Steven Hatfill

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Steven Jay Hatfill
Born (1953-10-24) October 24, 1953 (age 62)
Saint Louis, Missouri
Education Southwestern College (BS, 1975)
Godfrey Huggins Medical School (MChB, 1984)
University of Cape Town (MS, 1988)
University of Stellenbosch (Pathology residency, 1991-93)
Rhodes University (PhD candidate, 1992-95)

Steven Jay Hatfill (born October 24, 1953) is an American physician, virologist and biological weapons expert.

A former biodefense researcher for the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) at Fort Detrick, Hatfill came to the public eye after being wrongfully suspected in the 2001 anthrax attacks.[1]

Hatfill became "the subject of a flood of news media coverage beginning in mid-2002, after television cameras showed Federal Bureau of Investigation agents in biohazard suits searching his apartment" and then Attorney General John Ashcroft named him "person of interest" in the investigation on national television.[1] Hatfill's home was repeatedly raided by the FBI, his phone was tapped, and he was extensively surveilled for more than two years; he was also fired from his job at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC).[2] "At a news conference in August 2002, Hatfill tearfully denied that he had anything to do with the anthrax letters and said irresponsible news media coverage based on government leaks had destroyed his reputation."[1] Hatfill filed a lawsuit in 2003, accusing the FBI agents and Justice Department officials who led the criminal investigation of leaking information about him to the press in violation of the federal Privacy Act.[1]

In 2008, the government settled Hatfill's lawsuit with a $4.6 million annuity totaling $5.8 million in payment.[3] and officially exonerated Hatfill of any involvement in the anthrax attacks, and the Justice Department identified another military scientist, Bruce Edward Ivins, as the sole perpetrator of the anthrax attacks.[1] Jeffrey A. Taylor, the U.S. Attorney for the District of Columbia, wrote in a letter to Hatfill's lawyer that "we have concluded, based on laboratory access records, witness accounts and other information, that Dr. Hatfill did not have access to the particular anthrax used in the attacks, and that he was not involved in the anthrax mailings."[1]

In 2004, Hatfill filed lawsuits against several periodicals and journalists who had identified him as a figure warranting further investigation in the anthrax attacks. Hatfill sued the New York Times Company and New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof for defamation, defamation per se, and intentional infliction of emotional distress in connection with five of Kristof's columns in 2002. The courts dismissed this suit, finding that Hatfill was a limited purpose public figure.[4][5][6] In 2007, Hatfill settled a similar libel lawsuit against Vanity Fair and Reader's Digest for an undisclosed amount, after both magazines agreed to formally retract any implication that Hatfill was involved in the anthrax mailings.[7]

David Freed writes that Hatfill's story "provides a cautionary tale about how federal authorities, fueled by the general panic over terrorism, embraced conjecture and coincidence as evidence, and blindly pursued one suspect while the real anthrax killer roamed free for more than six years. Hatfill's experience is also the wrenching saga of how an American citizen who saw himself as a patriot came to be vilified and presumed guilty, as his country turned against him."[2]


Early life and education[edit]

Hatfill was born in Saint Louis, Missouri, and graduated from Mattoon Senior High School, Mattoon, Illinois (1971), and Southwestern College in Winfield, Kansas (1975), where he studied biology.

Hatfill was enlisted as a private in the U.S. Army from 1975 to 1977.[8] (In 1999, he would tell a journalist during an interview that he had been a "captain in the U.S. Special Forces", but in a subsequent investigation the Army stated that he had never served with the Special Forces.[9]) Following his Army discharge, Hatfill qualified and worked as a medical laboratory technician, but soon resolved to become a doctor. He worked as a medical missionary in Kapanga, Zaire under a mentor, Dr. Glenn Eschtruth, who was murdered there in 1977. A brief marriage to Dr. Eschtruth's daughter, Caroline Rush Eschtruth, during this period (1976–78) produced one daughter.

Hatfill then settled in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) entering the Godfrey Huggins Medical School[10] in Salisbury (now Harare) in 1978. (His claimed military associations during this period included assistance as a medic with the Selous Scouts and membership in the Rhodesian SAS, but according to one journalist[11] the regimental association of the latter is "adamant Hatfill never belonged to the unit".) He graduated (after failing in 1983) with a M ChB degree in 1984 and then completed a one-year internship (1984–85) at a small rural hospital in South Africa’s North West Province. The South African government recruited him to be medical officer on a 14 month (1986–88) tour of duty in Antarctica with the South African National Antarctic Expedition (SANAE). He then completed (1988) a master’s degree in microbiology at the University of Cape Town. He worked toward a second master’s (1990; medical biochemistry and radiation biology) at the University of Stellenbosch, while working again as a paid med tech in the University’s clinical hematology lab. A 3-year hematological pathology residency (1991–93) at Stellenbosch followed, during which time Hatfill conducted research on the treatment of leukemia with thalidomide.[11] This research, toward an anticipated PhD degree, was conducted (1992–95) under the supervision of Professor Ralph Kirby at Rhodes University.

Hatfill submitted his PhD thesis for examination to Rhodes in January 1995, but it was failed in November and no degree was ever granted.[11] Hatfill later claimed a Ph.D. degree in "molecular cell biology" from Rhodes, as well as completion of a post-doctoral fellowship (1994–95) at the University of Oxford in England and three master's degrees (in microbial genetics, medical biochemistry, and experimental pathology). Some of these credentials have been questioned. During a later investigation, officials at Rhodes insisted that he had never been awarded a Ph.D. from their institution.[12] (In 2007, Hatfill's lawyer Tom Connolly[13] – in his lawsuit against former U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft and the FBI – admitted that his client had "Puffed on his resume. Absolutely. Forged a diploma. Yes, that's true."[14])

Back in the U.S., another of Hatfill's post-doctoral appointments commenced at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, in 1995. He subsequently worked (1997–99) as a civilian researcher at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), the U.S. Department of Defense's medical research institute for biological warfare (BW) defense at Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD. There he studied, under a National Research Council fellowship, new drug treatments for the Ebola virus and became a specialist in virology and BW defense.

Anthrax attacks[edit]

In January 1999 Hatfill transferred to a "consulting job" at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), which has a "sprawling campus" in nearby McLean, Virginia. The corporation did work for a multitude of federal agencies. Many projects were classified. Hatfill designed BW defense training curricula for government agencies.

By this time there had been a number of hoax anthrax mailings in the United States. Hatfill and his collaborator, SAIC vice president Joseph Soukup, commissioned William C. Patrick, retired head of the old US bioweapons program (who had also been a mentor of Hatfill) to write a report on the possibilities of terrorist anthrax mailing attacks. Barbara Hatch Rosenberg (director of the Federation of American Scientists' biochem weapons working group in 2002) said that the report was commissioned "under a CIA contract to SAIC". However, SAIC said Hatfill and Soukup commissioned it internally – there was no outside client.

The resulting report, dated February 1999, was subsequently seen by some as a "blueprint" for the 2001 anthrax attacks. Amongst other things, it suggested the maximum amount of anthrax powder - 2.5 grams - that could be put in an envelope without making a suspicious bulge. The quantity in the envelope sent to Senator Patrick Leahy in October 2001 was .871 grams.[15] After the attacks, the report drew the attention of the media and others, and led to their investigation of Patrick and Hatfill.[16]

Assertions by Rosenberg
In October 2001, as soon as it became known that the Ames strain of anthrax had been used in the attacks, Dr. Barbara Hatch Rosenberg and others began suggesting that the attack might be the work of a "rogue CIA agent", and they provided the name of the "most likely" person to the FBI. On November 21, 2001, Rosenberg made similar statements to the Biological and Toxic Weapons convention in Geneva.[17] In December 2001, she published "A Compilation of Evidence and Comments on the Source of the Mailed Anthrax" via the web site of the Federation of American Scientists (FAS) suggesting the attacks were "perpetrated with the unwitting assistance of a sophisticated government program".[18]

Rosenberg discussed the case with reporters from the New York Times.[19] On January 4, 2002, Nicholas Kristof of the New York Times published a column titled "Profile of a Killer"[20] stating "I think I know who sent out the anthrax last fall." For months, Rosenberg gave speeches and stated her beliefs to many reporters from around the world. She posted "Analysis of the Anthrax Attacks" to the FAS web site on January 17, 2002. On February 5, 2002 she published an article called "Is the FBI Dragging Its Feet?"[21] At the time, the FBI denied reports that investigators had identified a chief suspect, saying "There is no prime suspect in this case at this time."[22] The Washington Post reported that "FBI officials over the last week have flatly discounted Dr. Rosenberg's claims."[23]

On June 13, 2002, Rosenberg posted "The Anthrax Case: What the FBI Knows" to the FAS site. On June 18, 2002, Rosenberg presented her theories to senate staffers working for Senators Daschle and Leahy.[24] One week later, on June 25, the FBI publicly searched Hatfill's apartment, turning him into a household name. "The FBI also pointed out that Hatfill had agreed to the search and is not considered a suspect."[25] Both The American Prospect and reported that "Hatfill is not a suspect in the anthrax case, the FBI says."[26] On August 3, 2002, Rosenberg told the media that the FBI asked her if "a team of government scientists could be trying to frame Steven J. Hatfill."[27]

Person of interest
In August 2002, Attorney General John Ashcroft labeled Hatfill a "person of interest" in a press conference, although no charges were brought against him. Hatfill, a virologist, vehemently denied he had anything to do with the anthrax (bacteria) mailings and sued the FBI, the Justice Department, John Ashcroft, Alberto Gonzales, and others for violating his constitutional rights and for violating the Privacy Act. On June 27, 2008, the Department of Justice announced it would settle Hatfill's case for $5.8 million.[28]

Hatfill later went to work at Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, LA. In September 2001 SAIC was commissioned by the Pentagon to create a replica of a mobile WMD "laboratory", alleged to have been used by Saddam Hussein, who was President of Iraq at the time. The Pentagon claimed the trailer was to be used as a training aid for teams seeking weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.[29]

His lawyer, Victor M. Glasberg,[30] stated: "Steve's life has been devastated by a drumbeat of innuendo, implication and speculation. We have a frightening public attack on an individual who, guilty or not, should not be exposed to this type of public opprobrium based on speculation."[31]

In an embarrassing incident, FBI agents trailing Hatfill in a motor vehicle ran over his foot when he attempted to approach them in May 2003. Police responding to the incident did not cite the driver, but issued Hatfill a citation for "walking to create a hazard".[32] He and his attorneys fought the ticket, but a hearing officer upheld the ticket and ordered Hatfill to pay the requisite $5 fine.[33]

FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III changed leadership of the investigation in late 2006, and at that time another suspect, USAMRIID bacteriologist Bruce Ivins, became the main focus of the investigation.[34] Considerable questions have been raised, however, about the credibility of the case against Ivins as well.[35]

60 Minutes interview
Hatfill's lawyer, Tom Connolly, was featured in a CBS News 60 Minutes interview about the anthrax incidents on March 11, 2007.[14] In the interview Connolly revealed that Hatfill forged a Ph.D. degree certificate: "It is true. It is true that he has puffed on his resume. Absolutely. Forged a diploma. Yes, that's true." He went on to state, "Listen, if puffing on your resume made you the anthrax killer, then half this town should be suspect."

The New York Times stated in their paper that Hatfill had obtained an anti-anthrax medicine (ciprofloxacin) immediately prior to the anthrax mailings. Connolly explained, "Before the attacks he had surgery. So yes, he's on Cipro. But the fuller truth is in fact he was on Cipro because a doctor gave it to him after sinus surgery." Hatfill had previously said the antibiotic was for a lingering sinus infection.[36] The omission in the Times' article, of the reason why he had been taking Cipro, is one reason Hatfill sued the newspaper. The newspaper won a summary judgment ruling in early 2007, squelching the libel suit that had been filed by Steven Hatfill against it and columnist Nicholas Kristof.[37]


Hatfill v. John Ashcroft, et al.
On the 26th of August 2003, Hatfill filed a lawsuit[38] against the Attorney General of the United States John Ashcroft, the United States Department of Justice, DOJ employees Timothy Beres and Daryl Darnell, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, FBI Supervisory Special Agent Van Harp and an unknown number of FBI agents.[39]

On March 30, 2007, US District Judge Reggie Walton issued an order warning Hatfill that he could lose his civil lawsuit over the leaks if he did not compel journalists to name their sources. He gave Hatfill until April 16 to decide whether to press the journalists to give up their sources.[40]

On April 16, Hatfill gave notice that he would "proceed with discovery to attempt to obtain the identity of the alleged source or sources at the Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation who allegedly provided information to news reporters concerning the criminal investigation of Dr. Hatfill.”

On April 27, 2007, in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia, federal prosecutors[clarification needed] wrote that Steven Hatfill had overstepped court orders allowing him to compel testimony from reporters whom he had already questioned and had instead "served a new round of subpoenas" on organizations "that he failed to question during the discovery period."[41]

During the first round of depositions, Hatfill subpoenaed six reporters: Michael Isikoff and Daniel Klaidman of Newsweek, Brian Ross of ABC, Allan Lengel of The Washington Post, Jim Stewart of CBS, and Toni Locy of USA Today.

Hatfill now has subpoenaed eight news organizations, including three that he didn’t name before: The New York Times (Nicolas Kristof, David Johnson, William Broad, Kate Zernike, Judith Miller, Scott Shane, and Frank D. Roylance), The Baltimore Sun (Gretchen Parker and Curt Anderson), and the Associated Press. Subpoenas for Washington Post writers Marilyn W. Thompson, David Snyder, Guy Gugliotta, Tom Jackman, Dan Eggen and Carol D. Loenning, and for Mark Miller of Newsweek, are now included.

The Justice Department responded to Hatfill's subpoenas, saying that they went too far. "The court should reject this attempt to expand discovery", prosecutors wrote.[42] In a status conference on Friday 11 January 2008, U.S. District Judge Reggie B. Walton ordered the attorneys for the government and for Hatfill to seek mediation over the next two months. According to the Scheduling Order, the parties will be in mediation from January 14 until May 14, 2008. The prospects of a mediated settlement notwithstanding, Walton said he expected that a trial on the lawsuit could begin in December. Afterward, Hatfill's attorney Mark A. Grannis said: "The court has set a schedule for bringing this case to trial this year, and we're very pleased at the prospect that Dr. Hatfill will finally have his day in court."[43]

On March 7, 2008, Toni Locy of USA Today was ordered to personally pay contempt of court fines of up to $5,000 a day which begin the following Tuesday, until she identifies her sources.[44]

On June 27, 2008 Hatfill was exonerated by the government and a settlement was announced in which the Justice Department has agreed to pay $5.8 million (consisting of $2.825 million in cash and an annuity paying $150,000 a year for 20 years)[45] to settle the lawsuit in which Hatfill claimed the Justice Department violated his privacy rights by speaking with reporters about the case.[46][47]

Hatfill v. The New York Times
In July 2004, Hatfill filed a lawsuit against The New York Times Company and Nicholas D. Kristof.

In a sealed motion[48] on December 29, 2006, The New York Times argued that the classification restrictions imposed on the case were tantamount to an assertion of the state secrets privilege. Times attorneys cited the case law on state secrets to support their argument that the case should be dismissed. The "state secrets" doctrine, they said, "precludes a case from proceeding to trial when national security precludes a party from obtaining evidence that is... necessary to support a valid defense. Dismissal is warranted in this case because the Times has been denied access to such evidence, specifically documents and testimony concerning the work done by plaintiff [Hatfill] on classified government projects relating to bioweapons, including anthrax."[citation needed]

A redacted copy[48] of the December 29, 2006 New York Times Memorandum of Law in Support of Defendant's Motion for an Order Dismissing the Complaint Under the "State Secrets" Doctrine was obtained by Secrecy News.[49]

Attorneys for Hatfill filed a sealed response on January 12, 2007 in opposition to the motion for dismissal on state secrets grounds. A redacted copy[50] of their opposition has been made available by Secrecy News.[51]

On January 12, 2007, a judge dismissed a lawsuit filed by Hatfill against The New York Times.[52]

On January 30, 2007, Judge Hilton's order dismissing the Hatfill v. The New York Times was made public, along with a Memorandum Opinion explaining his ruling.Kenneth A. Richieri, Vice President and General Counsel of The New York Times scored what he called a "very satisfying win" at the beginning of 2007 in the Eastern District of Virginia. The newspaper won a summary judgment ruling squelching a libel suit that had been filed by anthrax poisoning "person of interest" Steven Hatfill against it and columnist Nicholas Kristof.[37]

The US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit reversed the trial court, ruling that a jury should decide that issue. In March 2008, the Supreme Court refused to grant certiorari in the case, effectively leaving the appeals court decision in place.

The case was dismissed in a Summary Judgment on January 12, 2007. The appeals were heard on March 21, 2008, and the dismissal was upheld by the appeals court on July 14, 2008. The case was appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court and was rejected by the Supreme Court on Dec. 15, 2008.[53] The basis for the dismissal was that Dr. Hatfill was a "public figure", and he had not proved malice on the part of The New York Times.

Hatfill v. Foster
Donald Foster, an expert in forensic linguistics, advised the FBI during the investigation of the anthrax attacks. He later wrote an article for Vanity Fair about his investigation of Hatfill. In the October 2003 article Foster described how he had tried to match up Hatfill's travels with the postmarks on the anthrax letters, and analyzed old interviews and an unpublished novel by Hatfill about a bioterror attack on the United States. Foster wrote that "When I lined up Hatfill's known movements with the postmark locations of reported biothreats, those hoax anthrax attacks appeared to trail him like a vapor cloud".[54]

Hatfill subsequently sued Donald Foster, Condé Nast Publications, Vassar College, and The Reader's Digest Association. The suit sought $10 million in damages, claiming defamation.[55] The Reader's Digest published a condensed version of the article in December 2003.

The lawyers delayed bringing the Hatfill v. Foster lawsuit to court because "the parties are close to finalizing the settlement".

On February 27, 2007, The New York Sun reported that he settled without a trial.[56]

Hatfill v. John Michie and Google
In 2010, Hatfill sued Google to persuade them to hand over the IP address behind the blog of one "Luigi Warren", which was hosted by Google’s blogspot. According to Newsweek, "Luigi Warren" had "operated a lurid rumor mill about Hatfill for more than a decade – promoting, in particular, hearsay about the years he lived and worked in southern Africa during the throes of apartheid."[57] Hatfill and his lawyers soon learned that the real Luigi Warren, a stem-cell researcher at Harvard Medical School (who had, in fact, been a prolific post-9/11 commentator on his own "woolly blog, The Hatfill Deception") was not the source of the recent diatribes in question. Rather, that source was someone impersonating Warren – one John Michie, a radiation oncologist at Stellenbosch University in South Africa, Hatfill’s alma mater. Michie agreed to an undisclosed settlement and Google was dismissed from the lawsuit.

Post-settlement life[edit]

Since his windfall legal settlements – $5.8 million from the Justice Department (2008) and undisclosed sums from Condé Nast (2008) and the South African medical researcher (2010) – Hatfill has pursued activities as an "independent researcher". He was appointed an adjunct assistant professor of emergency medicine at the George Washington University Medical Center in 2010.[58] In 2011, he added additional affiliations at GW in "Clinical Research and Leadership" and "Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine".[59] He oversees construction of a "state-of-the-art boat" on which he intends to conduct his own scientific trials. He has allocated more than $1 million of his own money to construct a full-scale prototype of what he calls Beagle III. This craft, with a crew of military veterans and scientists, would ply the waters of "high-biodiversity areas" – the Amazon, or the great rivers of Borneo – seeking and studying rare plants and fungi as sources of new drugs. A Newsweek interviewer has described ...

...Hatfill's unbuilt, twin-diesel-powered boat. Inside the vessel’s aluminum hull, he envisioned a plexus of laboratories, with DNA microarrays and other "space-age zuzu" for analyzing the genetic compositions of plants. Bedrooms would be equipped with video-conferencing systems and DVD players, and the executive cabin was modeled after the president’s quarters on Air Force One.... Hatfill had also thrown in a roof-mounted cosmic ray detector, which would switch on near the equator to capture data on "high-energy cosmic ray showers". An onboard chef from the ranks of Le Cordon Bleu would fuel a crew of scientists and trainees, and a 30-day supply of dehydrated food would hedge against disaster.[60]

Hatfill now owns a colonial-style brick home in Marion County, Florida as well as a property in the El Yunque rain forest, in Puerto Rico, where he has run a military-style Outward Bound-like program. Hatfill chairs the Asymmetrical Biodiversity Studies and Observation Group (ABSOG) in Malaysia, a not-for-profit trust he has established to support his drug discovery boat mission. Hatfill has also established Templar Associates II, a for-profit corporation in Puerto Rico as a revenue-generator and as an "environmental testing ground for new tactics, techniques, equipment, and procedures for ABSOG's designated mission as well as for the U.S. military".[60]

Hatfill is also medical director of EFP Tactical Medical Group, a London-based company that provides integrated training, security and tactical medical support services to government agencies, private corporations, and NGOs worldwide. (EFP Tacmed has extensive Middle Eastern and African contracts; it operates a remote jungle-training facility to test new equipment in "high-biodiversity areas".) He is also a board member of Doctors for Disaster Preparedness, a politically conservative Arizona-based non-profit[61] described by some journalists as a "political fringe group".[62] He claims status as a fellow of the Explorers Club.

In 2014, Hatfill publicly criticized the response of U.S. public health authorities to the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa and suggested that it is possible that Ebola could be transmitted by aerosol, an assertion which other experts have disputed;[63] his views on this have been characterized as misrepresentations of the primary scientific literature by other experts.[64]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Eric Lichtblau, Scientist Officially Exonerated in Anthrax Attacks, New York Times, August 8, 2008.
  2. ^ a b David Freed, The Wrong Man, The Atlantic, May 2010.
  3. ^ Shane, Scott; Eric Lichtblau (2008-06-28). "Scientist Is Paid Millions by U.S. in Anthrax Suit". New York Times. The Justice Department announced Friday that it would pay $4.6 million to settle a lawsuit filed by Steven J. Hatfill, a former Army biodefense researcher intensively investigated as a 'person of interest' in the deadly anthrax letters of 2001. The settlement, consisting of $2.825 million in cash and an annuity paying Dr. Hatfill $150,000 a year for 20 years, brings to an end a five-year legal battle that had recently threatened a reporter with large fines for declining to name sources she said she did not recall. 
  4. ^ Jerry Markon, Former Army Scientist Sues New York Times, Columnist, Washington Post, July 14, 2004.
  5. ^ Timothy J. Connor, Fourth Circuit Throws Out Hatfill Libel Claim Against The New York Times, Holland & Knight, September/October 2008.
  6. ^ Bill Mears, High court tosses scientist's libel suit against New York Times, CNN, December 15, 2008.
  7. ^ Josh Gerstein, Hatfill Settles $10M Libel Lawsuit, New York Sun', February 27, 2007.
  8. ^ Cooper, Simon "The Lesson of Steve Hatfill", Seed magazine, May/June 2003.
  9. ^ Preston, Richard (2002), The Demon in the Freezer, New York: Random House, pp 206-7.
  10. ^ Zimbabwe Medical Graduates Worldwide at the Wayback Machine (archived August 14, 2010)
  11. ^ a b c Cooper (2003), Op. cit.
  12. ^ Preston, Op. cit., pp 207-8.
  13. ^ G. Connolly
  14. ^ a b Tables Turned In Anthrax Probe
  15. ^ Broad, William J.; Johnston, David (May 7, 2002). "Anthrax Sent Through Mail Gained Potency by the Letter". The New York Times. 
  16. ^ William J Broad, "Terror Anthrax Linked to Type Made by U.S.", New York Times, 3 Dec. 2001; Barbara Hatch Rosenberg (director of the Federation of American Scientists' biochem weapons working group), "Analysis of the Anthrax Attacks" (copy); Guy Gugliotta and Dan Eggen, "Biological Warfare Experts Questioned in Anthrax Probe", Washington Post, June 28, 2002 (UCLA copy); Brian Ross, "Blueprint for Anthrax Attack", ABC News online, 27 June 2002; Marilyn W Thompson, "The Pursuit of Steven Hatfill", Washington Post, 14 Sept. 2003, p.W06.)
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ Broad, William J. (December 14, 2001). "F.B.I. Queries Expert Who Sees Federal Lab Tie in Anthrax Cases". The New York Times. 
  20. ^ Kristof, Nicholas D. (January 4, 2002). "Profile of a Killer". The New York Times. 
  21. ^
  22. ^ Miller, Judith; Broad, William J. (February 26, 2002). "U.S. Says Short List of 'Suspects' Is Being Checked in Anthrax Case". The New York Times. 
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^ Dave Altimari, Jack Dolan, and David Lightman (6-28-2). "The Case Of Dr. Hatfill - FBI Anthrax Mail Suspect Or Pawn". Hartford Courant.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^ Shane, Scott; Lichtblau, Eric (June 28, 2008). "U.S. to Settle Lawsuit of Man Investigated in Anthrax Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-06-28. 
  29. ^ "AFTER THE WAR: BIOLOGICAL WARFARE; Subject of Anthrax Inquiry Tied to Anti-Germ Training". New York Times. July 2, 2003. 
  30. ^ Victor M. Glasberg & Associates
  31. ^ Ex-Army Scientist Denies Role in Anthrax Attacks
  32. ^ Hatfill ticketed in altercation with FBI agent
  33. ^ Scientist Loses Latest Round
  34. ^ Willman, David (2008-08-01). "Apparent suicide in anthrax case". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-08-01. 
  35. ^ "Some Doubt FBI Line That Scientist Sent Anthrax Letters". The Huffington Post. February 25, 2010. 
  36. ^ The Pursuit of Steven Hatfill
  37. ^ a b Newspaper of Record Involved in Extraordinary Cases
  38. ^ Anthrax 'person of interest' sues Ashcroft, FBI
  39. ^ Steven J. Hatfill, M.D. v. Attorney General John Ashcroft
  40. ^ Judge Urges Hatfill To Compel Outing of Sources
  41. ^ DOJ's MOTION
  42. ^ The Media's Strange Ally
  43. ^ Willman, David (12 January 2008). "U.S. attorney's office accused of anthrax case leaks". LA Times. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  44. ^ Johnson, Kevin (7 March 2008). "Reporter held in contempt for anthrax case". USA Today. Retrieved 20 February 2010. 
  45. ^ Shane, Scott; Lichtblau, Eric (June 28, 2008). "Scientist Is Paid Millions by U.S. in Anthrax Suit". The New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2010. 
  46. ^ url =,0,4041368.story
  47. ^ Anthrax Scientist Reported to Kill Self; Associated Press; 2008-08-01; accessed 2008-08-01
  48. ^ a b
  49. ^ The State Secrets Doctrine and the Hatfill Case.
  50. ^ Hatfill v. New York Times: Plaintiff's Opposition to Motion to Dismiss on State Secrets Grounds.
  51. ^ More on State Secrets and the Hatfill Case.
  52. ^ Federal judge dismisses anthrax defamation suit against New York Times.
  53. ^ "Hatfill Rejected by Top U.S. Court on New York Times Libel Suit". Bloomberg. December 15, 2008. 
  54. ^ Foster, Donald, "The Message in the Anthrax", Vanity Fair, pp. 180-200, October 2003.
  55. ^ Hatfill strikes back in anthrax case on MSNBC
  56. ^ Hatfill Settles $10M Libel Lawsuit
  57. ^ Bird, Cameron, "Steven Hatfill's Strange Trip From Accused Terrorist to Medical Adventurer", Newsweek, June 18, 2014.
  58. ^ Bird, Op. cit.
  59. ^ GW School of Medicine Joint Appointments
  60. ^ a b Bird, Op. cit.
  61. ^ Hamblin, James,21 Days: An expert in biological warfare warns against complacency in public measures against Ebola, The Atlantic, October 26, 2014.
  62. ^ Hickman, Leo (June 4, 2010). "Climate sceptics and fringe political groups are an unhealthy cocktail". The Guardian. 
  63. ^ Hamblin, Op. cit.
  64. ^ Stephen Goldstein, Assessing the Science of Ebola Transmission: The research on how the virus spreads is not as ambiguous as some have made it seem, The Atlantic, October 28, 2014.

Further reading[edit]