||This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2013)|
Stirling Moss at Copenhagen Airport (18 August 1958)
17 September 1929 |
West Kensington, London, England
|Formula One World Championship career|
|Teams||Mercedes-Benz, Maserati, Vanwall, Rob Walker Cooper, Lotus, HWM|
|Entries||67 (66 starts)|
|Career points||185 9⁄14 (186 9⁄14)|
|First entry||1951 Swiss Grand Prix|
|First win||1955 British Grand Prix|
|Last win||1961 German Grand Prix|
|Last entry||1961 United States Grand Prix|
Sir Stirling Craufurd Moss, OBE (born 17 September 1929) is a British former Formula One racing driver. An inductee into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, he achieved success in several categories of competition and has been described as "the greatest driver never to win the World Championship". Moss finished as championship runner-up on four occasions and third a further three times between 1955 and 1961.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Racing career
- 3 Speed records
- 4 Broadcasting career
- 5 Return to racing
- 6 After his racing career
- 7 Quotes
- 8 Driving ban
- 9 Controversy
- 10 Racing record
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Moss was born in London, the son of Aileen (née Craufurd) and Alfred Moss, a dentist of Bray, Berkshire, where Stirling was raised at Long White Cloud house on the right bank of the River Thames. Alfred was an amateur racing driver who had been placed 16th at the 1924 Indianapolis 500. Stirling was a gifted horse rider as was his younger sister, Pat Moss, who became a successful rally driver and married Erik Carlsson.
Moss was educated at independent schools; Shrewsbury House School (Surbiton) Clewer Manor Junior School and the linked senior school Haileybury and Imperial Service College. All were for boys (but the latter are now co-educational except for Shrewsbury) and located at Hertford Heath, near Hertford.
Moss, who raced from 1948 to 1962, won 212 of the 529 races he entered, including 16 Formula One Grands Prix. He would compete in as many as 62 races in a single year and drove 84 different makes of car over the course of his racing career, including Cooper 500, ERA, Lotus, Maserati, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche and Vanwall single-seaters, Aston Martin, Maserati, Ferrari, Jaguar and Mercedes-Benz sports cars, and Jaguar saloons. Like many drivers of the era, he competed in several formulae, often on the same day.
He preferred to race British cars, stating, "Better to lose honourably in a British car than win in a foreign one". At Vanwall, he was instrumental in breaking the German/Italian stranglehold on F1 racing (as was Jack Brabham at Cooper). He remained the English driver with the most Formula One victories until 1991 when Nigel Mansell overtook him after competing in more races.
One of the Cooper Car Company's first customers, Moss used winnings from competing in horse-riding events to pay the deposit on a Cooper 500 racing car in 1948. He then persuaded his father, who opposed his racing and wanted him to be a dentist, to let him buy it. He soon demonstrated his ability with numerous wins at national and international levels, and continued to compete in Formula Three, with Coopers and Kiefts, after he had progressed to more senior categories.
His first major international race victory came on the eve of his 21st birthday at the wheel of a borrowed Jaguar XK120 in the 1950 RAC Tourist Trophy on the Dundrod circuit in Northern Ireland. He went on to win the race six more times, in 1951 (Jaguar C-Type), 1955 (Mercedes-Benz 300SLR), 1958 and 1959 (Aston Martin DBR1), and 1960 and 1961 (Ferrari 250 GT).
Also a competent rally driver, he is one of three people to have won a Coupe d'Or (Gold Cup) for three consecutive penalty-free runs on the Alpine Rally (Coupe des Alpes). He finished second in the 1952 Monte Carlo Rally driving a Sunbeam-Talbot 90 with Desmond Scannell and Autocar magazine editor John Cooper as co-drivers.
In 1953 Mercedes-Benz racing boss Alfred Neubauer had spoken to Moss's manager, Ken Gregory, about the possibility of Moss's joining the Mercedes Grand Prix team. Having seen him do well in a relatively uncompetitive car, and wanting to see how he would perform in a better one, Neubauer suggested Moss buy a Maserati for the 1954 season. He bought a Maserati 250F, and although the car's unreliability prevented his scoring high points in the 1954 Drivers' Championship he qualified alongside the Mercedes frontrunners several times and performed well in the races.
In the Italian Grand Prix at Monza he passed both drivers who were regarded as the best in Formula One at the time—Juan Manuel Fangio in a Mercedes and Alberto Ascari in a Ferrari—and took the lead. Ascari retired with engine problems, and Moss led until lap 68 when his engine also failed. Fangio took the victory, and Moss pushed his Maserati to the finish line. Neubauer, already impressed when Moss had tested a Mercedes-Benz W196 at Hockenheim, promptly signed him for 1955.
Moss's first Formula One victory was in the 1955 British Grand Prix at Aintree, a race he was also the first British driver to win. Leading a 1–2–3–4 finish for Mercedes, it was the first time he beat Fangio, his teammate and arch rival, who was also his friend and mentor. It has been suggested that Fangio sportingly allowed Moss to win in front of his home crowd. Moss himself asked Fangio repeatedly, and Fangio always replied: "No. You were just better than me that day." The same year, Moss also won the RAC Tourist Trophy, the Targa Florio (sharing the drive with Peter Collins), and the Mille Miglia.
In 1955 Moss won Italy's thousand-mile Mille Miglia road race, an achievement Doug Nye described as the "most iconic single day's drive in motor racing history." Motor Trend headlined it as "The Most Epic Drive. Ever."
Moss, then 25 years old, drove one of four factory-entered Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR sports-racing cars. Based on the W196 Grand Prix car, they had spaceframe chassis and magnesium-alloy bodies, and their modified W196 engines ran on a mixture of petrol, benzene, and alcohol. The team's main race rivals were the factory-entered Ferraris of Piero Taruffi, Eugenio Castellotti, Umberto Maglioli, and Paolo Marzotto.
Journalist Denis Jenkinson was Moss's navigator. He had intended to go with John Fitch, whose idea it had been to take a navigator, but when Mercedes assigned a 300 SL to Fitch, the American agreed to Jenkinson riding with Moss in the faster SLR. Jenkinson had come up with the idea of pace notes in the form of a roller map of the route on which he had noted its hazards—an innovation that helped Moss compete against drivers with greater local knowledge. Jenkinson used hand signals to tell him about the road ahead. Radio communication had proved ineffective when they tried it, because when Moss was fully concentrated on his driving he was oblivious to Jenkinson's voice.
The race was a timed event, and competitors started singly at one-minute intervals. Moss's Mercedes left the starting ramp in Brescia at 7:22 a.m. (hence the car's race number 722). Castellotti's Ferrari left one minute later, and Taruffi's at 7:27.
After about 90 miles, as Moss approached Padua at 175 mph (282 km/h) he saw in his mirror that Castellotti was closing fast. When Moss misjudged a corner and collided with some straw bales Castellotti went past and built an increasing lead. After 188 miles of racing the Italian had to stop in Ravenna to replace the Ferrari's tyres, and fell behind again. Marzotto's Ferrari started well but the tread separated from a tyre at over 170 mph (274 km/h) and he had to withdraw from the race because the spare turned out to be the wrong size.
Nearing the Adriatic coast, Jenkinson's spectacles were blown off by the slipstream when he vomited over the side of the Mercedes; he carried a replacement pair. Arriving in Rome, he and Moss were told they were leading from Taruffi, Herrmann, Kling and Fangio, but from then on they had no way of knowing whether any of their rivals had gone ahead on elapsed time. Soon after Rome, Kling's race ended when he went off the road avoiding spectators and crashed into a tree.
When Moss and Jenkinson finally arrived at the finish in Brescia they learned that Castellotti's Ferrari had retired with transmission trouble and they had won. Fangio took second place, nearly 33 minutes slower, his Mercedes delayed by engine trouble and running on only seven cylinders by the end. Maglioli, in the sole surviving factory-entered Ferrari, took 45 minutes longer than Moss and finished 3rd.
Moss's time of 10 hours, 7 minutes and 48 seconds, and his average speed of 98.53 mph (159 km/h) for the 1000 miles, set course records that still stand. The race was discontinued two years later.
Before the race, he had taken a "magic pill" given to him by Fangio, and he has commented that although he did not know what was in it, "Dexedrine and Benzedrine were commonly used in rallies. The object was simply to keep awake, like wartime bomber crews." After the win, he spent the night and the following day driving his girlfriend to Cologne, stopping for breakfast in Munich and lunch in Stuttgart.
Moss won the Nassau Cup at the 1956 and 1957 Bahamas Speed Week. Also in 1957 he won on the longest circuit ever to hold a World Championship Grand Prix, the 25 km (16 mi) Pescara Circuit, where he again demonstrated his mastery of long-distance racing. The event lasted three hours and Moss beat Fangio, who started from pole position, by a little over 3 minutes.
In 1958 Moss won the first race in a rear-engined F1 car. Within two years all car featured this design.
Moss's sporting attitude cost him the 1958 Formula 1 World Championship. When rival Mike Hawthorn was threatened with a penalty after the Portuguese Grand Prix, Moss defended him. Hawthorn was accused of reversing on the track after spinning and stalling his car on an uphill section. Moss had shouted advice to Hawthorn to steer downhill, against traffic, to bump-start the car. Moss's quick thinking, and his defence of Hawthorn before the stewards, preserved Hawthorn's 6 points for finishing second behind Moss. Hawthorn went on to beat Moss for the championship title by one point, even though he had won only one race that year to Moss's four.
Moss was as gifted in sports cars as in Grand Prix cars. To his victories in the Tourist Trophy, the Sebring 12 Hours and the Mille Miglia he added three consecutive wins (1958–1960) in the gruelling 1000 km Nürburgring, the first two in an Aston Martin (in which he did most of the driving) and the third in a Tipo 61 "birdcage" Maserati, co-driving with the American Dan Gurney. The pair lost nearly six minutes when an oil hose blew off, but despite miserable conditions they made up the time and took 1st place.
In the 1960 Formula One season, Moss won the Monaco Grand Prix in Rob Walker's Coventry-Climax-powered Lotus 18. Seriously injured in an accident at the Burnenville curve during practice for the Belgian Grand Prix at Spa-Francorchamps, he missed the next three races but recovered sufficiently to win the final one of the season, the United States Grand Prix at Riverside, California.
For the 1961 Formula One season, run under new 1.5-litre rules, Enzo Ferrari fielded the "sharknose" Ferrari 156 with an all-new V6 engine. Moss's Climax-engined Lotus was comparatively underpowered, but he won the 1961 Monaco Grand Prix by 3.6 seconds, beating the Ferraris of Richie Ginther, Wolfgang von Trips, and Phil Hill, and went on to win the partially wet 1961 German Grand Prix. In addition to his skill, two other factors helped compensate for the Lotus's power deficit in these races. The tight circuit at Monaco favored the nimble Lotus, countering the horsepower advantage of the heavier, ill-handling Ferraris; and at the Nürburgring, Moss and manager Ken Gregory took the risky decision to fit rain tyres after a pre-race shower soaked the track. Had the skies cleared and the track dried, the decision would have worked against Moss. The rain returned in the race, and although Moss's tyres rapidly deteriorated he was able to drive away from Hill and Trips to take the win.
In 1962, he crashed his Lotus heavily during the Glover Trophy at Goodwood held on Monday 15 April. The accident put him in a coma for a month, and for six months the left side of his body was partially paralysed. He recovered, but retired from professional racing after a private test session in a Lotus 19 the following year, when he lapped a few tenths of a second slower than before. He felt he had not regained his previously instinctive command of the car. He had been runner-up in the Drivers' Championship four years in succession, from 1955 to 1958, and third in each of the next three years.
In the 1950s Moss participated in several successful speed record attempts.
At the Autodrome de Montlhéry, a steeply banked oval track near Paris, Moss and Leslie Johnson took turns at the wheel of the latter's Jaguar XK120 to average 107.46 mph (172.94 km/h) for 24 hours, including stops for fuel and tyres. Changing drivers every three hours, they covered a total of 2579.16 miles. It was the first time a production car had averaged over 100 mph (160.93 km/h) for 24 hours.
Revisiting Montlhéry, Moss was one of a four-driver team, led by Johnson, who drove a factory-owned Jaguar XK120 fixed-head coupé for 7 days and nights at the French track. Moss, Johnson, Bert Hadley and Jack Fairman averaged 100.31 mph (161.43 km/h) to take four World records and five International Class C records, and covered a total of 16,851.73 mi (27,120.23 km).
In August Moss broke five International Class F records in the purpose-built MG EX181 at Bonneville Salt Flats. The streamlined, supercharged car's speed for the flying kilometer was 245.64 mph, which was the average of two runs in opposite directions.
Return to racing
Although ostensibly retired from racing since 1962, Moss did make a number of one-off appearances in professional motorsport events in the following two decades. He also competed in the 1974 London-Sahara-Munich World Cup Rally in a Mercedes-Benz, but retired from the event in the Algerian Sahara. The Holden Torana he shared with Jack Brabham in the 1976 Bathurst 1000 was hit from behind on the grid and eventually retired with engine failure. Moss, at the wheel of the Torana when the V8 engine let go, was criticised by other drivers for staying on the racing line for over ⅔ of the 6.172 km long circuit while returning to the pits as the car was dropping large amounts of oil onto the road. He also shared a Volkswagen Golf GTI with Denny Hulme in the 1979 Benson & Hedges 500 at Pukekohe Park Raceway in New Zealand.
In 1980 he made a comeback to regular competition, in the British Saloon Car Championship with the works-backed GTi Engineering Audi team. For the 1980 season Moss was the team's number two driver to team co-owner Richard Lloyd. For the 1981 season Moss stayed with Audi, as the team moved to Tom Walkinshaw Racing management, driving alongside Martin Brundle.
Throughout his retirement he raced in events for historic cars, driving on behalf of and at the invitation of others, as well as campaigning his own OSCA FS 372 and other vehicles.
On 9 June 2011 during qualifying for the Le Mans Legends race, Moss announced on Radio Le Mans that he had finally retired from racing, saying that he had scared himself that afternoon. He was 81.
After his racing career
In June 2005 at the Goodwood Festival of Speed Moss signed the bonnet of his 1955 Mille Miglia-winning Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR. It was the car's final public appearance before retiring to the newly built Mercedes-Benz Museum in Stuttgart.
Although occasionally an outspoken critic of Michael Schumacher, in October 2006 Moss ranked him joint fourth with Tazio Nuvolari in the pantheon of all-time greats, behind Juan Manuel Fangio, Ayrton Senna, and Jim Clark.
Moss's 80th birthday, on 17 September 2009, fell on the eve of the Goodwood Revival and Lord March celebrated with an 80-car parade on each of the three days. Moss drove a different car each day: a Mercedes W196 Monoposto, the Lotus 18 in which he had won the 1961 Monaco GP, and an Aston Martin DBR3.
On 7 March 2010 he broke both ankles and four bones in a foot, and also chipped four vertebrae and suffered skin lesions, when he fell down a lift shaft at his home. Recovered from his injuries, he appeared in a pre-race BBC interview at the 2010 British Grand Prix meeting at Silverstone and presented Lewis Hamilton with his second-place trophy on the podium.
In 1990, Moss was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame.
In the New Year Honours 2000 List, Moss was made a Knight Bachelor for services to motor racing. On 21 March 2000, he was knighted by Prince Charles, standing in for the Queen, who was on an official visit to Australia. As Moss drove his Mercedes away from Buckingham Palace after the ceremony, he was stopped by a palace guard who joked: "Who do you think you are? Stirling Moss?" Moss smiled and replied "Sir Stirling Moss, actually."
He received the 2005 Segrave Trophy.
In 2006, Moss was awarded the FIA gold medal in recognition of his outstanding contribution to motorsport.
In December 2008, McLaren-Mercedes unveiled their final model of the Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren. The model was named in honour of Stirling Moss, hence, Mercedes McLaren SLR Stirling Moss, which has a top speed of 217 mph (349 km/h) with wind deflectors instead of a windscreen.
In 1963, noted motorsports author and commentator Ken Purdy published a biographical book entitled All But My Life about Stirling Moss (first published by William Kimber & Co., Ltd., London), based on material gathered through interviews with Moss.
During his driving career, Moss was one of the most recognised celebrities in Britain, leading to many media appearances. In March 1958, Moss was a guest challenger on the TV panel show "What's My Line?" (episode with Anita Ekberg). In 1959 he was the subject of the TV programme This Is Your Life. On June 12 the following year he was interviewed by John Freeman on Face to Face'; Freeman later said that he had thought before the interview that Moss was a playboy, but in their meeting he showed “cold, precise, clinical judgement... a man who could live so close to the edge of death and danger, and trust entirely to his own judgement. This appealed to me”. Moss also appeared as himself in the 1964 film The Beauty Jungle, and was one of several celebrities with cameo appearances in the 1967 version of the James Bond film Casino Royale. He played Evelyn Tremble's (Peter Sellers) driver.
For many years during and after his career, the rhetorical phrase "Who do you think you are, Stirling Moss?" was supposedly the standard question all British policemen asked speeding motorists. Moss relates he himself was once stopped for speeding and asked just that; he reports the traffic officer had some difficulty believing him. As related in the book The Life and Times of Private Eye, Moss was the subject of a less than respectful cartoon biography in the magazine Private Eye. The cartoon, drawn by Willie Rushton, showed him continually crashing, having his driving licence revoked and finally "hosting television programmes on subjects he knows nothing about". It also made reference to the amnesia Moss suffered from as a result of head injuries sustained in the crash at Goodwood in 1962. According to the book, Moss responded by offering to buy the original of the cartoon, an outcome the book describes as "depressingly common" for its satirical cartoons about famous people.
Moss is the narrator of the popular children's series Roary the Racing Car which stars Peter Kay, a role he took on, having being approached by both David Jenkins, who had the original idea, and Keith Chapman, the later the creator of Bob the Builder, as he saw the TV show as a way of introducing motorsport to the next generation.
He is one of the few drivers of his era to create a brand from his name for licensing purposes, which was launched when his website was revamped in 2009 with improved content. Moss is also a supporter of the UK Independence Party.
"I certainly had an appreciation of the danger which to me was part of the pleasure of racing. To me now racing is – the dangers are taken away: if it's difficult, they put in a chicane. So really now the danger is minimal – which is good, because people aren't hurt. But for me the fact that I had danger on my shoulder made it much more exciting. It's rather like if you flirt with a girl, it's more exciting than paying for a prostitute, because while you know you're gonna get it, the other one you don't. And I think with driving a motor car, the danger is a very necessary ingredient. Like if you're cooking, you need salt. You can cook without salt, but it doesn't have the flavour. It's the same with motor racing without danger. For me."
On older drivers: "You don't know how many years they've driven causing accidents! I'm not quite as urgent as I was... I know that my knowledge of road signs, there's some that I might not know which I should know... The other thing I find as I get older I'm less inclined to check the oil and check the tyres and so on, which is very important."
Gay rights campaigners criticized remarks Moss made in a 2013 interview at the Motor Racing Hall of Fame, saying they were "offensive" and "homophobic". Moss had said he would not want a "poofter or anything like that" to play him on screen, and added that he thought "it would be difficult for someone of the other persuasion, who is homosexual, to take on the part, as I have spent my life driving cars and chasing girls." Responding to the criticism, he said: "I’m sorry I’ve caused offence, but I’m disappointed anyone could be so narrow-minded as to take offence. It was not meant to cause any.”
Later the same year Moss again caused controversy by saying that women "lacked the mental aptitude" to compete in Formula 1.
Complete Formula One World Championship results
(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position; races in italics indicate fastest lap)
- † Indicates shared drive with Hans Herrmann and Karl Kling.
- * Indicates shared drive with Cesare Perdisa.
- ‡ Indicates shared drive with Tony Brooks.
- џ Indicates shared drive with Maurice Trintignant, no points scored.
- 1955; Champion: Juan Manuel Fangio (40 points, Gap: 17 points)
- 1956; Champion: Juan Manuel Fangio (30 points, Gap: 3 points)
- 1957; Champion: Juan Manuel Fangio (40 points, Gap: 15 points)
- 1958; Champion: Mike Hawthorn (42 points, Gap: 1 point)
- 1959; Champion: Jack Brabham (31 points, Gap: 5 1⁄2 points)
- 1960; Champion: Jack Brabham (43 points, Gap: 24 points)
- 1961; Champion: Phil Hill (34 points, Gap: 13 points)
(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position) (Races in italics indicate fastest lap)
- Up until 1990, not all points scored by a driver contributed to their final World Championship tally (see list of points scoring systems for more information). Numbers without parentheses are Championship points; numbers in parentheses are total points scored.
- "Sir Stirling Moss". grandprix.com. Retrieved 21 October 2006.
- "English F1 Legend Moss Holds Unique Place in AARWBA Lore". indianapolismotorspeedway.com. 14 October 2004. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
- "Hamilton still on track to greatness". London: independent.co.uk. 22 October 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
- "International Motorsports Hall of Fame".
- Tremayne, David and Mark Hughes. The Concise Encyclopedia of Formula One. London: Dempsey Parr, 1998, p.169. ISBN 1-84084-037-4.
- Nye, Doug (28 May 2005). "The Greatest Race". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- MacKenzie, Angus (12 October 2012). "1955 Mille Miglia: The Most Epic Drive. Ever. 1000 Miles on Italian Roads in 10 hours, 7 minutes". Motor Trend. Source Interlink Media. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Wright, Alfred (12 December 1960). "A Long, Loud Huzzah For Nassau". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- Kettlewell, Mike. "Monaco: Road Racing on the Riviera", in Northey, Tom, editor. World of Automobiles (London: Orbis, 1974), Volume 12, p.1384.
- Kettlewell, p.1384.
- Sterling Moss Goodwood crash
- Nevinson, Tim (June 2008). "Flat out for a week". Thoroughbred and Classic Cars (Bauer Consumer Media Ltd).
- McComb, Wilson (1998). MG by McComb. Motorbooks International. p. 180. ISBN 1855328313.
- "Stirling Moss at Speed in the OSCA MT4". Stirling Moss.
- "2011 Bahamas Speed Week Revival". Stirling Moss.
- Green, Evan. A Boot Full of Right Arms, Cassell Australia, 1975.
- "You can't keep good men down". Motor Sport: 317. March 1980.
- C.R. (March 1980). "Racing Golfs". Motor Sport: 362–363 and 374.
- "Stirling Moss announces retirement at age of 81". Reuters. 9 June 2011.
- The Stirling Moss Website – News
- "80th Birthday tribute at Goodwood Revival 2009". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
- "Stirling Moss falls down lift shaft". Eurosport (TF1 Group; Thomson Reuters). 8 March 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
- Noble, Jonathan (8 March 2010). "Moss injured in lift accident". autosport.com (Haymarket Publications). Retrieved 8 March 2010.
- "Stirling Moss receives knighthood". The Independent. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- Legend Moss receives FIA honour
- Purcell, Hugh (7 March 2013). "John Freeman: Face to face with an enigma". The New Statesman.
- English, Andrew (8 May 2012). "Sir Stirling Moss interview". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- Stirling Moss Website video - narrating Roary
- UKIP sprouts as celebrities make a stand on Brussels
- Monaco – Race of Kings, (IMC Vision, 2008)
- BBC – Stirling Moss on elderly drivers
- "Twelve months' ban and £50 fine on Stirling Moss". The Times (London). 14 April 1960. p. 6.
- Bowie-Sell, Daisy (14 March 2013). "Stirling Moss doesn't want a 'poofter' to play him on film". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- "Sir Stirling Moss draws criticism for homophobic comment". Yahoo! Sport Uk & Ireland. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- Barretto, Lawrence (15 April 2013). "Sir Stirling Moss says women lack mental aptitude for Formula 1". BBC Sport. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stirling Moss.|
- Sir Stirling Moss – Official Web Site
- Stirling Moss in the 24 hours of Le Mans
- Grand Prix History – Hall of Fame, Stirling Moss
- Stirling Moss profile at The 500 Owners Association
- Stirling Moss recalls his appearance on This Is Your Life