|Initial release||November 2, 2008|
10 / November 29, 2018
|Operating system||Microsoft Windows|
Stockfish is a free and open-source UCI chess engine, available for various desktop and mobile platforms. It is developed by Marco Costalba, Joona Kiiski, Gary Linscott, Stéphane Nicolet, and Tord Romstad, with many contributions from a community of open-source developers.
Stockfish is consistently ranked first or near the top of most chess-engine rating lists and is the strongest open-source conventional chess engine in the world. It won the unofficial world computer chess championships in seasons 6 (2014), 9 (2016), 11 (2018), 12 (2018), 13 (2018), 14 (2019), and 16 (2019). It finished runner-up in season 5 (2013), 7 (2014), 8 (2015), and 15 (2019).
Stockfish is derived from Glaurung, an open-source engine by Romstad released in 2004.
Stockfish can use up to 512 CPU threads in multiprocessor systems. The maximal size of its transposition table is 128 GB. Stockfish implements an advanced alpha–beta search and uses bitboards. Compared to other engines, it is characterized by its great search depth, due in part to more aggressive pruning, and late move reductions.
Stockfish supports Chess960, which is one of the features that was inherited from Glaurung.
The Syzygy tablebase support, previously available in a fork maintained by Ronald de Man, was integrated into Stockfish in 2014. In 2018 support for the 7-men Syzygy was added, shortly after becoming available.
The program originated from Glaurung, an open-source chess engine created by Romstad and first released in 2004. Four years later, Costalba, inspired by the strong open-source engine, decided to fork the project. He named it Stockfish because it was "produced in Norway and cooked in Italy" (Romstad is Norwegian, Costalba is Italian). The first version, Stockfish 1.0, was released in November 2008. For a while, new ideas and code changes were transferred between the two programs in both directions, until Romstad decided to discontinue Glaurung in the favor of Stockfish, which was the more advanced engine at the time. The last Glaurung (version 2.2) was released in December 2008.
Around 2011, Romstad decided to abandon his involvement with Stockfish and preferred to spend his time on his new iOS chess app.
On 18 June 2014 Marco Costalba announced that he had "decided to step down as Stockfish maintainer" and asked that the community create a fork of the current version and continue its development. An official repository, managed by a volunteer group of core Stockfish developers, was created soon after and currently manages the development of the project.
Changes to game-playing code are accepted or rejected based on results of playing of tens of thousands of games on the framework against an older "reference" version of the program, using sequential probability ratio testing. Tests on the framework are verified using the chi-squared test, and only if the results are statistically significant are they deemed reliable and used to revise the software code.
As of June 2018[update], the framework has used a total of more than 1200 years of CPU time to play more than 840 million chess games. After the inception of Fishtest, Stockfish experienced an explosive growth of 120 Elo points in just 12 months, propelling it to the top of all major rating lists. In Stockfish 7, FishTest author Gary Linscott was added to the official list of authors in acknowledgement of his contribution to Stockfish's strength.
Participation in TCEC
Stockfish is a TCEC multiple-time champion and the current leader in trophy count. Ever since TCEC restarted in 2013, Stockfish has finished first or second in every season except one. In TCEC Season 4 and 5, Stockfish finished runner-up, with Superfinal scores of 23–25 first against Houdini 3 and later against Komodo 1142. Season 5 was notable for the winning Komodo team as they accepted the award posthumously for the program's creator Don Dailey, who succumbed to an illness during the final stage of the event. In his honor, the version of Stockfish that was released shortly after that season was named "Stockfish DD".
On 30 May 2014, Stockfish 170514 (a development version of Stockfish 5 with tablebase support) convincingly won TCEC Season 6, scoring 35.5–28.5 against Komodo 7x in the Superfinal. Stockfish 5 was released the following day. In TCEC Season 7, Stockfish again made the Superfinal, but lost to Komodo with the score of 30.5–33.5. In TCEC Season 8, despite losses on time caused by buggy code, Stockfish nevertheless qualified once more for the Superfinal, but lost the ensuing 100-game match 46.5–53.5 to Komodo. In Season 9, Stockfish defeated Houdini 5 with a score of 54.5 versus 45.5.
Stockfish finished third during season 10 of TCEC, the only season since 2013 in which Stockfish had failed to qualify for the superfinal. It did not lose a game, but was still eliminated because it was unable to score enough wins against lower-rated engines. After this blip, Stockfish went on a long winning streak, winning seasons 11 (59 vs. 41 against Houdini 6.03), 12 (60 vs. 40 against Komodo 12.1.1), and 13 (55 vs. 45 against Komodo 2155.00) convincingly. In Season 14, Stockfish faced a new challenger in Leela Chess Zero, but managed to eke out a win by one game (50.5-49.5). Its winning streak was finally ended in season 15, when Leela qualified again and won 53.5-46.5, but Stockfish promptly won season 16, defeating AllieStein 54.5-45.5, after Leela failed to qualify for the superfinal.
Stockfish also participated in the TCEC cup, winning the first edition but was surprisingly upset by Houdini in the semifinals of the second edition. Stockfish recovered to beat Komodo in the third place playoff. In the third edition, Stockfish made it to the finals, but was defeated by Leela Chess Zero after blundering in a 7-man endgame tablebase draw. It gained its revenge in the fourth edition, defeating Leela in the final 4.5–3.5.
Stockfish versus Nakamura
Stockfish's strength relative to the best human chess players was most apparent in a handicap match with grandmaster Hikaru Nakamura (2798-rated) in August 2014. In the first two games of the match, Nakamura had the assistance of an older version of Rybka, and in the next two games, he received White with pawn odds but no assistance. Nakamura was the world's fifth-best human chess player at the time of the match, while Stockfish were denied use of its opening book and endgame tablebase. Stockfish won each half of the match 1.5–0.5. Both of Stockfish's wins arose from positions in which Nakamura, as is typical for his playing style, pressed for a win instead of acquiescing to a draw.
An artificial-intelligence approach, designed by Jean-Marc Alliot of the Institut de recherche en informatique de Toulouse ("Toulouse Computer Science Research Institute"), which compares chess grandmaster moves against that of Stockfish, rated Magnus Carlsen as the best player of all-time, as he had the highest probability of all World Chess Champions to play the moves that Stockfish suggested.
Computer chess tournament
Ever since chess.com hosted its first computer chess championship in 2018, Stockfish has dominated, winning all but two titles at different time controls.
|CCC 1: Rapid Rumble||2018||15+5||1st|||
|CCC 2: Blitz Battle||2018||5+2||1st|||
|CCC 3: Rapid Redux||2019||30+5||1st|||
|CCC 4: Bullet Brawl||2019||1+2||1st|||
|CCC 5: Escalation||2019||10+5||1st|||
|CCC 6: Winter Classic||2019||10+10||1st|||
|CCC 7: Blitz Bonanza||2019||5+2||2nd|||
|CCC 8: Deep Dive||2019||15+5||1st|||
|CCC 9: The Gauntlet||2019||5+2, 10+5||1st|||
|CCC 10: The Gauntlet||2019||10+3||2nd|||
Stockfish versus AlphaZero
In December 2017, Stockfish 8 was used as a benchmark to evaluate Google division Deepmind's AlphaZero, with each engine supported by different hardware. AlphaZero was trained through self-play for a total of nine hours, and reached Stockfish's level after just four. In 100 games from the normal starting position AlphaZero won 25 games as White, won 3 as Black, and drew the remaining 72, with 0 losses. AlphaZero also played twelve 100-game matches against Stockfish starting from twelve popular openings for a final score of 290 wins, 886 draws and 24 losses, for a point score of 733:467.[note 1]
AlphaZero's victory over Stockfish sparked a flurry of activity in the computer chess community, leading to a new open-source engine aimed at replicating AlphaZero, known as Leela Chess Zero. By January 2019, Leela was able to defeat the version of Stockfish that played AlphaZero (Stockfish 8) in a 100-game match. An updated version of Stockfish narrowly defeated Leela Chess Zero in the superfinal of the 14th TCEC season, 50.5–49.5 (+10 =81 −9), but lost the superfinal of the next season to Leela 53.5-46.5 (+14 -7 =79).
Stockfish has been a very popular engine for various platforms. On the desktop, it is the default chess engine bundled with the Internet Chess Club interface programs BlitzIn and Dasher. On the mobile platform, it has been bundled with the Stockfish app, SmallFish and Droidfish. Other Stockfish-compatible graphical user interfaces (GUIs) include Fritz, Arena, Stockfish for Mac, and PyChess. As of March 2014, Stockfish is the chess engine used by Lichess, a popular online chess site.
- The academic paper on this sequence of games does not provide the computer resources allocated to each engine.
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