|Population||2,042 (2011 Census)|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
Stow-on-the-Wold is a market town and civil parish in Gloucestershire, England, on top of an 800-foot (244 m) hill at the junction of main roads through the Cotswolds, including the Fosse Way (A429), which is of Roman origin. The town was founded by Norman lords to absorb trade from the roads converging there. Fairs have been held by royal charter since 1330; an annual horse fair is still held on the edge of the town.
Stow-on-the-Wold, originally called Stow St Edward or Edwardstow after the town's patron saint Edward, probably Edward the Martyr, is said to have originated as an Iron Age fort on this defensive position on a hill. Indeed, there are many sites of similar forts in the area, and Stone Age and Bronze Age burial mounds are common throughout the area. It is likely that Maugersbury was the primary settlement of the parish before Stow was built as a marketplace on the hilltop nearer to the crossroads, to take advantage of passing trade. Originally the small settlement was controlled by abbots from the local abbey, and when the first weekly market was set up in 1107 by Henry I, he decreed that the proceeds go to Evesham Abbey.
Battle of Stow-on-the-Wold
On 21 March 1646 the last battle in the first phase of the English Civil War took place one mile north of Stow on the Wold. After initial royalist success, the superiority of the parliamentary forces overwhelmed and routed the royalist forces. Fleeing the field, the royalists fought a running fight back into the streets of Stow, where the final action took place, culminating in surrender in the market square.
In birth order:
- Clement Barksdale (1609–1687), writer and poet, was Rector of Stow-on-the-Wold from 1660 to 1687.
- Edmund Chilmead (1610–1654), writer, translator and musician, was born in the town.
- George Wilkinson (1814–1890), was the architect of Stow-on-the-Wold Workhouse in 1836.
- George Pepall (1876–1953), county cricketer, was born in the town.
- Harry Ferguson (1884–1960), engineer and inventor of the Ferguson tractor, died in the town.
- Frederic Bartlett (1886–1969), experimental psychologist and academic, was born in the town.
- John Howland (1895–1958), county cricketer, was born in the town.
- John Entwistle (1944–2002), musician, producer and bass guitarist of the Who, bought Quarwood in Stow-on-the-Wold in 1978. His funeral was held at St Edward's Church.
- David Loder (born 1964), racehorse trainer, was born in the town.
Stow-on-the-Wold has an active Parish Council with 10 members.
Stow-on-the-Wold is represented on Cotswold District Council by the Liberal Democrat Councillor Dilys Neill, who was elected in the 2019 local elections. The Stow Division is represented on Gloucestershire County Council by the Conservative Councillor Nigel Moor.
|Liberal Democrats||Dilys Neill||577||65.3||+21.4|
|Liberal Democrats gain from Conservative||Swing|
Gloucestershire County Council
|Liberal Democrats||Rachel Coxcoon||1,014||27|
In 1330, Edward III set up an annual 7-day market to be held in August. In 1476, Edward IV replaced that with two 5-day fairs, two days before and two days after the feast of St Philip and St James in May, and similarly in October on the feast of St Edward the Confessor (the saint associated with the town). The aim of these annual charter fairs was to establish Stow as a place to trade, and to remedy the unpredictable passing trade. These fairs were located in the square, which is still the town centre.
As the fairs grew in fame and importance the town grew more prosperous. Traders who once only dealt in livestock, now dealt in many handmade goods, and the wool trade always stayed a large part of the trade. Reportedly, 20,000 sheep changed hands at one 19th century fair. Many alleyways known as "tures" run between the buildings of Stow into the market square; these once were used in the herding of sheep into the square to be sold.
As the wool trade declined, people began to trade in horses, and these would be sold at every fair. This practice still continues today, although the fair has been moved from the Square, and is currently held in the large field towards the village of Maugersbury every May and October. It is still a very popular fair, with the roads around Stow being blocked for many hours on the day.
There has been controversy surrounding Stow Fair. The large number of visitors and traders has attracted more vendors not dealing in horses. Local businesses used to profit from the increased custom, but in recent years most pubs and shops close for 2 or 3 miles around due to the threat of theft or vandalism.
Stow played a role in the English Civil War. A number of fights took place around the area, the local church of St Edward being damaged in one such skirmish. On 21 March 1646, the Royalists, commanded by Sir Jacob Astley, were defeated at the Battle of Stow-on-the-Wold, with hundreds of prisoners being confined for some time in St. Edwards.
Given its exposed spot on the top of Stow Hill, the town is often referred to with the couplet "Stow on the Wold, where the winds blow cold".
- "Stow-on-the-Wold, Where the wind blows cold.
- Where horses young and old are sold,
- Where farmers come to spend their gold,
- Where men are fools and women are bold,
- And many a wicked tale is told.
- High on the freezing Cotswold." etc.
Stow-on-the-Wold featured prominently in the eleventh episode of series 6 of Top Gear, when Jeremy Clarkson reviewed the Ford F-Series there. He chose to film it there because it is a typical community in the English countryside, as Jeremy compares it to the American countryside in the episode.
Several roads link Stow to surrounding villages. Over longer distances, the Fosse Way (A429) runs from Exeter to Lincoln, the A424 from Burford into the A44 and to Evesham, and the A436 between Cheltenham and Gloucester.
From 1881 until 1962, Stow was served by Stow-on-the-Wold railway station on the Great Western Railway's Banbury and Cheltenham Direct Railway. The nearest station is now Moreton-in-Marsh, some 4 miles (6 km) from Stow on the Cotswold Line between Hereford and London Paddington. An alternative is Kingham railway station, some 5 miles (8 km) from Stow on the same line.
- "Parish population 2011". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "British History Online: A History of the County of Gloucester, C. R. Elrington (editor), 1965, Pages 142-165". Archived from the original on 10 May 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2008.
- "Battle of Stow-on-the-Wold (1646)". Battlefields of Britain. Archived from the original on 29 August 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
- "Stow Town Council Members". Stow-on-the-Wold Town Council. Archived from the original on 28 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- "Dilys Neill – Vice-Chair of the Council". Cotswold District Council. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
- "Cllr Nigel Moor FRTPI FRSA". Gloucestershire County Council. Archived from the original on 31 October 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
- "Parishes: Stow-on-the-Wold Pages 142-165 A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 6". British History Online. Victoria County History. Archived from the original on 21 April 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
- "Stow on the Wold". Cotswold info. Archived from the original on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
- "Stow on the Wold Town Council". Stowonthewold.net. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Stow Horse Fair". Calender Customs. Archived from the original on 29 May 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
- Tearoom bouncers tackle fair fear (BBC News story)
- Bingham, Jane (18 February 2010). The Cotswolds: A Cultural History. Oxford University Press. pp. 58–. ISBN 9780195398755. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
- "Scotts of Stow". Scotts of Stow. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
- "Stow-on-the-Wold". Cotswolds guide. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
- Archer, Megan (15 May 2014). "Top Gear trio Jeremy Clarkson, Richard Hammond and James May drive into Stow-on-the-Wold to film new series". Wilts and Gloucestershire Standard. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
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