Town center of Stow
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
|Incorporated||May 16, 1683|
|• Type||Open town meeting|
|• Total||18.1 sq mi (46.9 km2)|
|• Land||17.6 sq mi (45.6 km2)|
|• Water||0.5 sq mi (1.2 km2)|
|Elevation||231 ft (70 m)|
|• Density||374.4/sq mi (144.6/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (UTC-4)|
|Area code(s)||351 / 978|
|GNIS feature ID||0618236|
Stow was officially incorporated in 1683. The earliest Colonial settlers, c. 1660, were Matthew Boon and John Kettell. Coming from Gloucester and Charlestown, Massachusetts, these two men settled the land of Tantamous (Jethro), a Native American, whose land was called "Pompocitticut." Boon settled by a large body of water (later bearing his name: Lake Boon), upon a hill (also bearing his name: Boon Hill), with a vast tract of land surrounding him. It is said that he traded all this for a single jackknife. He lived on what is now known as Barton Road. A monument bearing his name is located on the plot of land where he formerly resided.
John Kettell took up residence in a portion of land in the southwestern corner of Stow, where the flatness helped with farming and its proximity to the Lancaster Garrison House (in present-day Bolton, owned by Reverend Joseph Rowlandson) house proved vital in later years. John, who brought his wife, Elizabeth Allen of Salem, Massachusetts, and three children: Elizabeth, Mary, Samuel, and James (the only one born in Stow in 1665), proceeded to trade with the natives and farm the land, though very little is known for fact.
Both families were involved in King Philip's War in 1676. Boon sent his family to the Sudbury Garrison House, then proceeded to return home with one of his sons and a neighbor. All three were killed. Little, if anything, is known about the remaining Boon family, but they did survive the initial attack.
John Kettell sent his family to the Lancaster Garrison, which was also attacked and burned. The natives took twenty captives, including Mary Rowlandson (a well-known captive, the wife of Rev. Rowlandson who wrote narratives of her captivity), Mrs. Rowlandson’s sister, Mrs. Elizabeth Kettell (John Kettell's wife), and some children. All twenty were ransomed by John Hoar of Concord for £20 after several months of the native life style. The Kettell family, once reunited, moved back to Salem, Massachusetts after selling their farm.
On October 28, 1774, Henry Gardner, a Stow resident, was elected Receiver-General of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress, the government of Massachusetts during the American Revolution. After the war, Gardner served as State Treasurer. Gardner's grandson, also Henry Gardner, was the governor of Massachusetts from 1855 to 1857.
As with many colonial era Massachusetts towns, Stow started with a large area and gave up land as newer, smaller towns were created. Stow ceded land to Harvard (1732), Shirley (1765), Boxborough (1783), Hudson (1866) and Maynard (1871). Stow lost 1300 acres (5.3 km2) and close to half its population to the creation of Maynard. Prior to that, what became Maynard was known as "Assabet Village" but was legally still part of the towns of Stow and Sudbury. There were some exploratory town-founding rumblings in 1870, followed by a petition to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, filed January 26, 1871. Both parent towns opposed this effort, but state approval was granted April 19, 1871. In return, the new town paid Sudbury and Stow about $23,600 and $8,000 respectively. Sudbury got more money because it owned shares in the railroad, plus the wool mill and paper mill were in Sudbury, and more land came from Sudbury. The population of the newly formed town - at 1,820 - was larger than either of its parent towns.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 18.1 square miles (47 km2), of which 17.6 square miles (46 km2) is land and 0.5 square miles (1.3 km2) (2.60%) is water. It is located in eastern/central Massachusetts.
Major bodies of water are Assabet River, Elizabeth Brook, Lake Boon and Delaney Flood Control Project, in the northwest corner. The Assabet River flows through Stow from west to east, spanned by three bridges. Average flow in the river is 200 cubic feet per second. However, in summer months the average drops to under 100 cfs. The flood of March 2010 reached 2,500 cfs. Recent, monthly and annual riverflow data - measured in Maynard - is available from the U.S. Geological Service.
The village of Gleasondale is in both Hudson and Stow. Gleasondale was originally known as Randall's Mills, and then later became known as Rock Bottom. The name "Rock Bottom" came about after a workman struck a solid rock while digging the mill's foundations and a coworker cried out, "You've struck rock bottom!" The name was changed to Gleasondale in 1898 after two of the original mill owners, Mr. Gleason and Mr. Dale. An 1856 map shows Assabet as a village on the eastern border - this became the center of the Town of Maynard in 1871. The original development of Stow - a mile east of the current center, became known as Lower Village after a meeting hall, and later, churches, were built to the west. The old cemetery on Route 117/62 is officially Lover Village Cemetery.
|* = population estimate. |
Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.
As of the census of 2010, there were 6,590 people, 2,429 households, and 1,902 families residing in the town. The population density was 374.4 people per square mile (144.5/km²). There were 2,526 housing units at an average density of 143.5 per square mile (55.4/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 93.6% White, 0.7% African American, 0.2% Native American, 3.3% Asian, 0.4% from other races, and 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population.
There are 2,429 households, out of which 37.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.7% were married couples living together, 2.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.7% were non-families. The householder of 17.4% of all households were living alone and 7.6% was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 people and the average family size was 3.10 people.
In the town, the population was spread out with 28.2% under the age of 20, 24.6% from 20 to 44, 34.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.5 years. For every 100 males there were 103.1 females. For every 100 males age 18 and over, there were 106.8 females.
As of 2015, the median income for a household in the town was $137,551, and the median income for a family was $153,763. The per capita income for the town was $51,081. About 2.7% of families and 4.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.7% of those under age 18 and 3.1% of those age 65 or over.
Points of interest
Stow is known for its four golf courses (81 total holes). The best known of these is Stow Acres Country Club (36 holes), the site of the 1995 US Amateur Public Links Championship.
Stow is also well known for its apple orchards (Carver Hill, Derby Ridge Farms, Honey Pot Hill, One Stack Farm and Shelburne Farms), and is a popular weekend destination for families during apple picking season.
- Matthew Tobin Anderson, known as M. T. Anderson, an author primarily of picture books for children and novels for young adults; he currently lives in Cambridge, MA.
- Tom Barrasso, former NHL goaltender, grew up in Stow, played high school hockey for Acton-Boxborough, and went directly from high school to NHL.
- Dan Duquette, former general manager of the Montreal Expos and Boston Red Sox and current general manager (2011–present) with the Baltimore Orioles.
- Chris Fleming, Stand-up comedian and youtuber
- Henry Gardner, first Receiver-General/State Treasurer of Massachusetts from 1774 until his death in 1782. His grandson Henry J. Gardner served as Governor from 1855 to 1858.
- Greg Hill, radio show host: WAAF "The Hill-Man Morning Show"
- Kate Hogan, Massachusetts State Representative for Third Middlesex District since January 2009.
- Grace Metalious, of "Peyton Place" fame. Her husband taught school in Stow after moving from Gilmanton, New Hampshire, where they had lived while she wrote her book; it is not clear whether she ever lived in Stow, as biographies state that they separated about the time the book was published.
- Lee H. Pappas, publisher of several well-known hi-tech publications, including A.N.A.L.O.G., PC Laptop, VideoGames & Computer Entertainment and TurboPlay
- Samuel Parris, Puritan minister who preached in Stow during the summer of 1685 and later played a role in the Salem witch trials
- George P. Shultz, former U.S. Secretary of State (1982-1989), lived in Stow when he was teaching at MIT.
- Patricia Walrath, Former Massachusetts State Representative (1985-2009) for Third Middlesex District, before that a Stow Selectman.
- Austin Warren, literary critic, author, and professor of English
Stow uses the Open Town Meeting form of town government popular in small to mid-sized Massachusetts towns. Anyone may attend a town meeting, but only registered voters may vote. Before the meeting, a warrant is distributed to households in Stow and posted on the town's website. Each article in the warrant is debated and voted on separately. Stow does not require a defined minimum of registered voters to hold a town meeting and vote on town business, i.e., zero quorum. Important budgetary issues approved at a town meeting must be passed by a subsequent ballot vote. Stow's elected officials are a five-member Board of Selectman. Each member is elected to a three-year term. Also filled by election are the School Committee, Housing Authority, Library Trustees and a Moderator to preside over the town meetings. Positions filled by appointment include the Town Administrator and other positions.
State and federal government
On the federal level, Stow is part of Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district, represented by Niki Tsongas. The state's senior (Class I) member of the United States Senate is Elizabeth Warren. The junior (Class II) senator is Ed Markey.
Stow is a member of the Nashoba Regional School District, also serving the towns of Lancaster and Bolton. Stow is home to The Center School (PK-5), Hale Middle School (6-8), and Nashoba Regional High School (9-12).
Massachusetts Firefighting Academy
Stow is home to the Massachusetts Firefighting Academy. Future firefighters come here to train to become a firefighter at the minimum age of 18.
- Minute Man Air Field (6B6) is a privately owned, public-use airport
- Crow Island is a privately owned airfield for ultralights
- The Collings Foundation has a small grass airstrip adjacent to their museum
- Fuller, Ralph. (2009). Stow Things. Stow Historical Publishing Company.
- Childs, Ethel B. (1983). History of Stow. Stow Historical Society. ISBN 978-0-9611058-1-5
- Lewis, Halprin; Sipler, Barbara (1999). Images of America: Stow. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pubblishing. pp. 7, 36. ISBN 0752412914. OCLC 947956885.
- Sheridan, Ralph (1971). A History of Maynard 1871-1971. Town of Maynard Historical Committee.
- USGS Current Conditions for USGS 01097000 ASSABET RIVER AT MAYNARD, MA. Waterdata.usgs.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
- "Excerpt from the Map of Middlesex County, Massachusetts 1856: STOW".
- "Total Population (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010.
- "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1950 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1920 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1890 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1870 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1860 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1850 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-11-17.
- "Profile: Author M.T. Anderson Challenges Young Adults With Complex Narratives", The Washington Post, November 29, 2008.
- "Secretary Shultz Takes Charge". Short History of the Department of State. United States Department of State, Office of the Historian. Retrieved 2017-04-02.
- The Massachusetts Firefighting Academy
- Gordon Stow Carvill, The Stow Family of Stow, Massachusetts. Englewood, CO: G.S. Carvill, 2003.
- Preston Crowell and Olivia Crowell, Stow, Massachusetts, 1683-1933: Compiled in Honor of the Two Hundred Fiftieth Anniversary of the Town. Stow, MA: Rev. and Mrs. Preston R. Crowell, 1933.
- Samuel Adams Drake, History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts: Containing Carefully Prepared Histories of Every City and Town in the County. In Two Volumes. Boston: Estes and Lauriat, 1880. Volume 1 | Volume 2
- Lewis Halprin, Stow, Massachusetts. Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 1998.
- D. Hamilton Hurd, History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts: With Biographical Sketches of Many of its Pioneers and Prominent Men. In Three Volumes. Philadelphia, PA: J.W. Lewis & Co., 1890. Volume 1 | Volume 2 | Volume 3
- Robert H. Rodgers, Middlesex County in the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay in New England: Records of Probate and Administration, February 1670/71-June 1676. Rockport, ME: Picton Press, 2005.
- Vital Records of Stow, Massachusetts, To the Year 1850. Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1911.
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