Stout 2-AT Pullman

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Stout 2 AT Pullman
Stout 2AT-2.jpg
Stout AT-2 "Maiden Dearborn"
Role
National origin United States
Manufacturer Stout Engineering Company
Designer William Bushnell Stout, George H. Prudden.
First flight April 23, 1924
Introduction 1924
Retired 1928
Status All aircraft scrapped or destroyed.
Primary user Airline and Air mail transport
Number built 11
Unit cost
$25,000 (1925)
Developed from Stout 1-AS Air Sedan
Variants Stout 3-AT

The Stout 2-AT "Pullman" or "Air Pullman" was a single engine all-metal monoplane that was used for early airline travel and air mail transport in America.

Development[edit]

William Bushnell Stout started in aviation working for Packard on the Liberty engine during World War I. He promoted early innovative designs, based on the 1915 innovations of German aviation engineer Hugo Junkers, such as a blended wing concept, and pioneered all-metal aircraft construction in America using Junkers-devised concepts. The 2-AT was a more conventional layout using the familiar and plentiful Liberty engine of the time.

The first use of the nickname "Tin Goose" was applied to this aircraft by the news media. The name was later attributed to the Ford Trimotor.[1]

Design[edit]

The 2-AT was a high-wing conventional gear monoplane. The original design featured an open cockpit for the pilots, followed by an enclosed cockpit with opening side windows. The aircraft featured wallpaper, padded seats, semi-circular opening windows, and a bathroom.[2] It was the first all-metal aircraft certified in America. It was eventually redesigned to accommodate three engines, becoming the Stout 3-AT trimotor, and again redesigned to become the more well-known Ford Trimotor.[3] The aircraft was under development as a Stout aircraft when Ford bought all controlling interests, creating the Stout Metal Airplane Division of the Ford Motor Company. Development hastened with the infusion of resources from Ford.[3]

Stout's chief engineer, George H. Prudden, was credited for the new wing design using principles from Stout's earlier "thick wing" aircraft.[4] Each 2-AT was powered by a Liberty engine, one example was tested with a Pratt and Whitney Wasp radial engine.[5]

Operational history[edit]

The first flight was performed by Walter Edwin Lees at Selfridge Field. The windshield blew in locking the controls, forcing a landing on a frozen lake. In 1925 the 2-AT was demonstrated at the Ford National Reliability Air Tour by E.G. Hamilton. While just completing the event would have won an award, the 2-AT completed it with a perfect score.[3][6] At the Air Tour, the first aircraft sale was announced. It was sold to John Wanamaker & Co. to haul passengers and freight between Philadelphia and New York. Wanamaker's was an early seller of Ford products, and in turn became the first reseller of Ford aircraft, displaying the aircraft in their New York showroom.[7] The 2-AT was listed in their lineup for $25,000.[8]

The United States Postal Office ordered one model for airmail service. The aircraft was modified with a 500 hp Packard engine.

Letter from first CAM flight in a 2-AT
Florida Airways Stout 2-AT's. State Library and Archives of Florida

The aircraft were put into service for the newly formed Ford Air Transport Service in 1925. The first 2-AT was built at the Stout factory in Dearborn and called the "Maiden Detroit". The aircraft was outfitted with a nickel-plated Liberty engine bought from a trophy case at the Marmon assembly plant.[9] The other aircraft in the fleet were also 2-AT's, named "Maiden Dearborn I, II, III and IV". Initially the aircraft were for Ford's company use. The first scheduled commercial flights in America were begun when The "Maiden Detroit" flew 1,000 lbs. of freight between factories in Detroit and Chicago on April 14, 1925.[10] Ford Air Transport served routes between Chicago, Detroit and Cleveland.[11]

The "Maiden Detroit" entered Contract Air Mail service on February 15, 1926. The aircraft flew from Detroit to Cleveland with the first commercial transport of air mail.[12][13] The routes would be known as CAM-6 (Detroit to Cleveland), and CAM-7 (Detroit to Chicago).

Four aircraft were sold to Florida Airways. The first three were given in exchange for a stake in the airline by Henry Ford.[14] One was used on CAM-10 (Atlanta to Jacksonville).

On May 18, 1926 at Argo, Illinois, a Ford Air Transport 2-AT Maiden Deaborn I was involved in the first fatal accident for a commercial US aircraft. The Contract Air Mail pilot crashed and was killed due to flight into poor weather conditions.[15]

In 1928, U.S. Commerce department declared the wings to be structurally unsafe. All remaining 2-AT's were scrapped.[5]

Variants[edit]

  • Stout 3-AT - A trimotor 2-AT powered with Wright J-4 engines.

Specifications Stout 2-AT Pullman[edit]

Data from Aerofiles

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Capacity: 9
  • Length: 45 ft 8 in (13.92 m) [16]
  • Wingspan: 58 ft 4 in (17.78 m) [16]
  • Height: 11 ft 10 in (3.61 m) [16]
  • Wing area: 600 sq ft (56 m2) [16]
  • Empty weight: 3,638 lb (1,650 kg) [16]
  • Gross weight: 6,017[16] lb (2,729 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Liberty V12 , 400 hp (300 kW)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 104 kn; 193 km/h (120 mph)
  • Cruise speed: 87 kn; 161 km/h (100 mph)
  • Endurance: 4 hr[16]
  • Service ceiling: 12,000 ft (3,700 m) [16]
  • Rate of climb: 500 ft/min (2.5 m/s) [16]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.aerofiles.com/_ford.html
  2. ^ "Stout Air Services". 2 Feb 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c Joseph P. Juptner. U.S. civil aircraft, Volume 1. 
  4. ^ Joe Christy, LeRoy Cook. American Aviation. 
  5. ^ a b Robert F. Pauley. Michigan Aircraft Manufacturers. 
  6. ^ Flight - The Aircraft Engineer and Airships, "The Ford Reliability Tour" November 26, 1925
  7. ^ David L. Lewis. The Public Image of Henry Ford An American Folk Hero and His Company. 
  8. ^ "Wanamaker Takes Ford's First Plane". Ludington Daily News. October 8, 1925. 
  9. ^ So Away I Went. p. 178. 
  10. ^ "AIR EXPRESS LINE OPENS Success Scored by Ford Plane Regular Service Connecting Chicago and Detroit is Inaugurated Half-Ton of Freight Carried Between Cities in Less Than Three Hours". Los Angeles Times. April 14, 1925. 
  11. ^ Robert M. Kane. Air Transportation. 
  12. ^ Owen Bombard. The Tin Goose. 
  13. ^ Russ Banham. The Ford century Ford Motor Company and the innovations that shaped the world. 
  14. ^ Roger D. Launius. Reconsidering a century of flight. 
  15. ^ American Aviation Historical Society. AAHS journal, Volume 39.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i "The Stout "Air Pullman": America's First All Metal Commercial 'Plane". Flight. October 16, 1924. pp. 668–669. 

References[edit]