Stoke-upon-Trent (UK Parliament constituency)

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Stoke-upon-Trent
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
18321918
Number of memberstwo (1832-1885); one (1885-1918)
Replaced byStoke-on-Trent, Stoke; Stoke-on-Trent, Hanley; Stoke-on-Trent, Burslem

Stoke-upon-Trent was a parliamentary borough in Staffordshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1832 until 1885, and then one member from 1885 until 1918, when the borough was enlarged, renamed Stoke-on-Trent, and split into three single-member constituencies.

History[edit]

Stoke-upon-Trent was established as a borough by the Great Reform Act of 1832 to represent the Staffordshire Potteries, one of the most populous urban areas in England which had previously had no separate representation. The new borough consisted of Stoke-upon-Trent and parts of the surrounding towns, and at the time of the Reform Act had a population just over 50,000 (of whom 37,220 were in Stoke parish); in 1867 the boundaries were extended somewhat, to bring in a part of Burslem which had previously been excluded.

In further boundary changes implemented at the 1885 general election, the borough was split into two single-member constituencies, the northern part becoming a separate Hanley borough while the southern part (containing Longton and Fenton as well as Stoke itself) retained the Stoke-upon-Trent name; the new constituency had a population just under 100,000 by the time of the First World War. The industrial interests predominated, with the bulk of the voters being pottery workers or miners, although Stoke was a partly middle-class town; at first an apparently safe Liberal seat, it fell narrowly to the Unionists in both 1895 and 1900, perhaps partly because of discord between miners and potters within the local Liberal party. From 1906 it was held by John Ward as a Lib-Lab MP hostile to the Labour Party, who being from the Navvies' Union could defuse the mutual jealousies of the potters and miners.

By 1918, the pottery towns had been united for municipal purposes in a single Stoke-on-Trent county borough, and the parliamentary boundary changes which came into effect at that year's general election established a parliamentary borough of the same name to replace Stoke-upon-Trent and Hanley, divided into three constituencies: Stoke-on-Trent, Stoke; Stoke-on-Trent, Hanley; and Stoke-on-Trent, Burslem.

Members of Parliament[edit]

1832–1885[edit]

Year First member First party Second member Second party
1832 Josiah Wedgwood II Whig[1] John Davenport Tory[1]
1834 Conservative[1]
1835 Richard Edensor Heathcote Whig[1]
1836 Hon. George Anson Whig[1][2][3][4]
1837 William Taylor Copeland Conservative[1]
1841 John Lewis Ricardo Whig[5][6][1]
1852 Hon. Frederick Leveson-Gower Whig[7]
1857 William Taylor Copeland Conservative
1859 Liberal
1862 Henry Grenfell Liberal
1865 Alexander Beresford Hope Conservative
February 1868 George Melly Liberal
November 1868 William Sargeant Roden Liberal
1874 Robert Heath Conservative
1875 Edward Kenealy Independent
1880 William Woodall Liberal Henry Broadhurst Liberal-Labour
1885 Constituency divided into single-member constituencies, see also Hanley

1885–1918[edit]

Year Member Whip
1885 William Leatham Bright Liberal
1890 George Leveson-Gower Liberal
1895 Douglas Coghill Liberal Unionist
1900 Conservative
1906 John Ward Liberal
1918 Constituency abolished

Election results[edit]

Elections in the 1840s[edit]

General Election 1841: Stoke-upon-Trent (2 seats)[8][1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig John Lewis Ricardo 870 44.3
Conservative William Taylor Copeland 606 30.9
Conservative Frederick Dudley Ryder[9] 486 24.8
Majority 264 13.5 N/A
Turnout 981 (est) 58.3 (est)
Registered electors 1,682
Whig gain from Conservative Swing
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1847: Stoke-upon-Trent (2 seats)[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig John Lewis Ricardo 954 44.2 −0.1
Conservative William Taylor Copeland 819 38.0 +7.1
Whig Thomas Piers Healey[10] 384 17.8 N/A
Turnout 1,079 (est) 63.6 (est) +5.3
Registered electors 1,695
Majority 135 6.3 −7.2
Whig hold Swing −3.6
Majority 435 20.2 N/A
Conservative hold Swing +3.6

Elections in the 1850s[edit]

General Election 1852: Stoke-upon-Trent (2 seats)[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig John Lewis Ricardo 921 36.3 −7.9
Whig Frederick Leveson-Gower 848 33.4 +15.6
Conservative William Taylor Copeland 769 30.3 −7.7
Majority 79 3.1 −3.2
Turnout 1,654 (est) 93.0 (est) +29.4
Registered electors 3,189
Whig hold Swing −2.0
Whig gain from Conservative Swing +9.7
General Election 1857: Stoke-upon-Trent (2 seats)[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Taylor Copeland 1,261 44.3 +14.0
Whig John Lewis Ricardo 822 28.9 −7.4
Whig Frederick Leveson-Gower 764 26.8 −6.6
Majority 439 15.4 N/A
Turnout 2,054 (est) 97.1 (est) +4.1
Registered electors 2,115
Conservative gain from Whig Swing +14.0
Whig hold Swing −7.2
General Election 1859: Stoke-upon-Trent (2 seats)[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Lewis Ricardo 1,258 43.4 +14.5
Conservative William Taylor Copeland 1,074 37.0 −7.3
Liberal Samuel Pope[11][12] 569 19.6 −7.2
Turnout 1,988 (est) 89.5 (est) −7.6
Registered electors 2,221
Majority 184 6.3 N/A
Liberal hold Swing +9.1
Majority 505 17.4 +2.0
Conservative hold Swing −7.3

Elections in the 1860s[edit]

Ricardo's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 23 September 1862: Stoke-upon-Trent[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Henry Grenfell 1,089 53.4 +10.0
Conservative Alexander Beresford Hope 918 45.0 +8.0
Liberal George Melly 32 1.6 −18.0
Majority 171 8.4 +2.1
Turnout 2,039 82.9 −6.6
Registered electors 2,461
Liberal hold Swing +3.0
General Election 1865: Stoke-upon-Trent (2 seats)[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Alexander Beresford Hope 1,463 35.6 −1.4
Liberal Henry Grenfell 1,373 33.4 −10.0
Liberal George Melly 1,277 31.0 +11.4
Majority 90 2.2 −15.2
Turnout 2,788 (est) 87.4 (est) −2.1
Registered electors 3,189
Conservative hold Swing −1.4
Liberal hold Swing −4.3

Beresford Hope resigned in order to contest a by-election at Cambridge University, causing a by-election.

By-election, 20 February 1868: Stoke-upon-Trent[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Melly 1,489 51.2 −13.2
Conservative Colin Minton Campbell[13] 1,420 48.8 +13.2
Majority 69 2.4 N/A
Turnout 2,909 91.2 +3.8
Registered electors 3,189
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing −13.2
General Election 1868: Stoke-upon-Trent (2 seats)[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Melly Unopposed
Liberal William Sargeant Roden Unopposed
Registered electors 16,199
Liberal hold
Liberal gain from Conservative

Elections in the 1870s[edit]

General Election 1874: Stoke-upon-Trent (2 seats)[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Melly 6,700 28.6 N/A
Conservative Robert Heath 6,180 26.4 N/A
Liberal William Sargeant Roden 5,369 22.9 N/A
Lib-Lab Alfred Walton[14] 5,198 22.2 N/A
Turnout 17,413 (est) 91.0 (est) N/A
Registered electors 19,129
Majority 520 2.2 N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Majority 811 3.5 N/A
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing N/A

Melly resigned, causing a by-election.

By-election, 18 Feb 1875: Stoke-upon-Trent (1 seat)[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Edward Kenealy 6,110 43.1 N/A
Lib-Lab Alfred Walton[14] 4,168 29.4 +7.2
Conservative Harry Davenport 3,901 27.5 +1.1
Majority 1,942 13.7 N/A
Turnout 14,179 72.5 −18.5
Registered electors 19,548
Independent gain from Liberal Swing N/A

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General Election 1880: Stoke-upon-Trent (2 seats)[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Woodall 12,130 40.8 −10.7
Lib-Lab Henry Broadhurst 11,379 38.3 +16.1
Conservative Robert Heath[15] 5,126 17.2 −9.2
Independent Edward Kenealy 1,091 3.7 N/A
Majority 6,253 21.0 +18.8
Turnout 14,863 (est) 74.4 (est) −16.6
Registered electors 19,976
Liberal hold Swing −7.2
Lib-Lab gain from Conservative Swing +12.7
General Election 1885: Stoke-upon-Trent [16][17][18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Leatham Bright 4,790 63.1 −16.0
Conservative Haden Corser 2,800 36.9 +19.7
Majority 1,990 26.2 +5.2
Turnout 7,590 82.4 +8.0 (est)
Registered electors 9,213
Liberal hold Swing −17.9
General Election 1886: Stoke-upon-Trent [16][17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Leatham Bright 3,255 60.9 -2.2
Conservative Haden Corser 2,093 39.1 +2.2
Majority 1,162 21.8 -4.4
Turnout 5,348 58.0 -24.4
Registered electors 9,213
Liberal hold Swing -2.2

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

By-election 14 Mar 1890: Stoke-upon-Trent [17][19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Leveson-Gower 4,157 58.7 −2.2
Liberal Unionist William Shepherd Allen 2,926 41.3 +2.2
Majority 1,231 17.4 −4.4
Turnout 7,083 73.4 +15.4
Registered electors 9,649
Liberal hold Swing −2.2
  • Caused by Bright's resignation.
General Election 1892: Stoke-upon-Trent [17][19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Leveson-Gower 4,629 61.9 +1.0
Conservative S Waters 2,846 38.1 −1.0
Majority 1,783 23.8 +2.0
Turnout 7,475 72.0 +14.0
Registered electors 10,380
Liberal hold Swing +1.0

Leveson-Gower was appointed Comptroller of the Household, requiring a by-election.

By-election 25 Aug 1892: Stoke-upon-Trent[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Leveson-Gower Unopposed
Liberal hold
Coghill
General Election 1895: Stoke-upon-Trent [17][20][19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Unionist Douglas Coghill 4,396 51.2 +13.1
Liberal George Leveson-Gower 4,196 48.8 −13.1
Majority 200 2.4 N/A
Turnout 8,592 77.4 +5.4
Registered electors 11,107
Liberal Unionist gain from Liberal Swing +13.1

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

Godfrey Baring
General Election 1900: Stoke-upon-Trent [17][21][19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Douglas Coghill 4,932 51.0 −0.2
Liberal Godfrey Baring 4,732 49.0 +0.2
Majority 200 2.0 −0.4
Turnout 9,664 73.9 −3.5
Registered electors 13,074
Conservative hold Swing −0.2
John Ward
General Election 1906: Stoke-upon-Trent [17][19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Lib-Lab John Ward 7,660 64.1 +15.1
Conservative Douglas Coghill 4,288 35.9 −15.1
Majority 3,372 28.2 N/A
Turnout 11,948 84.8 +10.9
Registered electors 14,091
Lib-Lab gain from Conservative Swing +15.1

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

Ward
General Election January 1910: Stoke-upon-Trent [22][19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Lib-Lab John Ward 7,688 57.4 −6.7
Conservative David Hope Kid 5,697 42.6 +6.7
Majority 1,991 14.8 −13.4
Turnout 13,385 88.8 +4.0
Registered electors 15,079
Lib-Lab hold Swing −6.7
General Election December 1910: Stoke-upon-Trent [23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Lib-Lab John Ward 7,049 58.2 +0.8
Conservative Samuel Joyce Thomas 5,062 42.6 −0.8
Majority 1,987 16.4 +1.6
Turnout 12,111 80.3 −8.5
Registered electors 15,079
Lib-Lab hold Swing +0.8

General Election 1914/15:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Stooks Smith, Henry (1845). The Parliaments of England, from 1st George I., to the Present Time. Vol II: Oxfordshire to Wales Inclusive. London: Simpkin, Marshall, & Co. pp. 47–48. Retrieved 12 December 2018 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ "The Elections". Morning Post. 4 July 1837. p. 5. Retrieved 15 August 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  3. ^ "General Election". Morning Post. 28 June 1841. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 15 August 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  4. ^ Dod, Charles Roger; Dod, Robert Phipps (1847). Dod's Parliamentary Companion, Volume 15. Dod's Parliamentary Companion. p. 122. Retrieved 15 August 2018 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ "Elections Decided". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 10 July 1841. p. 6. Retrieved 14 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  6. ^ "The Elections". Northern Star and Leeds Advertiser. 3 July 1841. p. 20. Retrieved 14 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  7. ^ "The Land and the Charter". Northern Star and Leeds General Advertiser. 10 July 1847. p. 19. Retrieved 14 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  9. ^ "London Evening Standard". 5 July 1841. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 12 December 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  10. ^ "Staffordshire Advertiser". 31 July 1847. p. 9. Retrieved 12 December 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  11. ^ "The Nominations". Morning Post. 30 April 1859. pp. 6–7. Retrieved 14 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  12. ^  Bedwell, C. E. A. (1912). "Pope, Samuel" . Dictionary of National Biography (2nd supplement). London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  13. ^ "Stoke-upon-Trent". Bristol Times and Mirror. 12 February 1868. p. 2. Retrieved 18 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  14. ^ a b "Mr. A. A. Walton". Staffordshire Sentinel. 1 February 1875. p. 4. Retrieved 21 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  15. ^ "Polling to-day: Stoke-on-Trent". Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer. 31 March 1880. p. 6. Retrieved 12 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  16. ^ a b Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. p. 196. ISBN 9781349022984.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  18. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1886
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 9781349022984.
  20. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  21. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  22. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  23. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916

Further reading[edit]

  • The Constitutional Year Book for 1913 (London: National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations, 1913)
  • F W S Craig, "British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885" (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
  • Michael Kinnear, The British Voter (London: BH Batsford, Ltd, 1968)
  • Henry Pelling, Social Geography of British Elections 1885-1910 (London: Macmillan, 1967)
  • J Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
  • Frederic A Youngs, jr, Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Vol II (London: Royal Historical Society, 1991)
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "S" (part 5)