Steve Russell (computer scientist)
1937 (age 84–85)
Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.
|Alma mater||Dartmouth College, 1958|
Russell wrote the first two implementations of the programming language Lisp for the IBM 704 mainframe computer. It was Russell who realized that the concept of universal functions could be applied to the language. By implementing the Lisp universal evaluator in a lower-level language, it became possible to create the Lisp interpreter; prior development work on the language had focused on compiling the language. He invented the continuation to solve a double recursion problem for one of the users of his Lisp implementation.
In 1962, Russell created and designed Spacewar!, with the fellow members of the Tech Model Railroad Club at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), working on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-1 minicomputer. Spacewar! is widely considered to be the first digital video game and served as a foundation for the entire video game industry.
He later served as an executive of Computer Center Corporation (nicknamed C-Cubed), a small time-sharing company in Washington (state). In the fall of 1968, he mentored Bill Gates and Paul Allen on the use of the DEC PDP-10 mainframe, while they were part of the programming group of Lakeside School (Seattle).
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- Markoff, John (February 28, 2002). "A Long Time Ago, in a Lab Far Away…". The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2009.
- "Spacewar!". PDP-1 Restoration Project. Computer History Museum. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
- "Steve Russell". Computer History Museum. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
- "Spacewar! Video Games Blast Off". Museum of the Moving Image. Entertainment Software Association. December 15, 2012 – March 3, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
- "The Great Videogame Swindle?". Next Generation. No. 23. Imagine Media. November 1996. pp. 64–66.
- "Spacewar! – It Came from MIT". The Dot Eaters. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
- Isaacson, Walter (2014). The Innovators. Simon & Schuster UK. pp. Chapter 9. ISBN 978-1-47113-879-9.
- Allen, Paul (2011). Idea Man. Penguin Group. pp. Chapters 3–4.