Stilbenoid

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Resveratrol is a biologically important stilbenoid.

Stilbenoids are hydroxylated derivatives of stilbene. They have a C6–C2–C6 structure. In biochemical terms, they belong to the family of phenylpropanoids and share most of their biosynthesis pathway with chalcones.[1][2] Most stilbenoids are produced by plants,[2][3] and the only known exception is the antihelminthic and antimicrobial stilbenoid, 2-isoprpyl-5-[(E)-2-phenylvinyl]benzene-1,3-diol, biosynthesized by the Gram-negative bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens.[4][5][6]

Chemistry[edit]

Stilbenoids are hydroxylated derivatives of stilbene and have a C6–C2–C6 structure. They belong to the family of phenylpropanoids and share most of their biosynthesis pathway with chalcones.[1][2][3] Under UV irradiation, stilbene and its derivatives undergo intramolecular cyclization, called stilbene photocyclization to form dihydrophenanthrenes. Oligomeric forms are known as oligostilbenoids.

Types[edit]

Aglycones
Glycosides
  • Astringin in the bark of Norway spruce
  • Piceid is a resveratrol derivative in grape juices

Production[edit]

Stilbenoids are produced in various plants, for example they are secondary products of heartwood formation in trees that can act as phytoalexins. Another example is resveratrol, an antifungal which is found in grapes and which has been suggested to have health benefits.[7] Ampelopsin A and Ampelopsin B are resveratrol dimers produced in porcelain berry.

A bacterial stilbenoid, (E)-3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropyl-trans-stilbene, is produced by Photorhabdus which is a bacterial symbiont of insect nematodes called Heterorhabditis.[8]

Stilbenoids are secondary metabolites present in Cannabis sativa.[9]

Properties[edit]

Phytoalexins have been suggested by some studies to be responsible for resistance to some tree diseases, such as pine wilt.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b V. S. Sobolev; B. W. Horn; T. L. Potter; S. T. Deyrup; J. B. Gloer (2006). "Production of Stilbenoids and Phenolic Acids by the Peanut Plant at Early Stages of Growth". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (10): 3505–3511. doi:10.1021/jf0602673. PMID 19127717.
  2. ^ a b c Valletta, Alessio; Iozia, Lorenzo Maria; Leonelli, Francesca (January 2021). "Impact of Environmental Factors on Stilbene Biosynthesis". Plants. 10 (1): 90. doi:10.3390/plants10010090. PMC 7823792. PMID 33406721.
  3. ^ a b Dubrovina, A. S.; Kiselev, K. V. (October 2017). "Regulation of stilbene biosynthesis in plants". Planta. 246 (4): 597–623. doi:10.1007/s00425-017-2730-8. ISSN 0032-0935. PMID 28685295. S2CID 4015467.
  4. ^ RICHARDSON, WILLIAM H. (1988). "Identification of an anthraquinone pigment and a hydroxystilbene antibiotic from Xenorhabdus luminescens". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 54 (6): 1602–1605. doi:10.1128/AEM.54.6.1602-1605.1988. PMC 202703. PMID 3415225 – via 0099-2240/88/061602-04$02.00/0.
  5. ^ Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Boundy, Sam; Joyce, Susan A.; Aslam, Shazia; Marshall, James W.; Cox, Russell J.; Simpson, Thomas J.; Clarke, David J.; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Reynolds, Stuart E. (2007-02-13). "An antibiotic produced by an insect-pathogenic bacterium suppresses host defenses through phenoloxidase inhibition". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (7): 2419–2424. Bibcode:2007PNAS..104.2419E. doi:10.1073/pnas.0610525104. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 1892976. PMID 17284598.
  6. ^ Mori, Takahiro; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Shimomura, Koichiro; Saito, Yuri; Yang, Dengfeng; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro (2016-12-22). "Structural Insight into the Enzymatic Formation of Bacterial Stilbene". Cell Chemical Biology. 23 (12): 1468–1479. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2016.10.010. ISSN 2451-9456. PMID 27866911.
  7. ^ Jang MS, Cai EN, Udeani GO (1997). "Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes". Science. 275 (5297): 218–220. doi:10.1126/science.275.5297.218. PMID 8985016. S2CID 30850300.
  8. ^ Joyce SA, Brachmann AO, Glazer I, Lango L, Schwär G, Clarke DJ, Bode HB (2008). "Bacterial biosynthesis of a multipotent stilbene". Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 47 (10): 1942–1945. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.603.247. doi:10.1002/anie.200705148. PMID 18236486.
  9. ^ Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Verpoorte, Robert (2008-10-01). "Secondary metabolism in cannabis". Phytochemistry Reviews. 7 (3): 615–639. doi:10.1007/s11101-008-9094-4. S2CID 3353788.

Books[edit]