Stockport (UK Parliament constituency)

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Stockport
Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Stockport in Greater Manchester.
Outline map
Location of Greater Manchester within England.
County Greater Manchester
Electorate 62,764 (December 2010)[1]
Major settlements Stockport
Current constituency
Created 1983
Member of parliament Ann Coffey (Labour)
Number of members One
Created from Stockport North, Stockport South
18321950
Number of members Two
Replaced by Stockport North, Stockport South
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency North West England

Stockport is a constituency[n 1] represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 1992 by Ann Coffey, a member of the Labour Party.[n 2]

Boundaries[edit]

1983-1997: The Metropolitan Borough of Stockport wards of Cale Green, Davenport, Edgeley, Heaton Mersey, Heaton Moor, and Manor.

1997-2010: The Metropolitan Borough of Stockport wards of Brinnington, Cale Green, Davenport, Edgeley, Heaton Mersey, Heaton Moor, and Manor.

2010-present: The Metropolitan Borough of Stockport wards of Brinnington and Central, Davenport and Cale Green, Edgeley and Cheadle Heath, Heatons North, Heatons South, and Manor.

History[edit]

Stockport was created as a two-member constituency by the Reform Act 1832. It survived as such until 1950, when it was split into single-member seats of Stockport North and Stockport South.

The single Stockport seat was recreated in 1983 on a more central ambit, returning one member, with the remainder of the ex-county borough forming part of the new Denton and Reddish seat.

Prominent members

Edward William Watkin was a railway entrepreneur, who helped to fund and plan lines across Britain, in Canada and, to a lesser extent, in the USA.

George Whiteley became later in his tenure for Stockport Chief Whip between 1905 and 1908 in the Liberal administrations of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith.

In the 21st century, Ann Coffey was PPS to the Chancellor of the Exchequer while this role was held by Alastair Darling.

Constituency profile[edit]

The historic town at the centre of the seat now has good links to Manchester city centre and is close to Alderley Edge and fairly close to the Peak District National Park to one side and access to the M6 on the other. The area has a Council which is currently in 'No Overall Control'. The most recent opposition has been relatively strong but equally split between the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats. The Liberal Democrats have in local elections to date been strongest in Davenport and Cale Green, and Manor whereas the Conservatives have been strongest in Heatons North, having had councillors in these wards. The Labour Party have been strongest in the other two wards to date. Workless claimants, registered jobseekers, were in November 2012 higher than the national average of 3.8%, and regional average of 4.4% at 4.9% of the population based on a statistical compilation by The Guardian.[2]

Members of Parliament[edit]

MPs 1832–1950[edit]

Election 1st Member[3] 1st Party 2nd Member[3] 2nd Party
1832 Thomas Marsland Tory Party John Horatio Lloyd Liberal
1835 Henry Marsland Liberal
1841 Richard Cobden Radical
July 1847 James Heald Conservative
December 1847 James Kershaw Radical[4][5]
1852 John Benjamin Smith Radical[6][4][7]
1859 Liberal Liberal
May 1864 Edward Watkin Liberal
1868 William Tipping Conservative
1874 Charles Henry Hopwood Liberal Frederick Pennington Liberal
1885 Louis John Jennings Conservative William Tipping Conservative
1886 Sydney Gedge Conservative
1892 Sir Joseph Leigh Liberal
February 1893 George Whiteley Conservative
1895 Beresford Melville Conservative
1900 Liberal
1900 Sir Joseph Leigh Liberal
1906 James Duckworth Liberal George Wardle Labour
January 1910 Spencer Leigh Hughes Liberal
1918 Coalition Liberal Coalition Labour
1920 William Greenwood Coalition Conservative Henry Fildes Coalition Liberal
1922 Conservative National Liberal
1923 Charles Royle Liberal
1924 Samuel Hammersley Conservative
1925 Arnold Townend Labour
1931 Alan Dower Conservative
1935 Sir Arnold Gridley Conservative Norman Hulbert Conservative
1950 Constituency abolished

MPs 1983-present[edit]

  • Constituency recreated (1983)
Election Member[3] Party
1983 Anthony Favell Conservative
1992 Ann Coffey Labour

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 2010s[edit]

General Election 2017: Stockport[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Ann Coffey 26,282 63.3 +13.4
Conservative Daniel Hamilton 11,805 28.4 +3.9
Liberal Democrat Daniel Hawthorne 1,778 4.3 -3.4
UKIP John Kelly 1,088 2.6 -10.5
Green Gary Lawson 591 1.4 -3.0
Majority 14,477 34.9 +9.5
Turnout 41,544 64.7 +2.7
Labour hold Swing +4.8
General Election 2015: Stockport[9][10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Ann Coffey 19,771 49.9 +7.2
Conservative Daniel Hamilton 9,710 24.5 -0.8
UKIP Steven Woolfe 5,206 13.1 +10.9
Liberal Democrat Daniel Hawthorne 3,034 7.7 -17.3
Green Gary Lawson 1,753 4.4 +2.7
Left Unity John Pearson 175 0.4 N/A
Majority 10,061 25.4
Turnout 39,649 62.0
Labour hold Swing +4.0
General Election 2010: Stockport[11]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Ann Coffey 16,697 42.7 −9.6
Conservative Stephen Holland 9,913 25.3 +1.8
Liberal Democrat Stuart Bodsworth 9,778 25.0 +3.6
BNP Duncan Warner 1,201 3.1 N/A
UKIP Michael N. Kelly 862 2.2 −0.5
Green Peter Barber 677 1.7 N/A
Majority 6,784 17.3
Turnout 39,128 61.6 +7.6
Labour hold Swing −5.7

Elections in the 2000s[edit]

General Election 2005: Stockport[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Ann Coffey 18,069 50.5 −8.1
Conservative Elizabeth Berridge 8,906 24.9 −1.0
Liberal Democrat Lyn-Su Floodgate 7,832 21.9 +6.4
UKIP Richard Simpson 964 2.7 +2.7
Majority 9,163 25.6
Turnout 35,771 54.5 +1.2
Labour hold Swing −3.5
General Election 2001: Stockport[13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Ann Coffey 20,731 58.6 −4.3
Conservative John Allen 9,162 25.9 +3.6
Liberal Democrat Mark Hunter 5,490 15.5 +4.9
Majority 11,569 32.7
Turnout 35,383 53.3 −18.0
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1990s[edit]

General Election 1997: Stockport[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Ann Coffey 29,338 62.9
Conservative Stephen Fitzsimmons 10,426 22.3
Liberal Democrat Sylvia Roberts 4,951 10.6
Referendum William Morley-Scott 1,280 2.7
Socialist Labour Geoff Southern 255 0.5
Monster Raving Loony Colin Newitt 213 0.5
Ind. Conservative Christopher Dronfield 206 0.4
Majority 18,912 40.6
Turnout 46,769 71.5
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1992: Stockport[15][16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Ann Coffey 21,096 44.1 +8.8
Conservative Anthony Favell 19,674 41.2 −0.2
Liberal Democrat Anne C. Corris 6,539 13.7 −8.4
Green Judith A. Filmore 436 0.9 −0.3
Natural Law David N. Saunders 50 0.1 N/A
Majority 1,422 3.0 −3.1
Turnout 47,795 82.3 +4.2
Labour gain from Conservative Swing +4.5

Elections in the 1980s[edit]

General Election 1987: Stockport[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Anthony Favell 19,410 41.4 −0.7
Labour Shirley Haines 16,557 35.3 +6.3
Social Democratic John Begg 10,365 22.1 −5.5
Green Michael Shipley 573 1.2 +0.4
Majority 2,853 6.1
Turnout 46,332 78.1
Conservative hold Swing −3.5
General Election 1983: Stockport[18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Anthony Favell 18,517 42.1 N/A
Labour Peter R. Ward 12,731 29.0 N/A
Social Democratic Tom McNally 12,129 27.6 N/A
Ecology Michael Shipley 369 0.8 N/A
Nationalist Party Kenneth S. Walker 194 0.4 N/A
Majority 5,786 13.2 N/A
Turnout 43,940 74.6 N/A
Conservative win (new seat)

Elections in the 1940s[edit]

General Election 1945: Stockport (2 member seat)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Arnold Gridley 31,039 20.6 - 10.1
Conservative Norman Hulbert 30,792 20.4 - 9.6
Labour Reginald Stamp 29,674 19.6 - 0.5
Labour Roland Casasola 28,798 19.6 + 0.4
Liberal Hugh Sutherland 14,994 9.9 N/A
Liberal Frederick William Malbon 14,942 9.9 N/A
Majority 1,118 0.8 - 9.1
Turnout 77.2 - 2.3
Conservative hold Swing
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

General Election 1935: Stockport (2 member seat)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Arnold Gridley 43,882 30.7 - 6.3
Conservative Norman Hulbert 43,001 30.0 - 4.7
Labour James Hudson 28,798 20.1 + 3.1
Labour Christopher Thomas Douthwaite 27,528 19.2 N/A
Majority 14,203 9.9 - 7.8
Turnout 79.5 - 4.6
Conservative hold Swing
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1931: Stockport (2 member seat)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Samuel Hammersley 50,936 37.0 + 11.3
Conservative Alan Dower 47,757 34.7 + 15.2
Labour Arnold Townend 23,350 17.0 - 10.4
Ind. Labour Party Tom Abbott 15,591 11.3 N/A
Majority 24,407 17.7 + 12.0
Turnout 84.1 - 0.5
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

General Election 1929: Stockport (2 member seat)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Arnold Townend 30,955 27.4 n/a
Unionist Samuel Hammersley 29,043 25.7 n/a
Liberal Henry Fildes 22,595 20.0 n/a
Unionist Edwin Noel Lingen-Barker 22,047 19.5 n/a
Independent Liberal Charles Royle 8,355 7.4 n/a
Majority 6,448 5.7 n/a
Turnout 84.6 -1.1
Labour gain from Unionist Swing n/a
Unionist hold Swing n/a
Stockport by-election, 1925
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Arnold Townend 20,219 36.5 n/a
Unionist Thomas Eastham 17,892 32.3 n/a
Liberal Henry Fildes 17,296 31.2 n/a
Majority 2,327 4.2 n/a
Turnout 55,407 85.7 −0.2
Labour gain from Unionist Swing n/a
General Election 1924: Stockport (2 member seat)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist William Greenwood 28,057 31.6 +9.2
Unionist Samuel Hammersley 26,417 29.7 +9.7
Labour Arnold Townend 21,986 24.8 +6.8
Liberal Charles Royle 12,386 13.9 -7.3
Majority 4,431 4.9
Turnout 88,846 85.9 +4.2
Unionist hold Swing
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing
General Election 1923: Stockport (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist William Greenwood 20,308 22.4 -10.7
Liberal Charles Royle 19,223 21.2 n/a
Unionist Samuel Hammersley 18,129 20.0 n/a
Liberal Henry Fildes 16,756 18.4 -16.0
Labour Arnold Townend 16,340 18.0 +2.2
Majority 3,552 4.0
Majority 1,094 1.2
Turnout 71.7 -9.5
Unionist hold Swing
Liberal hold Swing
Henry Fildes
General Election 1922: Stockport (2 member seat)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Liberal Henry Fildes 35,241 34.4 +9.3
Unionist William Greenwood 33,852 33.1 +7.4
Labour Co-op Samuel Perry 17,059 16.7 +0.5
Labour James C.H. Robinson 16,126 15.8 -2.2
Majority 18,182 17.7
Majority 16,793 16.4
Turnout 83.4 +7.7
National Liberal gain from Liberal Swing
Unionist hold Swing
Stockport by-election, 1920 (2 member seat)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist William Greenwood 22,847 25.7 n/a
Coalition Liberal Henry Fildes 22,386 25.1 n/a
Labour Leo Chiozza Money 16,042 18.0 n/a
Co-operative Party Samuel Perry 14,434 16.2 n/a
Independent Albert Alfred George Kindell 5,644 6.3 n/a
Independent John Joseph Terrett 5,443 6.1 n/a
Independent Republican William X. O'Brien 2,336 2.6 n/a
Majority 6,805 7.7 n/a
Majority 6,344 7.1 n/a
Turnout 75.7 n/a
Unionist gain from Coalition Labour Swing n/a
Coalition Liberal hold Swing n/a

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

S.L. Hughes
General Election 1918: Stockport (2 member seat)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
C Liberal Spencer Leigh Hughes Unopposed
Coalition Labour George Wardle Unopposed
Liberal hold
Labour hold
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

In 1918 Hughes was endorsed by the Coalition Government. The Coalition had a policy of not publicly endorsing Labour Party candidates but Wardle was a known supporter of the Coalition.

George Wardle
General Election December 1910 Stockport [19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Spencer Leigh Hughes 6,169 27.1 −0.8
Labour George Wardle 6,094 26.9 −1.1
Conservative John Lort-Williams 5,234 23.1 +1.0
Conservative Robert Campbell 5,183 22.9 +0.9
Turnout 90.5 −3.7
Registered electors 13,002
Majority 935 4.0 −1.8
Liberal hold Swing −0.9
Majority 860 3.8 −2.1
Labour hold Swing −1.1
General Election January 1910 Stockport [19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour George Wardle 6,682 28.0 −4.4
Liberal Spencer Leigh Hughes 6,645 27.9 −1.2
Conservative George Edward Raine 5,268 22.1 +1.7
Conservative James Stuart Rankin 5,249 22.0 +3.9
Turnout 94.2 +1.1
Registered electors 13,002
Majority 1,414 5.9 −6.1
Labour hold Swing −3.1
Majority 1,377 5.8 −2.9
Liberal hold Swing −1.5

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

General Election 1906 Stockport [19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Repr. Cmte. George Wardle 7,299 32.4 N/A
Liberal James Duckworth 6,544 29.1 +2.6
Conservative Harry Barnston 4,591 20.4 −4.8
Conservative Hugh O'Neill 4,064 18.1 −5.8
Turnout 93.1 +5.5
Registered electors 12,645
Majority 2,708 12.0 N/A
Labour Repr. Cmte. gain from Conservative Swing N/A
Majority 1,953 8.7 +6.1
Liberal hold Swing +3.7
General Election 1900 Stockport [19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Joseph Leigh 5,666 26.5 +1.8
Conservative Beresford Melville 5,377 25.2 −0.2
Liberal George Green[20] 5,200 24.4 +1.6
Conservative Alfred Peter Hillier[21] 5,098 23.9 −3.2
Turnout 87.6 -3.8
Registered electors 12,386
Majority 568 2.6 N/A
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +1.0
Majority 177 0.8 +0.1
Conservative hold Swing −0.9

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

General Election 1895 Stockport [19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative George Whiteley 5,410 27.1 +1.8
Conservative Beresford Melville 5,067 25.4 +1.7
Liberal Joseph Leigh 4,933 24.7 −1.6
Liberal John Henry Roskill[22] 4,562 22.8 −1.9
Turnout 10,115 91.4 −2.4
Registered electors 11,062
Majority 134 0.7 +0.1
Conservative hold Swing +1.7
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +1.8
By-election, 22 Feb 1893 Stockport [19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative George Whiteley 5,264 52.3 +3.3
Liberal Martin Hume 4,799 47.7 −3.3
Turnout 10,063 93.1 −0.7
Registered electors 10,804
Majority 465 4.6 +4.0
Conservative hold Swing +3.3
  • Caused by Jennings' death.
General Election 1892 Stockport [19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Joseph Leigh 5,202 26.3 +2.1
Conservative Louis John Jennings 4,986 25.3 −1.8
Liberal Martin Hume 4,876 24.7 +2.0
Conservative Patrick Bowes-Lyon 4,681 23.7 −2.3
Turnout 9,925 93.8 +2.7
Registered electors 10,577
Majority 521 2.6 N/A
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +2.2
Majority 110 0.6 −1.2
Conservative hold Swing −1.9

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General Election 1886 Stockport [19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Louis John Jennings 4,702 27.1 +0.1
Conservative Sydney Gedge 4,495 26.0 +1.0
Liberal Joseph Leigh 4,184 24.2 −0.8
Liberal Horace Davey 3,938 22.7 −0.3
Majority 311 1.8 +1.8
Turnout 8,711 91.1 −3.4
Registered electors 9,560
Conservative hold Swing +0.5
Conservative hold Swing +0.7
General Election 1885 Stockport [19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Louis John Jennings 4,855 27.0 +2.6
Conservative William Tipping 4,498 25.0 +1.8
Liberal Joseph Leigh 4,486 25.0 −0.8
Liberal Charles Henry Hopwood 4,132 23.0 −3.6
Majority 12 0.0 N/A
Turnout 9,031 94.5 −0.6 (est)
Registered electors 9,560
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +1.7
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +2.7
General Election 1880 Stockport [23][24]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Charles Henry Hopwood 4,232 26.6 +0.6
Liberal Frederick Pennington 4,103 25.8 +0.4
Conservative George Arthur Fernley 3,873 24.4 +0.0
Conservative Henry Bell 3,685 23.2 −1.0
Majority 230 1.4 +0.5
Turnout 7,947 (est) 95.1 (est) +5.9
Registered electors 8,353
Liberal hold Swing +0.3
Liberal hold Swing +0.7

Elections in the 1870s[edit]

General Election 1874 Stockport [23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Charles Henry Hopwood 3,628 26.0 +0.6
Liberal Frederick Pennington 3,538 25.4 +0.5
Conservative William Tipping 3,406 24.4 −1.6
Conservative Percy Mitford[25] 3,372 24.2 +0.5
Majority 132 0.9 −0.9
Turnout 6,972 (est) 89.2 (est) −2.4
Registered electors 7,814
Liberal hold Swing +0.6
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +0.5

Elections in the 1860s[edit]

General Election 1868 Stockport [23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Tipping 2,714 26.0 +11.0
Liberal John Benjamin Smith 2,658 25.4 −7.8
Liberal Edward Watkin 2,598 24.9 −11.9
Conservative William Ambrose[26] 2,475 23.7 +8.7
Turnout 5,223 (est) 91.6 (est) −4.9
Registered electors 5,702
Majority 56 0.5 N/A
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +10.4
Majority 183 1.8 −1.3
Liberal hold Swing −10.4
General Election 1865 Stockport [23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Edward Watkin 736 36.8 −1.6
Liberal John Benjamin Smith 664 33.2 +1.2
Conservative William Tipping 601 30.0 +0.4
Majority 63 3.1 +0.8
Turnout 1,301 (est) 96.5 (est) +3.0
Registered electors 1,348
Liberal hold Swing −0.9
Liberal hold Swing +0.5
By-election, 9 May 1864 Stockport [23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Edward Watkin Unopposed
Liberal hold
  • Caused by Kershaw's death.

Elections in the 1850s[edit]

General Election 1859 Stockport [23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal James Kershaw 769 38.4 −3.4
Liberal John Benjamin Smith 641 32.0 +1.7
Conservative William Gibb 594 29.6 +1.7
Majority 47 2.3 −0.2
Turnout 1,299 (est) 93.5 (est) +3.4
Registered electors 1,389
Liberal hold Swing −2.1
Liberal hold Swing +0.4
General Election 1857 Stockport [23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical James Kershaw 834 41.8 +3.6
Radical John Benjamin Smith 606 30.3 −2.5
Conservative William Gibb[27] 557 27.9 −1.1
Majority 49 2.5 −1.4
Turnout 1,277 (est) 90.1 (est) −1.1
Registered electors 1,417
Radical hold Swing +2.1
Radical hold Swing −1.0
General Election 1852 Stockport [23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical James Kershaw 725 38.2
Radical John Benjamin Smith 622 32.8
Conservative James Heald 549 29.0
Majority 73 3.9
Turnout 1,223 (est) 91.2 (est)
Registered electors 1,341
Radical hold Swing
Radical gain from Conservative Swing

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ A borough constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
  2. ^ As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
References
  1. ^ "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on November 6, 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  2. ^ Unemployment claimants by constituency The Guardian
  3. ^ a b c Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "S" (part 5)
  4. ^ a b "Morning Post". 9 July 1852. p. 3. Retrieved 14 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  5. ^ "This General Election". Coventry Herald. 6 August 1847. p. 3. Retrieved 14 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  6. ^ "Leeds Mercury". 7 August 1847. p. 5. Retrieved 14 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  7. ^ McCord, Norman (2006). The Anti-Corn Law League, 1838–1846 (eBook ed.). London: Routledge. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-1-136-58447-3. Retrieved 14 July 2018 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ "Stockport parliamentary constituency". BBC News.
  9. ^ "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  10. ^ "Stockport". BBC News. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  11. ^ "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  12. ^ "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  13. ^ "Election Data 2001". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  14. ^ "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  15. ^ "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  16. ^ "UK General Election results April 1992". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 2010-12-06.
  17. ^ "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  18. ^ "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. p. 194. ISBN 9781349022984.
  20. ^ ‘GREEN, Sir George’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014 ; online edn, April 2014 accessed 22 Sept 2017
  21. ^ HILLIER, Alfred Peter’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014 ; online edn, April 2014 accessed 22 Sept 2017
  22. ^ van der Poel, Jean (2007). Hancock, Keith, ed. Selections from the Smuts Papers: Volume 4, November 1918-August 1919. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 376. ISBN 9780521707831. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  24. ^ "Nominations Yesterday". Huddersfield Chronicle. 31 March 1880. p. 4. Retrieved 12 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  25. ^ "The General Election". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 5 February 1874. p. 5. Retrieved 21 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  26. ^ "Election Intelligence". Nottinghamshire Guardian. 4 September 1868. p. 2. Retrieved 18 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  27. ^ "The Nominations". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 28 March 1857. pp. 5–7. Retrieved 14 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).

Sources[edit]