Sting casually returns, cage main event & unmasking (updated w/Box Score)".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 1/10: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of Sting-Knox, wedding angle, and, oh yeah, a PPV on Sunday (updated w/Box Score)".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA GENESIS PPV RESULTS 1/13: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of live PPV – Hardy defends TNA Title against two foes, two title matches, No. 1 contender matches".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 2/7: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of Impact in the U.K. – Tag Title change, Sting & Bully main event, Aces & Eights lose again, Nash weighs in".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA LOCKDOWN PPV RESULTS 3/10: Live, in-person coverage from San Antonio – Hardy vs. Ray TNA Title match, Lethal Lockdown, more".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 3/14: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of live Impact – Lockdown PPV fall-out from Chicago".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 3/21: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of Impact from Chicago – new No. 1 contender to TNA Title, two title matches, Lockdown fall-out".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 3/28: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of Open Fight Night – Hardy vs. Anderson, more".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 4/25 (Hour 2): Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of live Impact – Bully-Hogan, title matches".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 5/2 (Hour 1): Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of Impact – Sabin returns to TV".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 5/2 (Hour 2): Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of Impact – Sting vs. Morgan No. 1 contender match, matches for next week's live Impact".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA SLAMMIVERSARY PPV RESULTS (Hour 3): Bully vs. Sting for the TNA World Title, plus Styles vs. Angle".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 6/13: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of BFG Series qualifiers, Sting bringing back old stable, Rampage Jackson Week 2, more".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 6/20: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of semi-live Impact – BFG Series kick-off, Open Fight Night, Sting takes out Aces & Eights, more".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 6/27: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of Impact – BFG Series continues, two title matches, Suicide, Joe added to Mafia, Hogan plays principal, more".
- "TNA NEWS: Impact 7/4 - quick & detailed results for Thursday's Impact taped in Las Vegas".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 7/11: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of Impact from Las Vegas – Rampage Jackson joins Mafia, Dest. X hype, BFG Series gauntlet".
- Caldwell, James (January 16, 2014). "Caldwell's TNA Impact results 1/16: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of "Genesis" Impact". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
- Caldwell, James (January 23, 2014). "Caldwell's TNA Impact results 1/23: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of "Genesis" Night 2 - TNA Title vs. Sting's career, Angle vs. Roode cage match, new X champ, more". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
- Apter, Bill (February 19, 2014). "Behind the paint of sports-entertainment icon Sting". WWE. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- Stieber, Zachary (April 14, 2014). "Sting WWE: Has Wrestler Signed With the League or Not?". The Epoch Times. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- Trionfo, Richard (15 April 2014). "Warrior's Greatest Matches summary". PWInsider.com. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Trionfo, Richard (17 April 2014). "ULTIMATE WARRIOR: LEGEND OF THE ULTIMATE WARRIOR SPECIAL SUMMARY". PWInsider.com. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- "WWE: Sting Blu-ray". Zavvi. April 18, 2014. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- Johnson, Mike (14 July 2014). "Lots of Sting updates, including where you will see him next". PWInsider.com. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- "WWE Universe on Twitter".
- WWE (July 24, 2014). "Sting makes an appearance at San Diego Comic-Con 2014" – via YouTube.
- "Sting discusses his current WWE relationship". WWE. July 24, 2014. Retrieved July 25, 2014.
- "Get tickets for the SummerSlam Confidential Panels now!". WWE. August 4, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- Caldwell, James. (November 23, 2014). "Caldwell's WWE S. Series PPV Results 11/23: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of Team Cena vs. Team Authority, more". PWTorch.
- Clapp, John. "Sting vs. Triple H". WWE. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- Caldwell, James. (March 16, 2015). "CALDWELL'S WWE RAW RESULTS 3/16: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of live Raw - Sting makes surprise appearance, U.S. Title contract signing, Lesnar speaks, more". PWTorch.
- Adkins, Greg (September 23, 2015). "Sting on his injury, his condition and whether or not that was his last match". WWE. Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- "Snuka's trial date set, Sting needs neck surgery, UFC". Figure Four Weekly. Wayback Machine. December 9, 2015. Archived from the original on December 11, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Pappolla, Ryan (March 22, 2016). "Exclusive interview: Sting on the Hall of Fame, his WWE experience and whether he has competed in his final match". WWE. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
- Powell, Jason (April 3, 2016). "Powell's WrestleMania 32 live review". ProWrestling.net. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- Leighty Jr., Robert (August 19, 2016). "411’s Legends with JBL: Sting Report". 411MANIA. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
- Pantaleo, Steve (2015). WWE Ultimate Superstar Guide. Dorling Kindersley. p. 177. ISBN 978-1465431240.
- Mareno, Ace (February 18, 2011). "Top 50 Greatest Professional Wrestlers". InsideSTL. CBS Sports Radio. Archived from the original on June 23, 2015. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- "Top 10 Wrestlers of All Time". eBay. April 30, 2015. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
- Barnett, Ryan. "Top 10 Wrestlers". WatchMojo. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- "20 Greatest Wrestlers of All Time". Smosh. 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
- Napier, Gavin (March 15, 2006). "The Ultimate Dusty Finish, A Few Corrections, and Just How Great WAS Sting?". 411Mania. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
I'd have a hard time putting [Sting] in the top five of all time, but he'd easily make my top ten.
- Winkie, Luke (July 26, 2016). "Ranking the top 101 wrestlers of all time". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- "Pro Wrestling Illustrated Award Winners Most Popular Wrestler of the Year". Wrestling Information Archive. Archived from the original on September 5, 2011. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- Nissim, Mayer (October 13, 2014). "8 things we learned from the Best of Sting DVD". Digital Spy. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- Hornbaker, Tim (2007). National Wrestling Alliance: The Untold Story of the Monopoly That Strangled Pro Wrestling. ECW Press. p. 343. ISBN 978-1550227413.
He is known for his charity work, and even if he were to never step into the ring again, his time as a wrestling hero will be remembered by the 'Little Stingers' who followed him every step of the way.
- "Sting (pre-debut)". Wayback Machine. WWE. Archived from the original on May 3, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
- The 10 Greatest Wrestlers to Never Wrestle in WWE. WWE. June 5, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- The 50 Greatest Stars in WCW History: Sting. WWE. Retrieved May 24, 2012.
- Powers, Kevin (January 22, 2013). "The 20 greatest WCW matches of all time". WWE. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
- The WWE Universe's picks for best champions ever. WWE. September 15, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
- Scherer, Dave (March 15, 2017). "Reading Vince McMahon's mind, AJ getting into the title match, Miz vs. Cena and more". PWInsider. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Martin, Adam (June 12, 2012). "Press release: TNA makes history at Slammiversary". WrestleView.
- "Sting". TNA Wrestling. Archived from the original on April 21, 2014. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
- Cox, James (November 1, 2015). "Sting's 'Into The Light' WWE DVD is a boring, muted experience". Figure Four Weekly. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on November 7, 2015. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
- Powell, Jason (March 26, 2015). "MNW Flashback". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- "Jim Ross, DDP & Lilian Garcia Preview WWE Survivor Series". Alternative Nation. Wayback Machine. November 22, 2014. Archived from the original on November 25, 2014. Retrieved November 25, 2014.
- "A special look at Sting". WWE. February 23, 2015. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- Greatest Stars of the 90s. WWE Home Video. 2009.
John Cena: "To see Sting win that match [vs. Ric Flair at The Great American Bash (1990)], obviously, as a kid I was going nuts: he was my guy."
Jeff Hardy: We went to see WCW in Fayetteville. There was this one moment, man, a changing moment in my life, when I reached out and I touched Sting... I was like, 'Wow, I wanna be that guy'."
- Rhodes, Cody; Linder, Zach (August 8, 2013). "Growing up WCW". WWE. Archived from the original on August 11, 2013. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Robinson, Jon (May 3, 2004). "Shelton Benjamin Interview". IGN. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Sting: Into the Light. WWE Home Video. 2015.
Bill Goldberg: "I looked up to [Sting]."
Tyson Kidd: "I was a huge Sting fan as a kid."
- Johnson, Mike (October 5, 2015). "WWE World Heavyweight Champ Seth Rollins on PWInsiderTV". PWInsider. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- "Kurt Angle pt 1". Vince Russo's The Brand. April 22, 2016. PodcastOne.
I learned a lot from Sting. He's the guy I wanted to be like.
- "Jeff Hardy on returning to WWE, his suspensions, the true 'best in the world', more". Chris Van Vliet. July 26, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Kane Discusses Triple H, Sting, Undertaker, Daniel Bryan & See No Evil 2". Alternative Nation. October 16, 2014. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
- "Goldust on Sting's influence". WWE. March 2, 2015. Archived from the original on March 4, 2015. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
- "Bray Wyatt on Facing Undertaker at WWE WrestleMania 31, Getting Lost in Thoughts". Between The Ropes. March 28, 2015. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
- Artus, Matthew (September 13, 2015). "6 surprising facts about Sting (page 3)". WWE. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
- Scherer, Dave (October 3, 2015). "What I don't want to see at WrestleMania 32, Sting's legacy, WWE Network practices and more". PWInsider. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
- "Steve Austin Pt 2". The Ross Report. Episode 2. February 25, 2014. 58 minutes in. PodcastOne.
- Martin, Fin (March 9, 2016). "The Mail". Power Slam. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on March 11, 2016. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Greenberg, Keith Elliot (November 13, 2014). "Kevin Nash, Diamond Dallas Page, More Reminisce on Sting's Career as a WCW Icon". B/R. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- Oliver, Sean (director) (2011). Guest Booker With Mike Graham (DVD). Kayfabe Commentaries.
I had the TV people give me a minute-to-minute rating of all of our shows... when Sting was on TV, they watched.
- Ric Flair & Keith Elliot Greenberg (2004). To Be the Man. Simon & Schuster. p. 165. ISBN 978-1501123757.
- Molinaro, John F. The Top 100 Pro Wrestlers of All Time (Wrestling Observer). Winding Stair Press. 2002. Page 197. ISBN 1553663055.
- "WCW Great American Bash review, details on Karl Malone/WCW, tons more". Wrestling Observer Newsletter. June 22, 1998. Archived from the original on March 9, 2016. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- Serafino, Jason (July 15, 2014). "Wrestling legend Sting will be a pre-order bonus in 'WWE 2K15'". Tech Times. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
- "Sting teases showtime at WWE match". July 25, 2014.
- Shoemaker, David (November 25, 2014). "WWE ‘Survivor Series’: Sting! WTF?".
- Carapola, Stuart (August 1, 2012). "Looking at Sting vs Hogan: the dream match that wouldn't go away". PWInsider. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- Holmes, Colin (October 30, 2014). "The Best of Sting". Fighting Spirit Magazine. Uncooked Media (112): 68.
[T]he set ends with two dream matches, as Sting teams with The Ultimate Warrior to face Bret Hart and Hollywood Hogan, before battling "The Hitman" in singles action.
- Stroud, Brandon (June 2, 2015). "Sting Almost Wrestled Stone Cold Steve Austin At WrestleMania 19". Uproxx. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- Bishop, Matt (June 8, 2012). "Ever evolving Sting ready for Roode, TNA title at Slammiversary". Canoe.ca. Quebecor Media. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- Sforcina, Mathew (December 10, 2014). "Has Sting V Undertaker Happened Already?". 411Mania. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- DiMoro, Anthony (October 26, 2015). "WWE Is Building To Sting & Undertaker WrestleMania Dream Match (page 2)". Forbes. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- "Thunder in Paradise Episode Guide". Fly.hiwaay.net. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- Tuthill, Matt. "WCW and TNA Wrestler Sting Speaks". Muscle & Fitness. American Media, Inc. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
- "Sting' Out of the Ring". CBN.com. November 15, 2004. Retrieved 2010-11-26.
- "No. 38 – Garrett Borden". APU.edu. November 25, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-25.
- "No. 7 – Steven Borden". kilgore.edu. September 14, 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
- "Chiefs invite interesting class of rookies to 3-day minicamp". LaGrangenews.com.
- "Sting profile". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved 2008-08-13.
- World Championship Wrestling (2001-03-26). "Ric Flair Vs. Sting". WCW Nitro.
- World Championship Wrestling (1995-08-06). "Sting & Road Warrior Hawk Vs. Meng & Kurasawa". WCW Clash of the Champions XXXI.
- World Championship Wrestling (1999-10-24). "Sting Vs. Goldberg". WCW Halloween Havoc.
- World Championship Wrestling TNT (1998-09-14). "Sting vs Goldberg". WCW Monday Nitro.
- World Championship Wrestling (1999-05-09). "Sting Vs. Goldberg". WCW Slamboree.
- World Championship Wrestling (1998-10-25). "Sting Vs. Bret Hart". WCW Halloween Havoc.
- World Championship Wrestling (1994-11-16). "3 Faces of Fear Vs. Hogan, Sting and Dave Sullivan". WCW Clash of the Champions.
- World Championship Wrestling TNT (1999-11-08). "Sting Vs. Goldberg". WCW Monday Nitro.
- Gerweck, Steve (June 17, 2010). "Sting and Angle unveil their JAKKS action figures". WrestleView. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
- Baxendell, Matt (July 22, 2011). "Bax's TNA Impact Wrestling TV report 7/14: World Title Match, Invasion of the Joker's Minions". Pro Wrestling Torch.
- WWE (January 11, 2016). "Superstars react to the Hall of Fame announcement : Raw, January 11, 2016" – via YouTube.
- "WCW Slam Jam 1". Archived from the original on July 13, 2012.
- "WWE: The Music of WCW".
- World Championship Wrestling TNT (1998-08-06). "Sting's first nWo Wolfpack promo". WCW Monday Nitro.
- "WCW Mayhem: The Music".
- "Tna Wrestling: 3rd Degree Burns - The Music of Tna Wrestling, Vol. 1".
- "Emergence:Music Of TNA".
- " "WWE:"Out From The Shadows(Sting)- Single"".
- "NWA/WCW World Television Title history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "NWA World Heavyweight Title history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "WCW International World Heavyweight Title history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "NWA/WCW United States Heavyweight Title history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "WCW World Heavyweight Title history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "WCW World Tag Team Title history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "King of Cable Tournament history".
- "WCW European Cup history".
- Misc. Tournaments. Prowrestlinghistory.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-05.
- "Battlebowl history".
- "The PWI Awards". Pro Wrestling Illustrated. 33 (3): 70–71. 2012.
- "The PWI Awards". Pro Wrestling Illustrated. 36 (2): 14–15. 2015.
- "Pro Wrestling Illustrated Award Winners Most Improved Wrestler of the Year". Wrestling Information Archive. Archived from the original on September 21, 2011. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "Pro Wrestling Illustrated Award Winners Inspirational Wrestler of the Year". Wrestling Information Archive. Archived from the original on August 13, 2011. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "Pro Wrestling Illustrated Award Winners Wrestler of the Year". Wrestling Information Archive. Archived from the original on April 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "Pro Wrestling Illustrated Top 500 – 1992". Wrestling Information Archive. Archived from the original on August 13, 2011. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- TNA World Heavyweight Title history At wrestling-titles.com
- "TNA World Tag Team Title history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- Martin, Adam (January 24, 2008). "Full 2007 TNA Year-End Awards Results: Finisher, Tag Team, Feud, more". WrestleView. Retrieved 2011-07-15.
- "The UWF Tag Team Championship". Wrestling-Titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- Palma, Richard. "WWAS – World Wrestling All-Stars World Heavyweight Title". Solie. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- Meltzer, Dave (January 30, 2012). "Jan 30 Wrestling Observer Newsletter: Gigantic year-end awards issue, best and worst in all categories plus UFC on FX 1, death of Savannah Jack, ratings, tons and tons of news". Wrestling Observer Newsletter. Campbell, CA. ISSN 1083-9593.
- Meltzer, Dave (2016-11-30). "December 5, 2016 Wrestling Observer Newsletter: Wrestling Observer Hall of Fame with 4 inductees". Wrestling Observer Newsletter. Retrieved 2016-12-01.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Steve Borden.|