Stephen Držislav of Croatia
The "pleter" with inscription of Stephen Držislav, 10th century.
|King of Croatia|
|Predecessor||Mihajlo Krešimir II|
|Burial||Church of St. Stephen, Solin|
|Royal House||House of Trpimirović|
|Father||Mihajlo Krešimir II|
|Mother||Jelena of Zadar|
Stephen Držislav (Croatian: Stjepan Držislav, Latin: Dirzislaus) (died 997) was King of Croatia from 969 AD until his death in 997. He was a member of the Trpimirović dynasty. He ruled from Biograd with Godemir as his Ban.
Stjepan Držislav was a son of king Mihajlo Krešimir II and his wife, queen Jelena of Zadar. Jelena acted as a regent for the young king from 969 until her death on 8 October 976. In a war of Byzantine emperor Basil II against Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria, Stjepan Držislav allied with the Byzantines. After the Byzantine Emperor Basil II managed to defend every single coastal Adriatic City during Samuil's rampage towards Zadar in 986, the cities were returned to Croatian control. Samuil, however, invaded central Croatia and conquered the territories of Bosnia between the rivers of Drina and Bosna. Samuil pursued some of his cousins during the war and they often sought help in Croatia. King Držislav had taken fourteen of them, gave them hospitality and a residence near Klis. According to the Archbishop of Split Martin, in 994 they collected money for the construction of the Orthodox St. Michael church in Solin.
In an effort to compensate and award Držislav for his alliance, the Eastern Roman Emperor named Stjepan Držislav Patriarch and an Exarch of Dalmatia, which gave him formal authority over the Theme of Dalmatia. Stjepan Držislav received royal insigia as an act of recognition from the Byzantine Emperor. He was crowned by the Archbishop of Split in Biograd in 988.
Držislav built on his parents' feats and secured sovereignty over the Theme of Dalmatia, lost to Byzantium under Trpimir II. The Theme of Dalmatia at that time included the towns (but not the hinterland) of Krk, Osor, Rab, Zadar, Trogir and Split. He also delegated much of his authority to his powerful governors (bans). He also invested considerable effort integrating the Latin minority with the Croatian majority.
In 996, Venetian Doge Pietro II Orseolo stopped paying tax for safe to the Croatian King after a century of peace, renewing old hostilities. Stjepan Držislav, together with the Neretvians, restored naval conflicts with the Venetian ships, but with little success. He sent delegates demanding the tribute to be paid, but the Doge was again reluctant and continued the war. Držislav died shortly after, leaving the country separated among his sons, which was used in advance for Venice. Before the end of his reign, Stjepan Držislav gave Svetoslav, his oldest son, the title of Duke and Svetoslav became his co-ruler. Držislav was preparing Svetoslav to be his successor. It is probable that Svetoslav ruled concurrently with his father during the 990s. Stone panels from the altar of a 10th-century church in Knin, reveal the following inscription in Latin: CLV DUX HROATOR IN TE PUS D IRZISCLV DUCE MAGNU. In English, this means: Svetoslav, Duke of the Croats at the time of Drzislav the Great Duke (Latin: dux magnis). The stone panels are kept at the Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments in Split.
Držislav's rule was one of the longest of Kings in Croatia, spanning nearly three decades. He had three sons: Svetoslav, Krešimir, and Gojslav, and all three of them were to hold the title of King of Croatia over the following decades. Stjepan Držislav died in 997, leaving his descendants to struggle for control over the Croatian Kingdom.
- Kukuljević-Sakcinski, Ivan, ed. (1874). Codex diplomaticus regni Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae 1. Društvo za jugoslavensku povjestnicu i starine. p. 230.
- Goldstein: Hrvatska povijest; Kolekcija knjiga POVIJEST Jutarnjeg lista, svezak 21
- Rački: Documenta, page 23., 24.
- Thomas the Archdeacon: Historia Salonitana, caput 13.
- Archdeacon, Thomas of Split (2006). History of the Bishops of Salona and Split – Historia Salonitanorum atque Spalatinorum pontificum (in Latin and English). Budapest: Central European University Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 9789637326592.
Stephen Držislav of CroatiaDied: 997
Mihajlo Krešimir II
|King of Croatia