Stoic passions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Stoic passions are various forms of emotional suffering in Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy.

Definition[edit]

The passions are transliterated pathê from Greek.[1][2] The Greek word pathos was a wide-ranging term indicating an infliction one suffers.[3] The Stoics used the word to discuss many common emotions such as anger, fear and excessive joy.[4] Chrysippus regarded the passions as evaluative judgements.[5] A person experiencing such an emotion has incorrectly valued an indifferent thing.[6] They are harmful because they conflict with right reason.[7] Failure to reason correctly brings about the occurrence of pathē.[3]

Primary passions[edit]

The Stoics beginning with Zeno arranged the passions under four headings: distress, pleasure, fear and lust.[8] In On Passions, Andronicus reported the Stoic definitions of these passions (trans. Long & Sedley, pg. 411, modified):

Distress (lupē)
Distress is an irrational contraction, or a fresh opinion that something bad is present, at which people think it right to be depressed.
Fear (phobos)
Fear is an irrational aversion, or avoidance of an expected danger.
Lust (epithumia)
Lust is an irrational desire, or pursuit of an expected good.
Delight (hēdonē)
Delight is an irrational swelling, or a fresh opinion that something good is present, at which people think it right to be elated.

Two of these passions (distress and delight) refer to emotions currently present, and two of these (fear and lust) refer to emotions directed at the future.[8] Thus there are just two states directed at the prospect of good and evil, but subdivided as to whether they are present or future:[9]

  Present Future
Good Delight Lust
Evil Distress Fear

Subdivisions[edit]

Numerous subdivisions of the same class are brought under the head of the separate passions. The definitions are those of the translation of Cicero's Tusculan Disputations by J. E. King.

Distress[edit]

Envy 
Envy is distress incurred by reason of a neighbor's prosperity.
Rivalry 
Rivalry is distress, should another be in possession of the object desired and one has to go without it oneself.
Jealousy 
Jealousy is distress arising from the fact that the thing one has coveted oneself is in the possession of the other man as well as one's own.
Compassion 
Compassion is distress arising from the wretchedness of a neighbor in undeserved suffering.
Anxiety 
Anxiety is oppressive distress.
Mourning 
Mourning is distress arising from the untimely death of a beloved object.
Sadness 
Sadness is tearful distress.
Troubling 
Troubling is burdensome distress.
Grief 
Grief is torturing distress.
Lamenting 
Distress accompanied by wailing.
Depression 
Depression is distress accompanied by brooding.
Vexation 
Vexation is lasting distress.
Despondency 
Despondency is distress without any prospect of amelioration.

Fear[edit]

Sluggishness 
Sluggishness is fear of ensuing toil.
Shame 
Shame is fear of disgrace.
Fright 
Fright is paralyzing fear which causes paleness, trembling and chattering of teeth.
Timidity 
Timidity is fear of approaching evil.
Consternation 
Consternation is fear upsetting the mental balance.
Pusillanimity 
Pusillanimity is fear following on the heels of fright like an attendant.
Bewilderment 
Bewilderment is fear paralyzing thought.
Faintheartedness 
Faintheartedness is lasting fear.

Lust[edit]

Anger 
Anger is lust of punishing the man who is thought to have inflicted an undeserved injury.
Rage 
Rage is anger springing up and suddenly showing itself.
Hatred 
Hatred is inveterate anger.
Enmity 
Enmity is anger watching as opportunity for revenge.
Wrath 
Wrath is anger of greater bitterness conceived in the innermost heart and soul.
Greed 
Greed is insatiable lust.
Longing 
Longing is lust of beholding someone who is not present.

Delight[edit]

Malice 
Malice is pleasure derived from a neighbor's evil which brings no advantage to oneself.
Rapture 
Rapture is pleasure soothing the soul by charm of the sense of hearing.
Ostentation 
Ostentation is pleasure shown in outward demeanor and puffing oneself out extravagantly.

Good feelings[edit]

The wise person (sophos) is someone who is free from the passions (apatheia). Instead the sage experiences good-feelings (eupatheia) which are clear-headed.[10] These emotional impulses are not excessive, but nor are they diminished emotions.[11][12] Instead they are the correct rational emotions.[12] The Stoics listed the good-feelings under the headings of joy (chara), wish (boulesis), and caution (eulabeia).[6] Thus if something is present which is a genuine good, then the wise person experiences an uplift in the soul—joy (chara).[13] The Stoics also subdivided the good-feelings:[14]

  • Joy:
    • Enjoyment
    • Cheerfulness
    • Good spirits
  • Wish:
    • Good intent
    • Goodwill
    • Welcoming
    • Cherishing
    • Love
  • Caution:
    • Moral shame
    • Reverence

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Blank, David - "Philodemus"-2.2.4.4.2 On individual ethical topics (c.f. - 5th paragraph) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)(published Wed Apr 10, 2013; substantive revision Mon Aug 4, 2014) [Retrieved 2015-3-15]
  2. ^ Oxford Dictionary - (Oxford University Press)[Retrieved 2015-3-15]
  3. ^ a b Annas 1994, p. 103
  4. ^ Annas 1994, p. 103-4
  5. ^ Groenendijk, Leendert F. and de Ruyter, Doret J.(2009) 'Learning from Seneca: a Stoic perspective on the art of living and education', Ethics and Education, 4: 1, 81 — 92 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/17449640902816277 (alternative URL: here) [Retrieved 2015-3-18]
  6. ^ a b Annas 1994, p. 114
  7. ^ Annas 1994, p. 113
  8. ^ a b Sorabji 2000, p. 29
  9. ^ Graver 2007, p. 54
  10. ^ Inwood 1999, p. 705
  11. ^ Annas 1994, p. 115
  12. ^ a b Graver 2007, p. 52
  13. ^ Inwood 1999, p. 701
  14. ^ Graver 2007, p. 58

References[edit]

  • Annas, Julia (1994), Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-07659-1
  • Graver, Margaret (2007), Stoicism and Emotions, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-30557-0
  • Inwood, Brad (1999), "Stoic Ethics", in Algra, Keimpe; Barnes, Johnathan; Mansfield, Jaap; Schofield, Malcolm, The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-25028-5
  • Sorabji, Richard (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-198-25005-3
  • Andronicus, "On Passions I," Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, 3.391. ed. Hans von Arnim. 1903–1905.
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius (1945 c. 1927). Cicero : Tusculan Disputations (Loeb Classical Library, No. 141) 2nd Ed. trans. by J. E. King. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard UP.
  • Long, A. A., Sedley, D. N. (1987). The Hellenistic Philosophers: vol. 1. translations of the principal sources with philosophical commentary. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

External links[edit]