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Stolzite, Broken Hill, Australia (size: 3.6 x 3.0 x 2.6 cm)
CategoryTungstate minerals
(repeating unit)
Strunz classification7.GA.05
Crystal systemTetragonal
Crystal classDipyramidal (4/m)
H-M symbol: (4/m)
Space groupI41/a
Unit cella = 5.461, c = 12.049 [Å]; Z = 4
ColorReddish brown, brown, yellowish gray, smoky gray, straw-yellow, lemon-yellow; may be green, orange, red
Crystal habitCrystals dipyramidal to tabular
CleavageImperfect on {001}, indistinct on {011}
FractureConchoidal to uneven
Mohs scale hardness2.5 - 3
LusterResinous, subadamantine
DiaphaneityTranslucent to transparent
Specific gravity8.34
Optical propertiesUniaxial (-)
Refractive indexnω = 2.270 nε = 2.180 - 2.190
Birefringenceδ = 0.090

Stolzite is a mineral, a lead tungstate; with the formula PbWO4. It is similar to, and often associated with, wulfenite which is the same chemical formula except that the tungsten is replaced by molybdenum. Stolzite crystallizes in the tetragonal crystal system and is dimorphous with the monoclinic form raspite.[3]

Lead tungstate crystals have the optical transparency of glass combined with much higher density (8.28 g/cm3 vs ~2.2 g/cm3 for fused silica). They are used as scintillators in particle physics because of their short radiation length (0.89 cm), low Molière radius (2.2 cm), quick scintillation response, and radiation hardness.[5] Lead tungstate crystals are used in the Compact Muon Solenoid's electromagnetic calorimeter.[5]

It was first described in 1820 by August Breithaupt, who called it Scheelbleispath and then by François Sulpice Beudant in 1832, who called it scheelitine. In 1845, Wilhelm Karl Ritter von Haidinger coined the name stolzite for an occurrence in Krusne Hory (Erzgebirge), Czech Republic, naming it after Joseph Alexi Stolz of Teplice in Bohemia.[3][4] It occurs in oxidized hydrothermal tungsten-lead ore deposits typically in association with raspite, cerussite, anglesite, pyromorphite and mimetite.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Mineralienatlas
  2. ^ a b Handbook of Mineralogy
  3. ^ a b c
  4. ^ a b Wevmineral data
  5. ^ a b The CMS Collaboration (2006). "Chapter 1. Introduction". CMS Physics : Technical Design Report Volume 1: Detector Performance and Software. CERN. p. 14. ISBN 9789290832683. CMS has chosen lead tungstate scintillating crystals for its ECAL. These crystals have short radiation (X0 = 0.89 cm) and Moliere (2.2 cm) lengths, are fast (80% of the light is emitted within 25 ns) and radiation hard (up to 10 Mrad).

Mellor, J. W. "A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry," Vol.11, Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1931, p. 792.

Stolzite crystal from the Darwin District, Inyo County, California (size: 2.0 x 1.7 x 1.6 cm)